Sankhar

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Sankhar (संखार)[1] Sankhal (संखाल) is gotra of Jats.

Origin

They are supposed to be descendants of Nagavanshi King Shankha (शंख) or Shankhasura (शंखासुर) of Mahabharata period. [2]

In Ramayana

Ramayana Yuddha Kanda Sarga 7 mentions that the demons inspire Ravana with confidence and eulogise his army’s strength. They tell that after moving down to rasatala (the penultimate subterranean region), you conquered Nagas Vasuki Takshaka, Shankha and Jati were conquered by you and captivated as your subjects.

निर्जितास् ते महाबाहो नागा गत्वा रसा तलम् ।
वासुकिस् तक्षकः शन्खो जटी च वशम् आहृताः ॥६-७-९॥

In Mahabharata

Virata (विराट) or Virata (विराट), in the epic Mahabharata, was a king in whose court the Pandavas spent a year in concealment during their exile. Virata was married to Queen Sudeshna and was the father of Prince Uttara and Princess Uttarā. He finally gets killed by Drona during the great war along with his three sons, named Uttara, Sweta and Shankha. [3]

Mention by Panini

Shankha (शंख) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi under Shandikadi (शंडिकादि) (4.3.92) group.[4]

History

Hukum Singh Panwar[5] writes:

'Their presence in the Indus Valley is fully confirmed by external sources. Hamza[6] of Isfahan (893-970 AD.) and halt a century later, Firdausi[7] furnish us with unimpeachable evidence that "the Iranian Emperor, Behram Gour (420-448 AD.) secured from king Sankhala of North India his princess in marriage besides 12000 musicians of both sexes, known as Luri Jats, or participation in an Iranian national celebration, and in lieu of their excellent performances, settled them with ex gratia grants of land, oxen and grain in a province called as Luristan after them in Iran'. Discovery of a district known as Zutt and certain villages of similar name in Luristan by the Arab geographers35 and travellers, viz, Istakhari, Ibn-Hawkal, Mukaddasi, Yakut and Mustawfi reasonably compels us to conclude that those names must have been given by the Jats who were settled in Luristan by Behram Gour in the first half of the 5th century AD.

Fergusson (JRAS, 1870, p. 88) identifies King Sankhal with Maharaja Adhiraj Vasudev of Magadha and Kanoj who ceded to Behram Gour Sindh and Makran (may be in dowry). D.J. Paruck and H.H. Wilson do not disbelieve Behram Gour's adventures in India as mere fiction (Sassanian Coins, N. Delhi, 1976, p. 98) and the latter describes his visit to India incognito for the Iranian Emperor required the help of the Yueh-Chih (Jats) princes of Kabul and the Rajputs (Jats) of Central India against the Huns (Antiquities and Coins of Afghanistan aod N. Ind., Delhi, p. 389). It is very probable that the 12000 Luris was the army of the Jats who were notorious as mercenary soldiers in the Indus Valley. Since their army was raised by Bahram Gour for Iran, a good number of their dependent entertainers must have accompanied the Jat force. It was with the help of this army that Behram Gour defeated the Huns, drove them across the Oxus, defeated them again and compelled them to sue for peace (Sykes, Brig. Gen. Sir Percy, His. of Persia, Vol. 1, London, 1958, pp. 433f). The love affairs of Bahram Gour with the Indian princess and her exceptional beauty became talk of the town in Iran. For further details cf. B.D. Mirchandani, "Bahram Gour's Marriage with an Indian Princess: Fact or Fiction?" in JIH, Vol. 56, Aug., 1978, Pt. 11, pp. 313-328.[8]

जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज

जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज[9] में लिखा है कि ‘मथुरा सेमायर्स’ पढ़ने से पता चलता है कि हाथीसिंह नामक जाट (खूटेल) ने सोंख पर अपना अधिपत्य जमाया था और फिर से सोंख के दुर्ग का निर्माण कराया था। हाथीसिंह महाराजा सूरजमल जी का समकालीन था। सोंख का किला बहुत पुराना है। राजा अनंगपाल के समय में इसे बसाया गया था। गुसाई लोग शंखासुर का बसाया हुआ मानते हैं। मि. ग्राउस लिखते हैं -

"जाट शासन-काल में (सोंख) स्थानीय विभाग का सर्वप्रधान नगर था।[10] राजा हाथीसिंह के वंश में कई पीढ़ी पीछे प्रह्लाद नाम का व्यक्ति हुआ। उसके समय तक इन लोगों के हाथ से बहुत-सा प्रान्त निकल गया था। उसके पांच पुत्र थे - (1) आसा, (2) आजल, (3) पूरन, (4) तसिया, (5) सहजना। इन्होंने अपनी भूमि को जो दस-बारह मील के क्षेत्रफल से अधिक न रह गई थी आपस में बांट लिया और अपने-अपने नाम से अलग-अलग गांव बसाये। सहजना गांव में कई छतरियां बनी हुई हैं। तीन दीवालें अब तक खड़ी हैं ।

मि. ग्राउस आगे लिखते हैं -

"इससे सिद्ध होता है कि जाट पूर्ण वैभवशाली और धनसम्पन्न थे। जाट-शासन-काल में मथुरा पांच भागों में बटा हुआ था - अडींग, सोसा, सांख, फरह और गोवर्धन[11]

Population

Distribution

Notable persons

External links

References

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. स-7
  2. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998,p.284
  3. Swami Ramsukhdas: Shrimad Bhagvadgita - Sadhaka-Sanjivani, translated into English by S.C. Vaishya, Gita Press Gorakhpur, ISBN 81-293-0063-X
  4. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.511
  5. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The Scythic origin of the Jats,p.179
  6. MacRitchie, David, Gypsies of Ind., Delhi, 1976, pp. 4f.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Hukum Singh Panwar,The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The Scythic origin of the Jats,p.200
  9. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter VIII,p.560
  10. मथुरा मेमायर्स, पृ. 379 । आजकल सोंख पांच पट्टियों में बंटा हुआ है - लोरिया, नेनूं, सींगा, एमल और सोंख। यह विभाजन गुलाबसिंह ने किया था।
  11. मथुरा मेमायर्स, पृ. 376

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