Poland

From Jatland Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Location of Poland in north of Slovakia
Map of Poland

Poland is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.

Origin of name

The source of the name Poland and the ethnonyms for the Poles include endonyms (the way Polish people refer to themselves and their country) and exonyms (the way other peoples refer to the Poles and their country). Endonyms and most exonyms for Poles and Poland derive from the name of the West Slavic tribe of the Polans (Polanie).

History

Jat History

Hukum Singh Panwar [1] writes: The Russian archaeologists discovered innumerable graves of the Saka Kings and chieftains in the Kuban, north of the Caucasus (7th-6th century B.C.), in the Crimea, in south Russia, in the Taman peninsula, in the Dnieper Valley as far up as Kiev, as well as in the Don, Donetz and Volga basins as far westwards as the Urals, in the Dunube basin as far west as Hungary and in what used to be East Prussia and is now Western Poland (6th-5th century B.C.)107. Excavations of the Royal Scythian tombs by M.P. Gryazhnov, S.I. Rudenko and others at Pazyryk and other sites in the Western Altai and nearer to lake Baikal (6th-4th century B.C. contemporary of Herodotus's Royal Scythians of South Russia) were most interesting and informative108.

DNA study on Y-STR Haplogroup Diversity in the Jat Population

David G. Mahal and Ianis G. Matsoukas[2] conducted a scientific study on Y-STR Haplogroup Diversity in the Jat Population of which brief Conclusion is as under:

The Jats represent a large ethnic community that has inhabited the northwest region of India and Pakistan for several thousand years. It is estimated the community has a population of over 123 million people. Many historians and academics have asserted that the Jats are descendants of Aryans, Scythians, or other ancient people that arrived and lived in northern India at one time. Essentially, the specific origin of these people has remained a matter of contention for a long time. This study demonstrated that the origins of Jats can be clarified by identifying their Y-chromosome haplogroups and tracing their genetic markers on the Y-DNA haplogroup tree. A sample of 302 Y-chromosome haplotypes of Jats in India and Pakistan was analyzed. The results showed that the sample population had several different lines of ancestry and emerged from at least nine different geographical regions of the world. It also became evident that the Jats did not have a unique set of genes, but shared an underlying genetic unity with several other ethnic communities in the Indian subcontinent. A startling new assessment of the genetic ancient origins of these people was revealed with DNA science.

The human Y-chromosome provides a powerful molecular tool for analyzing Y-STR haplotypes and determining their haplogroups which lead to the ancient geographic origins of individuals. For this study, the Jats and 38 other ethnic groups in the Indian subcontinent were analyzed, and their haplogroups were compared. Using genetic markers and available descriptions of haplogroups from the Y-DNA phylogenetic tree, the geographic origins and migratory paths of their ancestors were traced.

The study demonstrated that based on their genetic makeup, the Jats belonged to at least nine specific haplogroups, with nine different lines of ancestry and geographic origins. About 90% of the Jats in our sample belonged to only four different lines of ancestry and geographic origins:

1. Haplogroup L (36.8%)- The origins of this haplogroup can be traced to the rugged and mountainous Pamir Knot region in Tajikistan.

2. Haplogroup R (28.5%): From somewhere in Central Asia, some descendants of the man carrying the M207 mutation on the Y chromosome headed south to arrive in India about 10,000 years ago (Wells, 2007). This is one of the largest haplogroups in India and Pakistan. Of its key subclades, R2 is observed especially in India and central Asia.

3. Haplogroup Q (15.6%): With its origins in central Asia, descendants of this group are linked to the Huns, Mongols, and Turkic people. In Europe it is found in southern Sweden, among Ashkenazi Jews, and in central and Eastern Europe such as, the Rhône-Alpes region of France, southern Sicily, southern Croatia, northern Serbia, parts of Poland and Ukraine.

4. Haplogroup J (9.6%): The ancestor of this haplogroup was born in the Middle East area known as the Fertile Crescent, comprising Israel, the West Bank, Jordon, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq. Middle Eastern traders brought this genetic marker to the Indian subcontinent (Kerchner, 2013).

5.-9. Haplogroups E, G, H, I, T (9.5%): The ancestors of the remaining five haplogroups E, G, H, I, and T can be traced to different parts of Africa, Middle East, South Central Asia, and Europe (ISOGG, 2016).

Therefore, attributing the origins of this entire ethnic group to loosely defined ancient populations such as, Indo-Aryans or Indo-Scythians represents very broad generalities and cannot be supported. The study also revealed that even with their different languages, religions, nationalities, customs, cuisines, and physical differences, the Jats shared their haplogroups with several other ethnic groups of the Indian subcontinent, and had the same common ancestors and geographic origins in the distant past. Based on recent developments in DNA science, this study provided new insights into the ancient geographic origins of this major ethnic group in the Indian subcontinent. A larger dataset, particularly with more representation of Muslim Jats, is likely to reveal some additional haplogroups and geographical origins for this ethnic group.

प्राचीनकाल में यूरोप देश

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[3] लिखते हैं: यूरोप देश - इस देश को प्राचीनकाल में कारुपथ तथा अङ्गदियापुरी कहते थे, जिसको श्रीमान् महाराज रामचन्द्र जी के आज्ञानुसार लक्ष्मण जी ने एक वर्ष यूरोप में रहकर अपने ज्येष्ठ पुत्र अंगद के लिए आबाद किया था जो कि द्वापर में हरिवर्ष तथा अंगदेश और अब हंगरी आदि नामों से प्रसिद्ध है। अंगदियापुरी के दक्षिणी भाग में रूम सागर और अटलांटिक सागर के किनारे-किनारे अफ्रीका निवासी हब्शी आदि राक्षस जातियों के आक्रमण रोकने के लिए लक्ष्मण जी ने वीर सैनिकों की छावनियां आवर्त्त कीं। जिसको अब ऑस्ट्रिया कहते हैं। उत्तरी भाग में ब्रह्मपुरी बसाई जिसको अब जर्मनी कहते हैं। दोनों भागों के मध्य लक्ष्मण जी ने अपना हैडक्वार्टर बनाया जिसको अब लक्षमबर्ग कहते हैं। उसी के पास श्री रामचन्द्र जी के खानदानी नाम नारायण से नारायण मंडी आबाद हुई जिसको अब नॉरमण्डी कहते हैं। नॉरमण्डी के निकट एक दूसरे से मिले हुए द्वीप अंगलेशी नाम से आवर्त्त हुए जिसको पहले ऐंग्लेसी कहते थे और अब इंग्लैण्ड कहते हैं।

द्वापर के अन्त में अंगदियापुरी देश, अंगदेश के नाम से प्रसिद्ध हुआ, जिसका राज्य सम्राट् दुर्योधन ने अपने मित्र राजा कर्ण को दे दिया था। करीब-करीब यूरोप के समस्त देशों का राज्य शासन आज तक महात्मा अंगद के उत्तराधिकारी अंगवंशीय तथा अंगलेशों के हाथ में है, जो कि ऐंग्लो, एंग्लोसेक्शन, ऐंग्लेसी, इंगलिश, इंगेरियन्स आदि नामों से प्रसिद्ध है और जर्मनी में आज तक संस्कृत भाषा का आदर तथा वेदों के स्वाध्याय का प्रचार है। (पृ० 1-3)।

यूरोप अपभ्रंश है युवरोप का। युव-युवराज, रोप-आरोप किया हुआ। तात्पर्य है उस देश से, जो लक्ष्मण जी के ज्येष्ठपुत्र अङ्गद के लिए आवर्त्त किया गया था। यूरोप के निवासी यूरोपियन्स कहलाते हैं। यूरोपियन्स बहुवचन है यूरोपियन का। यूरोपियन विशेषण है यूरोपी का। यूरोपी अपभ्रंश है युवरोपी का। तात्पर्य है उन लोगों से जो यूरोप देश में युवराज अङ्गद के साथ भेजे और बसाए गये थे। (पृ० 4)

कारुपथ यौगिक शब्द है कारु + पथ का। कारु = कारो, पथ = रास्ता। तात्पर्य है उस देश से जो भूमध्य रेखा से बहुत दूर कार्पेथियन पर्वत (Carpathian Mts.) के चारों ओर ऑस्ट्रिया, हंगरी, जर्मनी, इंग्लैण्ड, लक्षमबर्ग, नॉरमण्डी आदि नामों से फैला हुआ है। जैसे एशिया में हिमालय पर्वतमाला है, इसी तरह यूरोप में कार्पेथियन पर्वतमाला है।

इससे सिद्ध हुआ कि श्री रामचन्द्र जी के समय तक वीरान यूरोप देश कारुपथ देश कहलाता था। उसके आबाद करने पर युवरोप, अङ्गदियापुरी तथा अङ्गदेश के नाम से प्रसिद्ध हुआ और ग्रेट ब्रिटेन, आयरलैण्ड, ऑस्ट्रिया, हंगरी, जर्मनी, लक्षमबर्ग, नॉरमण्डी, फ्रांस, बेल्जियम, हालैण्ड, डेनमार्क, स्विट्जरलैंड, इटली, पोलैंड आदि अङ्गदियापुरी के प्रान्तमात्र महात्मा अङ्गद के क्षेत्र शासन के आधारी किये गये थे। (पृ० 4-5)

नोट - महाभारतकाल में यूरोप को ‘हरिवर्ष’ कहते हैं। हरि कहते हैं बन्दर को। उस देश में अब भी रक्तमुख अर्थात् वानर के समान भूरे नेत्र वाले होते हैं। ‘यूरोप’ को संस्कृत में ‘हरिवर्ष’ कहते थे। [4]

External links

References


Back to Places