Mongolia

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Map of Mongolia in Central Asia

Mongolia is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It borders Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Ulan Bator, the capital and largest city.

मंगोलिया

मुग़ल - मंगोलिया के रहने वाले मुगल कहलाते हैं। मुगल को अरबी में माहकुल कहते हैं और माहकुल को फारसी में चन्द्रकुल कहते हैं। माह = चन्द्र और कुल = खानदान। तात्पर्य है चन्द्रवंशियों से। मुगलों के आदिपुरुष को चगटाई, दी चंगेजखां कहते हैं। चगटाई अपभ्रंश है चकीटो का।

तात्पर्य है श्रीकृष्ण जी के उत्तराधिकारी महाराज बलन्द के पौत्र चकीटो से (टॉड राजस्थान)। महाराज बलन्द, जो कि शालिवाहनपुर रहा करते थे, वे गजनी देश का राज्य अपने पौत्र चकीटो के अधीन छोड़ आये। चकीटो ने म्लेच्छ कौम के लोगों को अपनी सेना में भरती कर लिया तथा उनको सेना के तमाम बड़े-बड़े पदों पर नियुक्त कर दिया। उन्होंने चकीटो को तज़वीज़ पेश की कि अगर आप अपने पुरुषाओं के धर्म को त्याग देवें तो आपको बल्ख-बुखारा का मालिक बना दिया जाएगा, जहां पर उषबेक जाति आबाद है, जिसके बादशाह के पास एक लड़की के सिवाय कोई औलाद नहीं है। चकीटो ने यह सुझाव मानकर बादशाह की उस लड़की के साथ विवाह कर लिया और बल्ख-बुखारे का बादशाह बन गया तथा 28,000 घोड़ों का सरदार हो गया। चकीटो बलिखशान के फाटक से हिन्दुस्तान के मुंहड़े तक सबका बादशाह था और उसी से चकीटो मुग़ल के फ़िर्के की उत्पत्ति है। (ऐनल्स आफ जैसलमेर अध्याय 1 पृष्ठ 1061)।

(जाट्स दी ऐनशन्ट रूलर्ज, पृ० 118 पर बी० एस० दहिया ने भी op, cit, p.248 के हवाले से, ऊपर वाले लेख के समान ही लिखा है। आगे लिखा है कि तुर्क और तातार, ये तुर और तातरान जाटवंशज थे जिन्होंने छठी सदी ईस्वी तथा उससे भी बाद में अमू दरिया (मध्य एशिया) घाटी में राज्य किया।[1]


History

Mongolia has been inhabited for over 800,000 years with Homo erectus being found in Bayanhongor province and central Mongolia. Important prehistoric sites are the paleolithic cave drawings of the Khoid Tsenkheriin Agui (Northern Cave of Blue) in Khovd province,[2] and the Tsagaan Agui (White Cave) in Bayankhongor province.[3] A neolithic farming settlement has been found in Dornod province. Contemporary findings from western Mongolia include only temporary encampments of hunters and fishers. The population during the Copper Age has been described as paleomongolid in the east of what is now Mongolia, and as europid in the west.

In the 2nd millennium B.C, during the bronze age, western Mongolia was under the influence of the Karasuk culture. Deer stones and the omnipresent kheregsüürs (small kurgans) probably are from this era; other theories date the deer stones as 7th or 8th centuries BCE. A vast Iron Age burial complex from the 5th-3rd century, later also used by the Xiongnu, has been unearthed near Ulaangom.[4]

Before the 20th century, some scholars assumed that the Scythians descended from the Mongolic people.[5] The Scythian community inhabited western Mongolia in the 5-6th century. In 2006 the mummy of a Scythian warrior, which is believed to be about 2,500 years old was a 30-to-40 year-old man with blond hair, and was found in the Altai, Mongolia.[6]

DNA study on Y-STR Haplogroup Diversity in the Jat Population

David G. Mahal and Ianis G. Matsoukas[7] conducted a scientific study on Y-STR Haplogroup Diversity in the Jat Population of which brief Conclusion is as under:

The Jats represent a large ethnic community that has inhabited the northwest region of India and Pakistan for several thousand years. It is estimated the community has a population of over 123 million people. Many historians and academics have asserted that the Jats are descendants of Aryans, Scythians, or other ancient people that arrived and lived in northern India at one time. Essentially, the specific origin of these people has remained a matter of contention for a long time. This study demonstrated that the origins of Jats can be clarified by identifying their Y-chromosome haplogroups and tracing their genetic markers on the Y-DNA haplogroup tree. A sample of 302 Y-chromosome haplotypes of Jats in India and Pakistan was analyzed. The results showed that the sample population had several different lines of ancestry and emerged from at least nine different geographical regions of the world. It also became evident that the Jats did not have a unique set of genes, but shared an underlying genetic unity with several other ethnic communities in the Indian subcontinent. A startling new assessment of the genetic ancient origins of these people was revealed with DNA science.

The human Y-chromosome provides a powerful molecular tool for analyzing Y-STR haplotypes and determining their haplogroups which lead to the ancient geographic origins of individuals. For this study, the Jats and 38 other ethnic groups in the Indian subcontinent were analyzed, and their haplogroups were compared. Using genetic markers and available descriptions of haplogroups from the Y-DNA phylogenetic tree, the geographic origins and migratory paths of their ancestors were traced.

The study demonstrated that based on their genetic makeup, the Jats belonged to at least nine specific haplogroups, with nine different lines of ancestry and geographic origins. About 90% of the Jats in our sample belonged to only four different lines of ancestry and geographic origins:

1. Haplogroup L (36.8%)- The origins of this haplogroup can be traced to the rugged and mountainous Pamir Knot region in Tajikistan.

2. Haplogroup R (28.5%): From somewhere in Central Asia, some descendants of the man carrying the M207 mutation on the Y chromosome headed south to arrive in India about 10,000 years ago (Wells, 2007). This is one of the largest haplogroups in India and Pakistan. Of its key subclades, R2 is observed especially in India and central Asia.

3. Haplogroup Q (15.6%): With its origins in central Asia, descendants of this group are linked to the Huns, Mongols, and Turkic people. In Europe it is found in southern Sweden, among Ashkenazi Jews, and in central and Eastern Europe such as, the Rhône-Alpes region of France, southern Sicily, southern Croatia, northern Serbia, parts of Poland and Ukraine.

4. Haplogroup J (9.6%): The ancestor of this haplogroup was born in the Middle East area known as the Fertile Crescent, comprising Israel, the West Bank, Jordon, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq. Middle Eastern traders brought this genetic marker to the Indian subcontinent (Kerchner, 2013).

5.-9. Haplogroups E, G, H, I, T (9.5%): The ancestors of the remaining five haplogroups E, G, H, I, and T can be traced to different parts of Africa, Middle East, South Central Asia, and Europe (ISOGG, 2016).

Therefore, attributing the origins of this entire ethnic group to loosely defined ancient populations such as, Indo-Aryans or Indo-Scythians represents very broad generalities and cannot be supported. The study also revealed that even with their different languages, religions, nationalities, customs, cuisines, and physical differences, the Jats shared their haplogroups with several other ethnic groups of the Indian subcontinent, and had the same common ancestors and geographic origins in the distant past. Based on recent developments in DNA science, this study provided new insights into the ancient geographic origins of this major ethnic group in the Indian subcontinent. A larger dataset, particularly with more representation of Muslim Jats, is likely to reveal some additional haplogroups and geographical origins for this ethnic group.

External links

References

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV (Page 334)
  2. Eleanora Novgorodova, Archäologische Funde, Ausgrabungsstätten und Skulpturen, in Mongolen (catalogue), pp. 14-20
  3. Davaadorzhiĭn Ganbold, Da Haliun - Facts about Mongolia, p.34
  4. Eleanora Novgorodova, Archäologische Funde, Ausgrabungsstätten und Skulpturen, in Mongolen (catalogue), pp. 14-20
  5. The Mysterious Scythians Burst Into History
  6. The Mysterious Scythians Burst Into History
  7. Y-STR Haplogroup Diversity in the Jat Population Reveals Several Different Ancient Origins

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