France

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France (फ्रांस) is a sovereign state in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris.

Location

The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Strasbourg.

Etymology

Originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks".[1] Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" ("Frankish Empire") in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning.

There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm,[2] the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank (free) in English.[3] It has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.[4] Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca.[5] However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around.[6]

History

During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of France. France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War (1337 to 1453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would be the second largest in the world.[7] The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe's dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV.[8] In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, and saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day.

In the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today.

Prehistory (before the 6th century BC):

The oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from approximately 1.8 million years ago.[9] Humans were then confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras.

Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life.[10] France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux[11] (approximately 18,000 BC).

At the end of the last glacial period (10,000 BC), the climate became milder;[12] from approximately 7,000 BC, this part of Western Europe entered the Neolithic era and its inhabitants became sedentary.

After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium, initially working gold, copper and bronze, and later iron.[13] France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptionally dense Carnac stones site (approximately 3,300 BC).

Antiquity (6th century BC–5th century AD):

In 600 BC, Ionian Greeks, originating from Phocaea, founded the colony of Massalia (present-day Marseille), on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. This makes it France's oldest city.[14][15] At the same time, some Gallic Celtic tribes penetrated parts of the current territory of France, and this occupation spread to the rest of France between the 5th and 3rd century BC.[16]

The concept of Gaul emerged at that time; it corresponds to the territories of Celtic settlement ranging between the Rhine, the Atlantic Ocean, the Pyrenees and the Mediterranean. The borders of modern France are roughly the same as those of ancient Gaul, which was inhabited by Celtic Gauls. Gaul was then a prosperous country, of which the southernmost part was heavily subject to Greek and Roman cultural and economic influences.

Around 125 BC, the south of Gaul was conquered by the Romans, who called this region Provincia Nostra ("Our Province"), which over time evolved into the name Provence in French.[17] Julius Caesar conquered the remainder of Gaul and overcame a revolt carried out by the Gallic chieftain Vercingetorix in 52 BC.[18] Gaul was divided by Augustus into Roman provinces.[19] Many cities were founded during the Gallo-Roman period, including Lugdunum (present-day Lyon), which is considered the capital of the Gauls.[20] These cities were built in traditional Roman style, with a forum, a theatre, a circus, an amphitheatre and thermal baths. The Gauls mixed with Roman settlers and eventually adopted Roman culture and Roman speech (Latin, from which the French language evolved). The Roman polytheism merged with the Gallic paganism into the same syncretism.

From the 250s to the 280s AD, Roman Gaul suffered a serious crisis with its fortified borders being attacked on several occasions by barbarians.[21] Nevertheless, the situation improved in the first half of the 4th century, which was a period of revival and prosperity for Roman Gaul.[22] In 312, Emperor Constantin I converted to Christianity. Subsequently, Christians, who had been persecuted until then, increased rapidly across the entire Roman Empire.[23] But, from the beginning of the 5th century, the Barbarian Invasions resumed,[24] and Germanic tribes, such as the Vandals, Suebi and Alans crossed the Rhine and settled in Gaul, Spain and other parts of the collapsing Roman Empire.[25]

Early Middle Ages (5th century–10th century):

At the end of the Antiquity period, ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms and a remaining Gallo-Roman territory, known as the Kingdom of Syagrius. Simultaneously, Celtic Britons, fleeing the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, settled the western part of Armorica. As a result, the Armorican peninsula was renamed Brittany, Celtic culture was revived and independent petty kingdoms arose in this region.

The pagan Franks, from whom the ancient name of "Francie" was derived, originally settled the north part of Gaul, but under Clovis I conquered most of the other kingdoms in northern and central Gaul. In 498, Clovis I was the first Germanic conqueror after the fall of the Roman Empire to convert to Catholic Christianity, rather than Arianism; thus France was given the title "Eldest daughter of the Church" (French: La fille aînée de l'Église) by the papacy,[40] and French kings would be called "the Most Christian Kings of France" (Rex Christianissimus).

The Franks embraced the Christian Gallo-Roman culture and ancient Gaul was eventually renamed Francia ("Land of the Franks"). The Germanic Franks adopted Romanic languages, except in northern Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense and where Germanic languages emerged. Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian dynasty, but his kingdom would not survive his death. The Franks treated land purely as a private possession and divided it among their heirs, so four kingdoms emerged from Clovis's: Paris, Orléans, Soissons, and Rheims. The last Merovingian kings lost power to their mayors of the palace (head of household). One mayor of the palace, Charles Martel, defeated an Islamic invasion of Gaul at the Battle of Tours (732) and earned respect and power within the Frankish kingdoms. His son, Pepin the Short, seized the crown of Francia from the weakened Merovingians and founded the Carolingian dynasty. Pepin's son, Charlemagne, reunited the Frankish kingdoms and built a vast empire across Western and Central Europe.

Proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III and thus establishing in earnest the French Government's longtime historical association with the Catholic Church,[26] Charlemagne tried to revive the Western Roman Empire and its cultural grandeur. Charlemagne's son, Louis I (Emperor 814–840), kept the empire united; however, this Carolingian Empire would not survive his death. In 843, under the Treaty of Verdun, the empire was divided between Louis' three sons, with East Francia going to Louis the German, Middle Francia to Lothair I, and West Francia to Charles the Bald. West Francia approximated the area occupied by, and was the precursor, to modern France.[27]

During the 9th and 10th centuries, continually threatened by Viking invasions, France became a very decentralised state: the nobility's titles and lands became hereditary, and the authority of the king became more religious than secular and thus was less effective and constantly challenged by powerful noblemen. Thus was established feudalism in France. Over time, some of the king's vassals would grow so powerful that they often posed a threat to the king. For example, after the Battle of Hastings in 1066,William the Conqueror added "King of England" to his titles, becoming both the vassal to (as Duke of Normandy) and the equal of (as king of England) the king of France, creating recurring tensions.

Late Middle Ages (10th century–15th century):

The Carolingian dynasty ruled France until 987, when Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, was crowned King of the Franks.[28] His descendants—the Capetians, the House of Valois, and the House of Bourbon—progressively unified the country through wars and dynastic inheritance into the Kingdom of France, which was fully declared in 1190 by Philip II Augustus. The French nobility played a prominent role in most Crusades in order to restore Christian access to the Holy Land. French knights made up the bulk of the steady flow of reinforcements throughout the two-hundred-year span of the Crusades, in such a fashion that the Arabs uniformly referred to the crusaders as Franj caring little whether they really came from France.[29] The French Crusaders also imported the French language into the Levant, making French the base of the lingua franca (litt. "Frankish language") of the Crusader states.[30] French knights also made up the majority in both the Hospital and the Temple orders. The latter, in particular, held numerous properties throughout France and by the 13th century were the principal bankers for the French crown, until Philip IV annihilated the order in 1307. The Albigensian Crusade was launched in 1209 to eliminate the heretical Cathars in the southwestern area of modern-day France. In the end, the Cathars were exterminated and the autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into the crown lands of France.[31] Later kings expanded their domain to cover over half of modern continental France, including most of the north, centre and west of France. Meanwhile, the royal authority became more and more assertive, centred on a hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners.

Charles IV the Fair died without an heir in 1328.[32] Under the rules of the Salic law the crown of France could not pass to a woman nor could the line of kingship pass through the female line.Accordingly, the crown passed to Philip of Valois, a cousin of Charles, rather than through the female line to Charles' nephew, Edward, who would soon become Edward III of England. During the reign of Philip of Valois, the French monarchy reached the height of its medieval power. Albert Guerard, France: A Modern History (University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor, 1959) pp. 100, 101. Philip's seat on the throne was contested by Edward III of England and in 1337, on the eve of the first wave of the Black Death,[33] England and France went to war in what would become known as the Hundred Years' War.[34] The exact boundaries changed greatly with time, but French landholdings of the English Kings remained extensive for decades. With charismatic leaders, such as Joan of Arc and La Hire, strong French counterattacks won back English continental territories. Like the rest of Europe, France was struck by the Black Death; half of the 17 million population of France died.[35]

Topics of Historical importance

Jat History

Gill - Gill is a very large gotra of the Sikh Jats. Among the Pathans they are called Gilzai. In the European countries of France, Germany, etc, they were called Gauls.[36]


Ram Sarup Joon[37] writes...Maharaja Jawahar Singh of Bharatpur had no son, hence he was succeeded by his incapable, licentious and luxuriant brother Rattan Singh. Rattan Singh was ultimately killed by a juggler at Mathura. His son Kehri Singh died of smallpox in childhood. In the absence of any capable and powerful ruler, the inevitable result was a civil war and maladministration within the state. Conflict arose between two brothers of Jawahar Singh, i.e. Nawal Singh and Ranjit Singh. Nawal Singh was having indifferent health and he finally died thereby clearing the way for Ranjit Singh to ascend the throne of Bharatpur. These internal dissensions caused to the economic condition of the state to deteriorate.

During this period the seven years War between France and England was taking place on. France was flourishing under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte who was thinking of colonising India. The British were also trying to do the same through East India Company. The French Governor of Pondicherry approached Captains Samru and Madek to resign their services with the Jats (of Bharatpur) who were considered friends of British. According to the instructions from their Government, both the reliable and trustworthy commanders of Jats Force had to leave them, and take up their new assignment at Delhi under the Moghul Emperor.


Risaldar Badlu Singh (VC): Risaldar Badlu Singh VC 14 Murrays Jat Lancers Erstwhile 29 Lancers: He was from village Dhakla district Rohtak. In 1916, he went in a new draft to 29 Lancers in France. It became necessary to launch a frontal attack of the Cavalry Brigade on the heavily wired German Position. The Brigade consisted of 20 lancers. Jodhpur Lancers and 29 lancers. The ground was rough and wet with recent rains. It was a foggy morning. German machine guns on the left flank were menacing. Risaldar Badlu Singh's troop was on this flank.

The advance commenced at the trot, Risaldar Badlu Singh on his own, increased the pace of the troop, galloped out of the brigade line and charged the machine gun positions. Before the attack went in he had silenced the machine gun, killed a number of gunners and captured 50. Half of his troop was also killed including himself. He was awarded the Victoria Cross Posthumously.[38]


The Jat Regiment Battle Insignia

6th Battalion, The Jat Regiment: 6 Jat earned a great name in France. German troops used to abandon their positions whenever they heard the Jat war cry. The battalion had a number of wrestlers and was well known for its wrestling and tug-of-war teams. The wrestling team was famous for a rare act. When they assaulted an enemy position they would thrust the bayonet in the enemy and throw him out from the trench like a rag. Their best wrestler was Subedar Neki Ram Dalal of village Mandothi, Rohtak, now in district Jhajjar and number two was Harphul Singh of Maiyna, Rohtak. Sixth Jat remained in trenches four years and there were a lot of casualties.


History of the Jats, End of Page-228


The battalion never knew a failure irrespective of the losses. They were almost written off three times. German prisoners of war used to ask whether it was 6th Jat Battalion or a Brigade.

Once 6th Jat was relieved for regrouping by Cavalry Brigade. As soon as the Germans came to know of it they advanced and threatened both flanks. 6th Jat was brought back. As soon as their war cries resounded in the air, the Germans withdrew. Subedar Neki Ram was killed in this action in World war II.[39]


Hav. Harnarayan Singh son of Ch. Lekh Ram, village & p.o. Ghasola, Charkhi Dadri Dist Bhiwani, Haryana, India died on 30 October 1914 in France during Frist World War . Serving in Frist Royal Jat Regiment of Indian Army. His name is on column 13, Indian Army war memorial Francce.


Sepoy Chhalu Ram no 1664, Unit 10 Jat Regiment , Indian Army. Son of Dani Ram, Village Ghasola, Charkhi Dadri, Dist Bhiwani Haryana. Died on 11 March 1915 in France. His Name is on Indian army war Memorial France.


47 Sikh (Later 5 Sikh): 47 Sikh always kept a great name. During World War I, they fought in France in terrible weather conditions. 300 all ranks were killed and 2174 got frost bitten by long exposure.[40]

DNA study on Y-STR Haplogroup Diversity in the Jat Population

David G. Mahal and Ianis G. Matsoukas[41] conducted a scientific study on Y-STR Haplogroup Diversity in the Jat Population of which brief Conclusion is as under:

The Jats represent a large ethnic community that has inhabited the northwest region of India and Pakistan for several thousand years. It is estimated the community has a population of over 123 million people. Many historians and academics have asserted that the Jats are descendants of Aryans, Scythians, or other ancient people that arrived and lived in northern India at one time. Essentially, the specific origin of these people has remained a matter of contention for a long time. This study demonstrated that the origins of Jats can be clarified by identifying their Y-chromosome haplogroups and tracing their genetic markers on the Y-DNA haplogroup tree. A sample of 302 Y-chromosome haplotypes of Jats in India and Pakistan was analyzed. The results showed that the sample population had several different lines of ancestry and emerged from at least nine different geographical regions of the world. It also became evident that the Jats did not have a unique set of genes, but shared an underlying genetic unity with several other ethnic communities in the Indian subcontinent. A startling new assessment of the genetic ancient origins of these people was revealed with DNA science.

The human Y-chromosome provides a powerful molecular tool for analyzing Y-STR haplotypes and determining their haplogroups which lead to the ancient geographic origins of individuals. For this study, the Jats and 38 other ethnic groups in the Indian subcontinent were analyzed, and their haplogroups were compared. Using genetic markers and available descriptions of haplogroups from the Y-DNA phylogenetic tree, the geographic origins and migratory paths of their ancestors were traced.

The study demonstrated that based on their genetic makeup, the Jats belonged to at least nine specific haplogroups, with nine different lines of ancestry and geographic origins. About 90% of the Jats in our sample belonged to only four different lines of ancestry and geographic origins:

1. Haplogroup L (36.8%)- The origins of this haplogroup can be traced to the rugged and mountainous Pamir Knot region in Tajikistan.

2. Haplogroup R (28.5%): From somewhere in Central Asia, some descendants of the man carrying the M207 mutation on the Y chromosome headed south to arrive in India about 10,000 years ago (Wells, 2007). This is one of the largest haplogroups in India and Pakistan. Of its key subclades, R2 is observed especially in India and central Asia.

3. Haplogroup Q (15.6%): With its origins in central Asia, descendants of this group are linked to the Huns, Mongols, and Turkic people. In Europe it is found in southern Sweden, among Ashkenazi Jews, and in central and Eastern Europe such as, the Rhône-Alpes region of France, southern Sicily, southern Croatia, northern Serbia, parts of Poland and Ukraine.

4. Haplogroup J (9.6%): The ancestor of this haplogroup was born in the Middle East area known as the Fertile Crescent, comprising Israel, the West Bank, Jordon, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq. Middle Eastern traders brought this genetic marker to the Indian subcontinent (Kerchner, 2013).

5.-9. Haplogroups E, G, H, I, T (9.5%): The ancestors of the remaining five haplogroups E, G, H, I, and T can be traced to different parts of Africa, Middle East, South Central Asia, and Europe (ISOGG, 2016).

Therefore, attributing the origins of this entire ethnic group to loosely defined ancient populations such as, Indo-Aryans or Indo-Scythians represents very broad generalities and cannot be supported. The study also revealed that even with their different languages, religions, nationalities, customs, cuisines, and physical differences, the Jats shared their haplogroups with several other ethnic groups of the Indian subcontinent, and had the same common ancestors and geographic origins in the distant past. Based on recent developments in DNA science, this study provided new insights into the ancient geographic origins of this major ethnic group in the Indian subcontinent. A larger dataset, particularly with more representation of Muslim Jats, is likely to reveal some additional haplogroups and geographical origins for this ethnic group.

प्राचीनकाल में यूरोप देश

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[42] लिखते हैं: यूरोप देश - इस देश को प्राचीनकाल में कारुपथ तथा अङ्गदियापुरी कहते थे, जिसको श्रीमान् महाराज रामचन्द्र जी के आज्ञानुसार लक्ष्मण जी ने एक वर्ष यूरोप में रहकर अपने ज्येष्ठ पुत्र अंगद के लिए आबाद किया था जो कि द्वापर में हरिवर्ष तथा अंगदेश और अब हंगरी आदि नामों से प्रसिद्ध है। अंगदियापुरी के दक्षिणी भाग में रूम सागर और अटलांटिक सागर के किनारे-किनारे अफ्रीका निवासी हब्शी आदि राक्षस जातियों के आक्रमण रोकने के लिए लक्ष्मण जी ने वीर सैनिकों की छावनियां आवर्त्त कीं। जिसको अब ऑस्ट्रिया कहते हैं। उत्तरी भाग में ब्रह्मपुरी बसाई जिसको अब जर्मनी कहते हैं। दोनों भागों के मध्य लक्ष्मण जी ने अपना हैडक्वार्टर बनाया जिसको अब लक्षमबर्ग कहते हैं। उसी के पास श्री रामचन्द्र जी के खानदानी नाम नारायण से नारायण मंडी आबाद हुई जिसको अब नॉरमण्डी कहते हैं। नॉरमण्डी के निकट एक दूसरे से मिले हुए द्वीप अंगलेशी नाम से आवर्त्त हुए जिसको पहले ऐंग्लेसी कहते थे और अब इंग्लैण्ड कहते हैं।

द्वापर के अन्त में अंगदियापुरी देश, अंगदेश के नाम से प्रसिद्ध हुआ, जिसका राज्य सम्राट् दुर्योधन ने अपने मित्र राजा कर्ण को दे दिया था। करीब-करीब यूरोप के समस्त देशों का राज्य शासन आज तक महात्मा अंगद के उत्तराधिकारी अंगवंशीय तथा अंगलेशों के हाथ में है, जो कि ऐंग्लो, एंग्लोसेक्शन, ऐंग्लेसी, इंगलिश, इंगेरियन्स आदि नामों से प्रसिद्ध है और जर्मनी में आज तक संस्कृत भाषा का आदर तथा वेदों के स्वाध्याय का प्रचार है। (पृ० 1-3)।

यूरोप अपभ्रंश है युवरोप का। युव-युवराज, रोप-आरोप किया हुआ। तात्पर्य है उस देश से, जो लक्ष्मण जी के ज्येष्ठपुत्र अङ्गद के लिए आवर्त्त किया गया था। यूरोप के निवासी यूरोपियन्स कहलाते हैं। यूरोपियन्स बहुवचन है यूरोपियन का। यूरोपियन विशेषण है यूरोपी का। यूरोपी अपभ्रंश है युवरोपी का। तात्पर्य है उन लोगों से जो यूरोप देश में युवराज अङ्गद के साथ भेजे और बसाए गये थे। (पृ० 4)

कारुपथ यौगिक शब्द है कारु + पथ का। कारु = कारो, पथ = रास्ता। तात्पर्य है उस देश से जो भूमध्य रेखा से बहुत दूर कार्पेथियन पर्वत (Carpathian Mts.) के चारों ओर ऑस्ट्रिया, हंगरी, जर्मनी, इंग्लैण्ड, लक्षमबर्ग, नॉरमण्डी आदि नामों से फैला हुआ है। जैसे एशिया में हिमालय पर्वतमाला है, इसी तरह यूरोप में कार्पेथियन पर्वतमाला है।

इससे सिद्ध हुआ कि श्री रामचन्द्र जी के समय तक वीरान यूरोप देश कारुपथ देश कहलाता था। उसके आबाद करने पर युवरोप, अङ्गदियापुरी तथा अङ्गदेश के नाम से प्रसिद्ध हुआ और ग्रेट ब्रिटेन, आयरलैण्ड, ऑस्ट्रिया, हंगरी, जर्मनी, लक्षमबर्ग, नॉरमण्डी, फ्रांस, बेल्जियम, हालैण्ड, डेनमार्क, स्विट्जरलैंड, इटली, पोलैंड आदि अङ्गदियापुरी के प्रान्तमात्र महात्मा अङ्गद के क्षेत्र शासन के आधारी किये गये थे। (पृ० 4-5)

नोट - महाभारतकाल में यूरोप को ‘हरिवर्ष’ कहते हैं। हरि कहते हैं बन्दर को। उस देश में अब भी रक्तमुख अर्थात् वानर के समान भूरे नेत्र वाले होते हैं। ‘यूरोप’ को संस्कृत में ‘हरिवर्ष’ कहते थे। [43]

नॉरमन्ज (Normans)

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[44] लिखते हैं: विकिंग्ज (Vikings) या नॉरमन्ज (Normans) - विकिंग्ज को नार्थमेन (Northmen) कहते थे क्योंकि वे नार्थ (उत्तर) में रहते थे। इनको संक्षेप में नॉरमन्ज (Normans) पुकारा जाने लगा। सन् 912 में इन नॉरमन्ज की एक बस्ती रोल्फ दी गेंजर (Rolf the Ganger) के अधीन फ्रांस के समुद्री किनारे पर नॉरमण्डी (Normandy) नामक थी। यह फ्रांस देश का एक प्रान्त है। डेन्ज (Danes), विकिंग्ज या नॉरमन सब जूट्स (Jutes) या जाट हैं। ये सब सीथियन जाटों के वंशज तथा उनके ही विभिन्न नाम हैं। अनटिक्विटी ऑफ जाट रेस पृ० 12-13 लेखक उजागरसिंह माहिल)।

See also

References

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  2. Perry, Walter Copland (1857). The Franks, from Their First Appearance in History to the Death of King Pepin. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts.
  3. Examples: "frank". American Heritage Dictionary. "frank". Webster's Third New International Dictionary. And so on.
  4. Michel Rouche (1987). "The Early Middle Ages in the West". In Paul Veyne. A History of Private Life: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. Belknap Press. p. 425.
  5. Tarassuk, Leonid; Blair, Claude (1982). The Complete Encyclopedia of Arms and Weapons: the most comprehensive reference work ever published on arms and armor from prehistoric times to the present with over 1,250 illustrations. Simon & Schuster. p. 186. ISBN 0-671-42257-X.
  6. Isidore of Seville, Etymologiarum sive originum, libri XVIII
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  10. Jean Carpentier (dir.), François Lebrun (dir.), Alain Tranoy, Élisabeth Carpentier et Jean-Marie Mayeur (préface de Jacques Le Goff), Histoire de France, Points Seuil, coll. " Histoire ", Paris, 2000 (1re éd. 1987), p. 17 ISBN 2-02-010879-8
  11. Jean Carpentier (dir.), François Lebrun (dir.), Alain Tranoy, Élisabeth Carpentier et Jean-Marie Mayeur (préface de Jacques Le Goff), Histoire de France, Points Seuil, coll. " Histoire ", Paris, 2000 (1re éd. 1987), p. 17 ISBN 2-02-010879-8
  12. Jean Carpentier (dir.), François Lebrun (dir.), Alain Tranoy, Élisabeth Carpentier et Jean-Marie Mayeur (préface de Jacques Le Goff), Histoire de France, Points Seuil, coll. " Histoire ", Paris, 2000 (1re éd. 1987), p. 17 ISBN 2-02-010879-8
  13. Carpentier et al. 2000, pp. 20–24.
  14. The Cambridge ancient history. Cambridge University Press. 2000. p. 754. ISBN 978-0-521-08691-2.
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  20. Carpentier et al. 2000, pp. 53–55.
  21. Carpentier et al. 2000, pp. 76–77
  22. Carpentier et al. 2000, pp. 79–82.
  23. Carpentier et al. 2000, p. 81.
  24. Carpentier et al. 2000, p. 84.
  25. Carpentier et al. 2000, p. 84.
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  35. Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie (1987). "The French peasantry, 1450–1660". University of California Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-520-05523-3 Peter Turchin (2003). "Historical dynamics: why states rise and fall". Princeton University Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-691-11669-5
  36. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V, p.85
  37. Ram Sarup Joon:History of the Jats/Chapter X ,p.170-171
  38. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter XIII, p.227
  39. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter XIII, p.227-228
  40. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter XIII, p.228
  41. Y-STR Haplogroup Diversity in the Jat Population Reveals Several Different Ancient Origins
  42. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV,p.339-340
  43. (सत्यार्थप्रकाश दशम समुल्लास पृ० 173)
  44. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV,p.321