Ranabai

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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क
Ranabai

Ranabai (रानाबाई) (10 April 1504-16 March 1570) was a Jat warrior girl and a Hindu mystical poetess whose compositions are popular throughout Marwar region of Rajasthan, India. She is known as 'Second Mira of Rajasthan". She was a disciple of sant Chatur Das also known as Khojiji. Ranabai composed many poems (padas) in Rajasthani Language. [1]

Birth

Ranabai was born in the family of Chaudhari Jalam Singh of village Harnawa in Parbatsar pargana of Marwar. [2] Jalam Singh was a Hindu Jat chieftain of Ghana gotra. [3] Sagar Mal Sharma in his book 'Rajasthan Ke Sant' has mentioned that her father was Jalam Jat. [4] But as per Dr Pema Ram she was of Dhoon gotra Jat vansha. [5] According to Dr Pema Ram[6] Ranabai was born on vaishakh shukla tritiya somwar samvat 1561 (1504 AD). This is also clear from a doha by Birdhichand, which reads as under in Rajasthani Language:

पन्द्रह सौ इकसठ प्रकट, आखा तीज त्यौहार
जहि दिन राना जन्म हो, घर-घर मंगलाचार

According to Dr Pema Ram [7] Ranabai's father was Ram Gopal and Jalam Singh was his grandfather. This is also clear from a doha by Birdhi Chand, which reads as under in Rajasthani Language:

जाट उजागर धून जंग, नामी जालम जाट ।
बस्ती रचक ओ दौ विगत, गण हरनावो ग्राम ।।
जालम सुत रामो सुजन, जा का राम गोपाल ।
उनका पुत्र भुवन ओरू, बाई बुद्धि विशाल ।। [8]
Ranabai

According to Karnisharan Charan of village Indokli also, as mentioned in 'Bā Rānā Jas Bāīsī' (बा राना जस बाईसी), Ram Gopal was father of Ranabai:

पन्द्रह सौ इकसठ प्रत्यक्ष, तीज अक्षय त्यौहार ।
पिता राम गोपाल घर, राना को अवतार ।।[9]

Chandra Prakash Dudi in his book 'Shri Ranabai Itihas' writes that Ranabai's father was Ram Gopal. [10]

Genealogy of Ranabai

Harji Ram Bhatti (founded Harnawa) → Dhunaji (founded Dhunasar, Dhoon gotra) → Jalam Singh → Ram Singh → Ram Gopal (w. Gangadevi Garhwal) → Ranabai (1504 -1570 AD)

It is a matter of research if Harji Ram Bhatti was the same person mentioned as Hur-raj son of Noonkarn in the genealogy of Rawal Jaisal.

James Tod[11] writes that Bhatt Chief Noonkurn had three sons, Har-raj, Maldeo, and Kalyandas ; each had issue. Har-raj had Bheem (who succeeded his grandfather Noonkurn). Maldeo had Kaetsi, who had Dayaldas, father of Sbbl Sing, to whom was given in appanage the town of Mundilla, near Pokaran. The third son, Kalyandas had Manohar-das, who succeeded Bheem. Ramchand was the son of Manohur-das. A slip from the genealogical tree will set this in a dear Light.

Noonkarn → 1. Har-raj + 2. Maldev + 3.Kalyandas

1.Har-raj → Bheem → Nathoo
2. Maldev → Kaitsi → Dayaldas → Sabbal Singh
3.Kalyandas → Manohardas → Ramchand

Her family

Jalam Singh, grandfather of Ranabai, had two sons namely Ramoji (elder) and Ram Gopal (younger). Ram Gopal was married to Gangabai of Garhwal Jat Gotra. He had one son - Buwanji and three daughters namely Dhaanibai, Ranabai and Dhapubai. Ranabai was the second daughter of Ram Gopal and his wife Gangabai. [12]

Jalam Singh was grandfather of Ranabai and was a powerful chief of about twenty villages around Harnawa. He was under Bidiyasar Chaudhary of Khinyala. Jalam Singh used to collect tax (lagan) from farmers and deposited the same with Chaudhary of Khinyala, who in turn used to send the taxes to Delhi Badshah.[13]

Ranabai's father Ram Gopal, being younger, was not so popular. Neither he nor his daughter, Ranabai was educated.

Mystical powers

Ranabai after initiation by his guru Chaturdasji Maharaj, also known as Khojiji, completely devoted herself to the bhakti. When her parents became worried about her developments in spiritual matters, she tried to find a place where no body disturbs her in devotion of god. One day she found such place in a jungle behind her house in a cave, locally known as bhanwra. Without telling any body she went inside the cave and completely engrossed herself in devotion. She remained for about 9-10 months in this cave without any food and water. People believe that god himself provided water and food to her during this period. Her parents searched her every where and at last left the hope of finding her thinking that she might have died. At last when people found her in the bhanwra, they requested to come out before people. After asceticism and concentrating on meditation Ranabai attained Enlightenment. Her fame spread all around and people started coming to her for getting ashirvad. She attained the status of a devi. [14] [15]

Story of her bravery

A subedar of Badsah Akbar (1542 – 1605) heard about the fame of unparalleled beauty of Ranabai and her devotion. Once he was stationed near Gechholāv pond at distance of 6 km from village Harnawa with a force of 500 horse-riders. He was a man of bad conduct. One day Jalam Singh was returning from Khinyala after paying tax, when the subedar invited Jalam Singh with a bad intention and pressurized him to marry Ranabai with him. Jalam Singh refused his offer and abused him. The muslim subedar arrested Jalam Singh and attacked Harnawa. When Ranabai learnt that muslim subedar had attacked Harnawa with a bad intention to marry her she took sword in her hands and attacked the muslim soldiers like a tigress. She attacked the muslim subedar and chopped his head off. She also killed many of the soldiers. Looking to her bravery the rest of soldiers ran away. She thus got freed his grandfather Jalam Singh. The story of the bravery of Ranabai spread in the entire Marwar region. [16] [17]

Follower of the Bhakti tradition

Ranabai was a brahmcharini (observer of celebacy), a strong devotee of God Gopinath and follower of the Bhakti tradition. The tendency of Ranabai of bhajan-pujan since childhood had worried her father. Her parents started searching a suitable boy for marring her but she refused to marry saying she had selected god as her husband. When her father persuaded for marriage she replied in Rajasthan as under:

राना कहे राम वर मेरा, सतगुरु मेट्या सब उलझेरा ।
अमर सुहाग अमर वर पाया, तेज पुंज की उनकी काया ।। [18][19]

Ranabai had visited the pilgrimage centres of Mathura, Vrindavana with Nimbarkacharya Parsuramdev of Salemabad. She is said to have apparently seen Krishna at Vrindavan. She requested god Gopinath to come to her Marudhardesh. It is believed that Gopinath accepted her requests and wished to go in the form of sculpture. Ranabai brought sculptures of Gopinath along with Radha and established them in temple at Harnawa. [20] One of Ranabai's pada mentions as under in Rajasthani:

राना की अरदास नाथ थासूं, राना री अरदास ।
जनम मरण री फेरी मिट गयी, पायो परम परकास ।
बिन्दरावन बंशीबत जमना, भलो करायो बास ।
उछव नित नया ही बिरज में, रमै साँवरो रास ।
म्हारे संगडे़ मुरधर चालो, पुरवो म्हारी आस ।
बिनवै 'राना' सतगुरु खोजी, परसराम परकास ।। [21]
ओ महारा मनड़े रा ठाकुर, गोपीनाथ दयाल ।
ओ महारा कुञ्ज बिहारी, मो संग मुरधर चहल । [22]
मुरधर देस सुवावणों रे, आवड़ ज्यासी लाल ।
आतो जातो रही भला ही, एकर तो तूं चाल ।
बिन्दरावन रो पंथ बतायो, परसा करी निहाल ।
'राना' सतगुरु खोजी शरणे, ले आई गोपाल ।। [23]

Thus Ranabai brought Gopinath and Radha to Harnawa. She always remained busy in worshiping them. She has composed many poems (padas) for the god Gopinath. She spent most of her time in prayer and worship of Gopinath i.e. Krishna. She left behind a legacy of many soulful and prayerful songs, which are still sung in Marwar region in India today. She is regarded as a saint in the tradition of the Bhakti Movement. The 16th century Bhakti Movement showed the path to salvation by devotion. She is known as second Mira of Rajasthan. [24]

Ranabai's poem

Ranabai's poem is traditionally called a pada, a term used by the 14th century preachers for a small spiritual song. This is usually composed in simple rhythms and carries a refrain within itself. Her collection of songs is called the Padavali. The typicality of Indian love poetry of those days was used by Ranabai but as an instrument to express her deepest emotions felt for her ishta-devata Gopinath. Her typical medium of singing was Rajasthani.

Samadhi of Ranabai

Ranabai Dham Harnawa

Ranabai took a live samadhi at village Harnawa on falgun shukla trayodashi samvat 1627 (1570 AD). Birdhi Chand has mentioned in one doha about her taking of samadhi:

सौला सौ विक्रम सही, सताईस शुभ साल ।
ली समाधी राना समझ, जग झूठा जंजाल ।।

Similarly Karnisharan Charan also mentions in a doha about Ranabai leaving this world as under:

सौला सौ सताईस में, फागन तेरस सुदी स्याम ।
बा राना बैकुंठ में, रमिया ज्योति राम ।।

Ranabai's brother Bhuwanji built a kachchi samadhi after she left the world. The samadhi is still present near the temple of Gopinath in Harnawa. The worship of samadhi and the Gopinath temple is done traditionally by the descendants of her family.

On the samadhi site at Harnawa village there is an annual grand fair organized every year on the Hindu calender date bhadva sudi teras, when devotees come from far off places. There is a grand dharamshala near the samadhi site in Harnawa for stay arrangements of the devotees.

राना बाई का जीवन परिचय

हरजीराम भाटी के दो बेटे थे । बड़ा कानाजी, छोटा धुणा जी। कानाजी एक संत बन गए,जबकि धुणा जी ने धुणासर गाँव बसाया जो कि आज भी है रामदेवरा से 8 कि. मी. दूर है क्योंकि हरजीराम भाटी हरनावा गाँव बसाया था जो कि परबतसर में है । वो जैसलमेर से आये थे पोकरण के पास से जब वहा पर पर अकाल पड़ गया तब उनके गाँव ने मालवा (मंदसोर) जाने जाने की सोची क्योंकि हरजीराम भाटी सरदार थे जब उन्होंने यहाँ पर पानी देखा तो गच्छीपुरा के पास बसे। उस जगह का नाम हरजी से हर + नावा = हरनावा रखा जिसका अर्थ है हर का निवास स्थान। धुणाजी को अपने पूर्वजों के गाँव देखने की इच्छा हुई तो वो जैसलमेर आये यहा उन्होंने (धुणाजी ने) धुणासर गाँव बसाया । लेकिन कुछ समय बाद हरनावा गाँव आ गये उनका बेटे का नाम जालमसिंह था जालम सिंह के बेटे का नाम रामसिंह था रामसिंह के बेटे का नाम रामगोपाल था उनकी शादी गंगा देवी (गढ़वाल गोत्री ) से हुई उनकी बेटी रानाबाई का जन्म सम्वत 1561 (10 अप्रेल 1504) आखा तीज को हुआ इस तरह भाटी और धूण एक ही गोत्र है । [25]

ठाकुर देशराज लिखते हैं कि मारवाड़ के परवतसर परगने में हरनावा गांव में सरदार जालिमसिंहजी सरदारी करते थे। आस-पास के बीसियों गांवों पर उनका अधिकार था। दशहरे पर सभी गांव के चौधरी उनको भेंट देते थे। सरदार जालिमसिंह के एक पुत्री थी, जिसका नाम रानाबाई था। वह हरिभक्ता थी। ईश्वर-सेवा और गौ-सेवा ही उसके लिए आनन्द-दायक थी। उसकी इच्छा आजन्म ब्रह्मचारिणी रहने की थी, इसलिए उसका विवाह नहीं हुआ था। एक समय देहली के बादशाह का सूबेदार इधर से गुजरा। रानाबाई की खूबसूरती को देखकर उसके हृदय में पाजीपन आ गया। एक बार धोखे से जालिमसिंह को अपने यहां बुलाकर दबाव दिया कि रानाबाई की शादी मेरे साथ करा दो। जालिमसिंहजी ने ललकार के साथ उस सूबेदार को भला बुरा कहा। उसने जालिमसिंह को नजरबन्द करा दिया और खुद सेना लेकर हरनामा गांव पर चढ़ गया। रानाबाई ने जब सुना कि वह उसे से शादी करने के इरादे से आया है, सिंहनी की भांति खड़ी हो गई और तलवार लेकर मैदान में निकली। आंखें उसकी लाल हो रही थीं, चेहरा तमतमा रहा था। यवन सैनिक उसे देखकर एक दूसरे के मुंह की ओर देखने लगे। रानाबाई ने झपट कर सूबेदार का सिर काट लिया। सैनिकों में भगदड़ मच गई। जाट लोगों ने जब सुना तो उनका पीछा किया, जालिमसिंह जी छोड़ दिये गए। रानाबाई की कीर्ति सारे मारवाड़ में फैल गई। लोग अब तक उनकी कहानी बड़े चाव से कहते और सुनते हैं। स्वर्गीय पं. जयरामजी ने रानाबाई के चरित्र पर ‘जाट वीर’ में सन् 1926 में एक लेख भी लिखा था। [26]


See also


References

  1. Dr Pema Ram & Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, p. 40-41
  2. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 1992 (pp – 610)
  3. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 1992 (pp – 610)
  4. Sagar Mal Sharma: 'Rajasthan Ke Sant', Part-1, Chirawa, 1997, p. 193
  5. Dr Pema Ram & Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, p. 39
  6. Dr Pema Ram & Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, p. 33
  7. Dr Pema Ram & Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, p. 34
  8. Dr Pema Ram & Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, p. 34
  9. Dr Pema Ram & Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, p. 34
  10. Chandra Prakash Dudi: 'Shri Ranabai Itihas', Jaipur, 1999, p. 3
  11. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.238, fn-3
  12. Dr Pema Ram & Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, p. 34
  13. Dr Pema Ram and Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition, 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, p. 34
  14. Dr Pema Ram & Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, p. 34
  15. Sagar Mal Sharma:Rajasthan Ke Sant, Part-1, p. 194
  16. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 1992 (pp – 610)
  17. Dr Pema Ram & Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, p. 36
  18. Dr Pema Ram and Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, pp. 37
  19. Sukhsaran: Ranabai Ki Parchi, pada 10
  20. Dr Pema Ram and Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, pp. 36-37
  21. Dr Pema Ram & Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, pp. 37
  22. Dr Pema Ram and Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, pp. 37
  23. Dr Pema Ram and Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, pp. 37
  24. Dr Pema Ram and Dr Vikramaditya Chaudhary, Jaton ki Gauravgatha (जाटों की गौरवगाथा), First Edition 2004, Publisher - Rajasthani Granthagar, Jodhpur, Ph 0291-2623933, pp. 40-41
  25. Ranabai Ka Itihas Jat Samaj-July 2000, as told by Ramaram Dhun Pujjari of Ranabai Mandir Harnawa. JEETUTOMARJAT (talk) 12:59, 16 November 2012 (EST)
  26. जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-610

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