Ganesha

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Lord Ganesha

Ganesha (गणेश or श्रीगणेश), "lord of the hosts," also spelled as Ganesa and Ganesh, often also referred to as Ganapati, is one of the most well-known and venerated representations of God. He is the second son of Shiva and Parvati, and the 'consort' of Buddhi. Gaṇas (Devanagari: गण) were attendants of Shiva and lived in Kailasa. Ganesha, second son of Shiva, was chosen as their leader by Shiva, hence his title Ganapati, "lord of ganas". [1]

Ganesha and jat connections

Image of Ganesha

The image of Ganesha is a composite one. Four animals, man, elephant, the serpent and the mouse have contributed to the makeup of his figure. All of them individually and collectively have deep symbolic significance in Hindu mythology.

Elephant head

The highly articulated mythology of Hinduism presents many stories which explain how Ganesha obtained his elephant head; often the origin of this particular attribute is to be found in the same anecdotes which tell about his birth. And many of these same stories reveal the origins of the enormous popularity of his cult.

The most well-known story is probably the one taken from the Shiva Purana. Once, while his mother Parvati wanted to take a bath, there were no attendants around to guard her and stop anyone from accidentally entering the house. Hence she created an image of a boy out of turmeric paste which she prepared to cleanse her body (turmeric was used for its antiseptic and cooling properties), and infused life into it, and thus Ganesha was born. Parvati ordered Ganesha not to allow anyone to enter the house, and Ganesha obediently followed his mother's orders. After a while Shiva returned from outside, and as he tried to enter the house, Ganesha stopped him. Shiva was infuriated at this strange little boy who dared to challenge him. He told Ganesha that he was Parvati's husband, and demanded that Ganesha let him go in. But Ganesha would not hear any person's word other than his dear mother's. Shiva lost his patience and had a fierce battle with Ganesha. At last he severed Ganesha's head with his Trishula. When Parvati came out and saw her son's lifeless body, she was very angry and sad. She demanded that Shiva restore Ganesha's life at once.

Unfortunately, Shiva's Trishula was so powerful that it had hurled Ganesha's head very far off. All attempts to find the head were in vain. As a last resort, Shiva approached Brahma who suggested that he replace Ganesha's head with the first living being that came his way which lay with its head facing north. Shiva then sent his celestial armies (Gana) to find and take the head of whatever creature they happened to find asleep with its head facing north. They found a dying elephant which slept in this manner, and after its death took its head, attaching the elephant's head to Ganesha's body and bringing him back to life. From then on, he was called Ganapathi, or head of the celestial armies, and was to be worshipped by everyone before beginning any activity.

Ganesha as the Head of the Republic

In North Indian Jat traditions, Ganesha is known as the Lord of the Gana (Republic). The word Ganesh is considered by them to formed by Gana + īsha(गण + ईश), with sandhi at the join. Gana indicates the republic and the suffix ish indicates "Lord" or "Head". Ganesh is also known as Ganapati(गणपति), the suffix 'pati' indicating Lord or protector of the Republic. According to the beliefs of the Jats, He guided the affairs of the republic. Nothing happened in the republic without his permission. A marriage ceremony would be performed with his blessings and entry to the republic area would be with his permission.

Jat descendants from Ganesha

Ganesha was second son of Shiva and is considered to be the Jat god. Shiva is considered to be the progenitor of Jats. His descendants were known as Shivavanshi. The presence of Sheoran gotra in Jats is evidence of this. Sheorans consider themselves to be the descendants of Shiva. [2]

The implanting of elephant head has been rejected by Jat historians as it is not possible scientifically. [2]

It seems that this image of Ganesha was the result of the revenge of destruction of Daksha by Shiva's ganas in which Daksha's head was replaced by that of a Goat. In a compromise formula Brahma prayed Shiva to pardon Daksha and to mend the broken limbs of gods and rishis. Shiva accepted his advice and restored the burnt head of Daksha with that of goat's head, and the broken limbs were made whole.

जाट संघ कैसे बना

जाट शब्द का निर्माण संस्कृत के 'ज्ञात' शब्द से हुआ है. अथवा यों कहिये की यह 'ज्ञात' शब्द का अपभ्रंश है. लगभग 1450 वर्ष इस पूर्व में अथवा महाभारत काल में भारत में अराजकता का व्यापक प्रभाव था. यह चर्म सीमा को लाँघ चुका था. उत्तरी भारत में साम्राज्यवादी शासकों ने प्रजा को असह्य विपदा में डाल रखा था. इस स्थिति को देखकर कृष्ण ने अग्रज बलराम की सहायता से कंस को समाप्त कट उग्रसेन को मथुरा का शासक नियुक्त किया. कृष्ण ने साम्राज्यवादी शासकों से संघर्ष करने हेतु एक संघ का निर्माण किया. उस समय यादवों के अनेक कुल थे किंतु सर्व प्रथम उन्होंने अन्धक और वृष्नी कुलों का ही संघ बनाया. संघ के सदस्य आपस में सम्बन्धी होते थे इसी कारण उस संघ का नम 'ज्ञाति-संघ' रखा गया. [3][4] . [5]


यह संघ व्यक्ति प्रधान नहीं था. इसमें शामिल होते ही किसी राजकुल का पूर्व नाम आदि सब समाप्त हो जाते थे. वह केवल ज्ञाति के नाम से ही जाना जाता था.[6] प्राचीन ग्रंथो के अध्ययन से यह बात साफ हो जाती है की परिस्थिति और भाषा के बदलते रूप के कारण 'ज्ञात' शब्द ने 'जाट' शब्द का रूप धारण कर लिया. महाभारत काल में शिक्षित लोगों की भाषा संस्कृत थी. इसी में साहित्य सर्जन होता था. कुछ समय पश्चात जब संस्कृत का स्थान प्राकृत भाषा ने ग्रहण कर लिया तब भाषा भेद के कारण 'ज्ञात' शब्द का उच्चारण 'जाट' हो गया. आज से दो हजार वर्ष पूर्व की प्राकृत भाषा की पुस्तकों में संस्कृत 'ज्ञ' का स्थान 'ज' एवं 'त' का स्थान 'ट' हुआ मिलता है. इसकी पुष्टि व्याकरण के पंडित बेचारदास जी ने भी की है. उन्होंने कई प्राचीन प्राकृत भाषा के व्यकरणों के आधार पर नविन प्राकृत व्याकरण बनाया है जिसमे नियम लिखा है कि संस्कृत 'ज्ञ' का 'ज' प्राकृत में विकल्प से हो जाता है और इसी भांति 'त' के स्थान पर 'ट' हो जाता है. [7] इसके इस तथ्य कि पुष्टि सम्राट अशोक के शिला लेखों से भी होती है जो उन्होंने २६४-२२७ इस पूर्व में धर्मव्लियों के स्तंभों पर खुदवाई थी. उसमें भी कृत के सतह पर कट और मृत के स्थान पर मत हुआ मिलाता है. अतः उपरोक्त प्रमाणों के आधार पर सिद्ध होता है कि 'जाट' शब्द संस्कृत के 'ज्ञात' शब्द का ही रूपांतर है.अतः जैसे ज्ञात शब्द संघ का बोध करता है उसी प्रकार जाट शब्द भी संघ का वाचक है. [8]

इसी आधार पर पाणिनि ने अष्टाध्यायी व्याकरण में 'जट' धातु का प्रयोग कर 'जट झट संघाते' सूत्र बना दिया. इससे इस बात की पुष्टि होती है कि जाट शब्द का निर्माण इस पूर्व आठवीं शदी में हो चुका था. पाणिनि रचित अष्टाध्यायी व्याकरण का अध्याय 3 पाद 3 सूत्र 19 देखें:

३. ३. १९ अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायां

अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायां से जट् धातु से संज्ञा में घ ञ् प्रत्यय होता है. जट् + घ ञ् और घ ञ प्रत्यय के घ् और ञ् की इति संज्ञा होकर लोप हो जाता है. रह जाता है अर्थार्त जट् + अ ऐसा रूप होता है. फ़िर अष्टाध्यायी के अध्याय ७ पाद २ सूत्र ११६ - ७. २. ११६ अतः उपधायाः से उपधा अर्थार्त जट में के अक्षर के के स्थान पर वृद्धि अथवा दीर्घ हो जाता है. जाट् + अ = जाट[9]


व्याकरण भाष्कर महर्षि पाणिनि के धातु पाठ में जाट व जाट शब्दों की विद्यमानता उनकी प्राचीनता का एक अकाट्य प्रमाण है. इसके बाद ईसा पूर्व पाँचवीं शदी के चन्द्र के व्याकरण में भी इस शब्द का प्रयोग हुआ है.[10]

द्वारिका के पतन के बाद जो ज्ञाति-वंशी पश्चिमी देशों में चले गए वह भाषा भेद के कारण गाथ कहलाने लगे तथा 'जाट' जेटी गेटी [11] के नाम से उन देशों में चिन्हित हुए.

जाट संघ में शामिल वंश

श्री कृष्ण के वंश का नाम भी जाट था. इस जाट संघ का समर्थन पांडव वंशीय सम्राट युधिस्ठिर तथा उनके भाइयों ने भी किया. आज की जाट जाति में पांडव वंश पंजाब के शहर गुजरांवाला में पाया जाता है. समकालीन राजवंश गांधार, यादव, सिंधु, नाग, लावा, कुशमा, बन्दर, नर्देय आदि वंश ने कृष्ण के प्रस्ताव को स्वीकार किया तथा जाट संघ में शामिल हो गए. गांधार गोत्र के जाट रघुनाथपुर जिला बदायूं में तथा अलीगढ़ में और यादव वंश के जाट क्षत्रिय धर्मपुर जिला बदायूं में अब भी हैं. सिंधु गोत्र तो प्रसिद्ध गोत्र है. इसी के नाम पर सिंधु नदी तथा प्रान्त का नाम सिंध पड़ा. पंजाब की कलसिया रियासत इसी गोत्र की थी. नाग गोत्र के जाट खुदागंज तथा रमपुरिया ग्राम जिला बदायूं में हैं. इसी प्रकार वानर/बन्दर गोत्र जिसके हनुमान थे वे पंजाब और हरयाणा के जाटों में पाये जाते हैं. नर्देय गोत्र भी कांट जिला मुरादाबाद के जाट क्षेत्र में है. [12]


पुरातन काल में नाग क्षत्रिय समस्त भारत में शासक थे. नाग शासकों में सबसे महत्वपूर्ण और संघर्षमय इतिहास तक्षकों का और फ़िर शेषनागों का है. एक समय समस्त कश्मीर और पश्चिमी पंचनद नाग लोगों से आच्छादित था. इसमें कश्मीर के कर्कोटक और अनंत नागों का बड़ा दबदबा था. पंचनद (पंजाब) में तक्षक लोग अधिक प्रसिद्ध थे. कर्कोटक नागों का समूह विन्ध्य की और बढ़ गया और यहीं से सारे मध्य भारत में छा गया. यह स्मरणीय है कि मध्य भारत के समस्त नाग एक लंबे समय के पश्चात बौद्ध काल के अंत में पनपने वाले ब्रह्मण धर्म में दीक्षित हो गए. बाद में ये भारशिव और नए नागों के रूप में प्रकट हुए. इन्हीं लोगों के वंशज खैरागढ़, ग्वालियर आदि के नरेश थे. ये अब राजपूत और मराठे कहलाने लगे. तक्षक लोगों का समूह तीन चौथाई भाग से भी ज्यादा जाट संघ में सामिल हो गए थे. वे आज टोकस और तक्षक जाटों के रूप में जाने जाते हैं. शेष नाग वंश पूर्ण रूप से जाट संघ में सामिल हो गया जो आज शेषमा कहलाते हैं. वासुकि नाग भी मारवाड़ में पहुंचे. इनके अतिरिक्त नागों के कई वंश मारवाड़ में विद्यमान हैं. जो सब जाट जाति में शामिल हैं.[13]

जाट संघ से अन्य संगठनों की उत्पति

जाट संघ में भारत वर्ष के अधिकाधिक क्षत्रिय शामिल हो गए थे. जाट का अर्थ भी यही है कि जिस जाति में बहुत सी ताकतें एकजाई हों यानि शामिल हों, एक चित हों, ऐसे ही समूह को जाट कहते हैं. जाट संघ के पश्चात् अन्य अलग-अलग संगठन बने. जैसे अहीर, गूजर, मराठा तथा राजपूत. ये सभी इसी प्रकार के संघ थे जैसा जाट संघ था. राजपूत जाति का संगठन बौद्ध धर्म के प्रभाव को कम करने के लिए ही पौराणिक ब्राहमणों ने तैयार किया था. बौद्धधर्म से पहले राजपूत नामका कोई वर्ग या समाज न था. .[14]

गणों की विशेषतायें

See Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter V

Meaning of gana

The meaning of Gaṇa in Sanskrit is given by Monier Williams's dictionary as "flock, troop, multitude, number, tribe, series, class", adding that it can also be used to refer to a "body of attendants". It also defines Gana as "a company, any assemblage or association of men formed for the attainment of the same aims". [15]

Ganas as Shiva's attendants

The mention of ganas is in the form of attendants of Shiva in the story of creation of Virabhadra and destruction of Daksha in Hindu mythology. One day Daksha made arrangements for a great horse sacrifice, and invited all the gods omitting only Shiva. Shiva's first wife was Sati and daughter of Daksha Prajapati. Sati, being greatly humiliated, went to the banquet and Sati released the inward consuming fire and fell dead at Daksha's feet. Narada bore this news to Shiva. Shiva burned with anger, created Vīrabhadra who bowed at Shiva's feet and asked his will. [16]

Shiva directed Virabhadra: "Lead my army against Daksha and destroy his sacrifice; fear not the Brahmanas, for thou art a portion of my very self". On this direction of Shiva, Virabhadra appeared with Shiva's ganas in the midst of Daksha's assembly like a storm wind and broke the sacrificial vessels, polluted the offerings, insulted the priests and finally cut off Daksha's head, trampled on Indra, broke the staff of Yama, scattered the gods on every side; the he returned to Kailash. [17]


The above story of creation of Virabhadra from the Shiva’s lock and destruction of Daksha by Virabhadra and his ganas is mythical and not scientifically possible but has some historical facts in it. Thakur Deshraj has explained that there was a clan of Jats named Shivi who had a republic ruled by democratic system of administration known as ganatantra. Kshudrakas had formed a sangha with Malavas. Shivis formed a sangha with a big federation or sangha known as Jat, which is clear from Paninis shloka in grammar of Aṣṭādhyāyī given below. [18]

The historian Ram Swaroop Joon explains that Shiva lived in Gangotri Hills which, due to Shiva's popularity, came to be known as Shiva's Jata. The mountain ranges in that area is now known as Shivaliks. Raja Virabhadra of the Puru dynasty was the ruler of 'Talkhapur' near Haridwar, which also formed part of the area known as 'Shiv ki Jata'. [19]

This is the area around Haridwar. King Bhagiratha brought the Ganga to the plains in this region. According to legend the Ganga flows out from Shiva's Jata. Actually this also means that the Ganga flows out from the area known as 'Shiv ki Jata', the birthplace of the Jat Raja Virabhadra who was a follower and admirer of Shiva. On hearing of Sati's tragedy, Shiva went to the durbar of Virabhadra and pulled at his hair in fury while narrating the story. This infuriated Virabhadra and with his army, are invaded Kankhal and killed Daksha. [20]

Ganas in Sanskrit literature

In Panini's Aṣṭādhyāyī

Many books of Sanskrit literature have used ganas and sanghas frequently. The famous Sanskrit scholar Panini of 900 BCE has mentioned in his Sanskrit grammar known as Aṣṭādhyāyī in the form of shloka as जट झट संघाते or Jat Jhat Sanghate. This means that the terms 'Jat' and 'democratic federation' are synonymous.[21]

Panini in his grammar used gana as:

संघोद्घौ गण प्रशंसयो Sanghoddhau gaṇa praśansayo

In Narada smriti

Narada smriti mentions as:

आदि शब्दों गण संघादि समूह विपक्षया Ādi śabdon gaṇa sanghadi samūh vipakshayā

It shows that the ganatantra (republic) system of rule was prevalent in India since ancient period.


In Shanti Parva

A detailed analysis has been done about ganas in chapter 107 of Shanti Parva in which Yudhisthira asks Bhisma about the ganas that how ganas increase, how they defend themselves from the dividing-policy of enemies, what are the techniques to conquer enemies and making the ganas friends, how they hide their secret mantras being in majority. The Bhisma’s answers to these questions have been recorded in the form of shlokas (verses) from 16 – 32 in Shanti Parva. [22]

See Shanti Parva, Mahabharata on Jatland Wiki about the Ganas. We reproduce here Sanskrit text:

Chapter 108 :Shanti Parva - The Ganas

The Mahabharata in Sanskrit Book 12 Chapter 108

 1 [य]
     बराह्मणक्षत्रियविशां शूथ्राणां च परंतप
     धर्मॊ वृत्तं च वृत्तिश च वृत्त्युपायफलानि च
 2 राज्ञां वृत्तं च कॊशश च कॊशसंजननं महत
     अमात्यगुणवृथ्धिश च परकृतीनां च वर्धनम
 3 षाड्गुण्य गुणकल्पश च सेना नीतिस तदैव च
     थुष्टस्य च परिज्ञानम अथुष्टस्य च लक्षणम
 4 समहीनाधिकानां च यदावल लक्षणॊच्चयः
     मध्यमस्य च तुष्ट्यर्दं यदा सदेयं विवर्धता
 5 कषीणसंग्रह वृत्तिश च यदावत संप्रकीर्तिता
     लभुनाथेश रूपेण गरन्द यॊगेन भारत
 6 विजिगीषॊस तदा वृत्तम उक्तं चैव तदैव ते
     गणानां वृत्तिम इच्छामि शरॊतुं मतिमतां वर
 7 यदा गणाः परवर्धन्ते न भिथ्यन्ते च भारत
     अरीन हि विजिगीषन्ते सुहृथः पराप्नुवन्ति च
 8 भेथमूलॊ विनाशॊ हि गणानाम उपलभ्यते
     मन्त्रसंवरणं थुःखं बहूनाम इति मे मतिः
 9 एतथ इच्छाम्य अहं शरॊतुं निखिलेन परंतप
     यदा च ते न भिथ्येरंस तच च मे बरूहि पार्दिव
 10 गणानां च कुलानां च राज्ञां च भरतर्षभ
    वैरसंथीपनाव एतौ लॊभामर्षौ जनाधिप
11 लॊभम एकॊ हि वृणुते ततॊ ऽमर्षम अनन्तरम
    तौ कषयव्यय संयुक्ताव अन्यॊन्यजनिताश्रयौ
12 चारमन्त्रबलाथानैः सामथानविभेथनैः
    कषयव्यय भयॊपायैः कर्शयन्तीतरेतरम
13 तत्र थानेन भिथ्यन्ते गणाः संघातवृत्तयः
    भिन्ना विमनसः सर्वे गच्छन्त्य अरिवशं भयात
14 भेथाथ गणा विनश्यन्ति भिन्नाः सूपजपाः परैः
    तस्मात संघातयॊगेषु परयतेरन गणाः सथा
15 अर्दा हय एवाधिगम्यन्ते संघातबलपौरुषात
    बाह्याश च मैत्रीं कुर्वन्ति तेषु संघातवृत्तिषु
16 ज्ञान वृद्धान परशंसन्तः शुश्रूषन्तः परस्परम
    विनिवृत्ताभिसंधानाः सुखम एधन्ति सर्वशः
17 धर्मिष्ठान वयवहारांश च सदापयन्तश च शास्त्रतः
    यदावत संप्रवर्तन्तॊ विवर्धन्ते गणॊत्तमाः
18 पुत्रान भरातॄन निगृह्णन्तॊ विनये च सथा रताः
    विनीतांश च परगृह्णन्तॊ विवर्धन्ते गणॊत्तमाः
19 चारमन्त्रविधानेषु कॊशसंनिचयेषु च
    नित्ययुक्ता महाबाहॊ वर्धन्ते सर्वतॊ गणाः
20 पराज्ञाञ शूरान महेष्वासान कर्मसु सदिरपौरुषान
    मानयन्तः सथा युक्ता विवर्धन्ते गणा नृप
21 थरव्यवन्तश च शूराश च शस्त्रज्ञाः शास्त्रपारगाः
    कृच्छ्रास्व आपत्सु संमूढान गणान उत्तारयन्ति ते
22 करॊधॊ भेथॊ भयॊ थण्डः कर्शनं निग्रहॊ वधः
    नयन्त्य अरिवशं सथ्यॊ गणान भरतसत्तम
23 तस्मान मानयितव्यास ते गणमुख्याः परधानतः
    लॊकयात्रा समायत्ता भूयसी तेषु पार्दिव
24 मन्त्रगुप्तिः परधानेषु चारश चामित्रकर्शन
    न गणाः कृत्स्नशॊ मन्त्रं शरॊतुम अर्हन्ति भारत
25 गणमुख्यैस तु संभूय कार्यं गणहितं मिदः
    पृदग गणस्य भिन्नस्य विमतस्य ततॊ ऽनयदा
    अर्दाः परत्यवसीथन्ति तदानर्दा भवन्ति च
26 तेषाम अन्यॊन्यभिन्नानां सवशक्तिम अनुतिष्ठताम
    निग्रहः पण्डितैः कार्यः कषिप्रम एव परधानतः
27 कुलेषु कलहा जाताः कुलवृथ्धैर उपेक्षिताः
    गॊत्रस्य राजन कुर्वन्ति गणसंभेथ कारिकाम
28 आभ्यन्तरं भयं रक्ष्यं सुरक्ष्यं बाह्यतॊ भयम
    अभ्यन्तराथ भयं जातं सथ्यॊ मूलं निकृन्तति
29 अकस्मात करॊधलॊभाथ वा मॊहाथ वापि सवभावजात
    अन्यॊन्यं नाभिभाषन्ते तत्पराभव लक्षणम
30 जात्या च सथृशाः सर्वे कुलेन सथृशास तदा
    न तु शौर्येण बुथ्ध्या वा रूपथ्रव्येण वा पुनः
31 भेथाच चैव परमाथाच च नाम्यन्ते रिपुभिर गणाः
    तस्मात संघातम एवाहुर गणानां शरणं महत
 1 [y]
     brāhmaṇakṣatriyaviśāṃ śūdrāṇāṃ ca paraṃtapa
     dharmo vṛttaṃ ca vṛttiś ca vṛttyupāyaphalāni ca
 2 rājñāṃ vṛttaṃ ca kośaś ca kośasaṃjananaṃ mahat
     amātyaguṇavṛddhiś ca prakṛtīnāṃ ca vardhanam
 3 ṣāḍguṇya guṇakalpaś ca senā nītis tathaiva ca
     duṣṭasya ca parijñānam aduṣṭasya ca lakṣaṇam
 4 samahīnādhikānāṃ ca yathāval lakṣaṇoccayaḥ
     madhyamasya ca tuṣṭyarthaṃ yathā stheyaṃ vivardhatā
 5 kṣīṇasaṃgraha vṛttiś ca yathāvat saṃprakīrtitā
     labhunādeśa rūpeṇa grantha yogena bhārata
 6 vijigīṣos tathā vṛttam uktaṃ caiva tathaiva te
     gaṇānāṃ vṛttim icchāmi śrotuṃ matimatāṃ vara
 7 yathā gaṇāḥ pravardhante na bhidyante ca bhārata
     arīn hi vijigīṣante suhṛdaḥ prāpnuvanti ca
 8 bhedamūlo vināśo hi gaṇānām upalabhyate
     mantrasaṃvaraṇaṃ duḥkhaṃ bahūnām iti me matiḥ
 9 etad icchāmy ahaṃ śrotuṃ nikhilena paraṃtapa
     yathā ca te na bhidyeraṃs tac ca me brūhi pārthiva
 10 [bh]
    gaṇānāṃ ca kulānāṃ ca rājñāṃ ca bharatarṣabha
    vairasaṃdīpanāv etau lobhāmarṣau janādhipa
11 lobham eko hi vṛṇute tato 'marṣam anantaram
    tau kṣayavyaya saṃyuktāv anyonyajanitāśrayau
12 cāramantrabalādānaiḥ sāmadānavibhedanaiḥ
    kṣayavyaya bhayopāyaiḥ karśayantītaretaram
13 tatra dānena bhidyante gaṇāḥ saṃghātavṛttayaḥ
    bhinnā vimanasaḥ sarve gacchanty arivaśaṃ bhayāt
14 bhedād gaṇā vinaśyanti bhinnāḥ sūpajapāḥ paraiḥ
    tasmāt saṃghātayogeṣu prayateran gaṇāḥ sadā
15 arthā hy evādhigamyante saṃghātabalapauruṣāt
    bāhyāś ca maitrīṃ kurvanti teṣu saṃghātavṛttiṣu
16 jñānavṛddhān praśaṃsantaḥ śuśrūṣantaḥ parasparam
    vinivṛttābhisaṃdhānāḥ sukham edhanti sarvaśaḥ
17 dharmiṣṭhān vyavahārāṃś ca sthāpayantaś ca śāstrataḥ
    yathāvat saṃpravartanto vivardhante gaṇottamāḥ
18 putrān bhrātṝn nigṛhṇanto vinaye ca sadā ratāḥ
    vinītāṃś ca pragṛhṇanto vivardhante gaṇottamāḥ
19 cāramantravidhāneṣu kośasaṃnicayeṣu ca
    nityayuktā mahābāho vardhante sarvato gaṇāḥ
20 prājñāñ śūrān maheṣvāsān karmasu sthirapauruṣān
    mānayantaḥ sadā yuktā vivardhante gaṇā nṛpa
21 dravyavantaś ca śūrāś ca śastrajñāḥ śāstrapāragāḥ
    kṛcchrāsv āpatsu saṃmūḍhān gaṇān uttārayanti te
22 krodho bhedo bhayo daṇḍaḥ karśanaṃ nigraho vadhaḥ
    nayanty arivaśaṃ sadyo gaṇān bharatasattama
23 tasmān mānayitavyās te gaṇamukhyāḥ pradhānataḥ
    lokayātrā samāyattā bhūyasī teṣu pārthiva
24 mantraguptiḥ pradhāneṣu cāraś cāmitrakarśana
    na gaṇāḥ kṛtsnaśo mantraṃ śrotum arhanti bhārata
25 gaṇamukhyais tu saṃbhūya kāryaṃ gaṇahitaṃ mithaḥ
    pṛthag gaṇasya bhinnasya vimatasya tato 'nyathā
    arthāḥ pratyavasīdanti tathānarthā bhavanti ca
26 teṣām anyonyabhinnānāṃ svaśaktim anutiṣṭhatām
    nigrahaḥ paṇḍitaiḥ kāryaḥ kṣipram eva pradhānataḥ
27 kuleṣu kalahā jātāḥ kulavṛddhair upekṣitāḥ
    gotrasya rājan kurvanti gaṇasaṃbheda kārikām
28 ābhyantaraṃ bhayaṃ rakṣyaṃ surakṣyaṃ bāhyato bhayam
    abhyantarād bhayaṃ jātaṃ sadyo mūlaṃ nikṛntati
29 akasmāt krodhalobhād vā mohād vāpi svabhāvajāt
    anyonyaṃ nābhibhāṣante tatparābhava lakṣaṇam
30 jātyā ca sadṛśāḥ sarve kulena sadṛśās tathā
    na tu śauryeṇa buddhyā vā rūpadravyeṇa vā punaḥ
31 bhedāc caiva pramādāc ca nāmyante ripubhir gaṇāḥ
    tasmāt saṃghātam evāhur gaṇānāṃ śaraṇaṃ mahat

Reference - http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/mbs/mbs12108.htm

In Vedas

Ganas have been narrated in Vedas in the form of assemblies of warriors as is clear from the following sutras if Rigveda (RV 3-26-6): [23]

व्रातं व्रातं गणम् गणम् Vrātam Vrātam gaṇam gaṇam

Gana in brief means an assembly. Ganatantra (republic) means a state run by assemblies.

The representative members of clans were known as ganas and their assembly as sanghas, there chief as ganadhipati or Ganesha and Ganapati.

Ganas in Buddhist literature

The Buddhist literature Mahabagga mentions that:

गण पूरकोवा भविस्सामीति Gaṇa pūrkovā bhavissāmīti

It indicates that there was an officer who used to see the number of ganas and their koram in the Rajasabha (state assembly).[24]

During Buddhist period, the Buddhist books like 'Pali-pitaka', 'Majjhamnikaya', 'Mahabagga', 'Avadana shataka' have mentioned ganas and sanghas many times. During Buddhas period there were 116 republics or ganasanghas in India.

In Buddhist times, Gaṇass were assemblies of the Sanghas, early democratic republics known as Gaṇa-rājyas, literally "rule of the assembly", a term paralleling democracy (demo-kratia) or Soviet republic. The term was revived in Bhārata Gaṇarājya, the official name of the Republic of India.

References

  1. Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend (ISBN 0-500-51088-1) by Anna L. Dallapiccola
  2. 2.0 2.1 Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Adhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998
  3. महाभारत नारद-श्रीकृष्ण संवाद
  4. ठाकुर गंगासिंह: "जाट शब्द का उदय कब और कैसे", जाट-वीर स्मारिका, ग्वालियर, 1992, पृ. 6
  5. किशोरी लाल फौजदार: "महाभारत कालीन जाट वंश", जाट समाज, आगरा, जुलाई 1995, पृ 7
  6. ठाकुर गंगासिंह: "जाट शब्द का उदय कब और कैसे", जाट-वीर स्मारिका, ग्वालियर, 1992, पृ. 6
  7. प्राकृत व्याकरण द्वारा बेचारदास, पृ. 41
  8. ठाकुर गंगासिंह: "जाट शब्द का उदय कब और कैसे", जाट-वीर स्मारिका, ग्वालियर, 1992, पृ. 7
  9. http://www.jatland.com/forums/showthread.php?p=170859#post170859
  10. ठाकुर गंगासिंह: "जाट शब्द का उदय कब और कैसे", जाट-वीर स्मारिका, ग्वालियर, 1992, पृ. 7
  11. जाट इतिहास ठाकुर देशराज पृ 96
  12. किशोरी लाल फौजदार: "महाभारत कालीन जाट वंश", जाट समाज, आगरा, जुलाई 1995, पृ 7
  13. किशोरी लाल फौजदार: "महाभारत कालीन जाट वंश", जाट समाज, आगरा, जुलाई 1995, पृ 8
  14. किशोरी लाल फौजदार: "महाभारत कालीन जाट वंश", जाट समाज, आगरा, जुलाई 1995, पृ 8
  15. Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
  16. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus & Buddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  17. Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus and Bhuddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  18. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88.
  19. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats (1938, 1967)
  20. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats (1938, 1967)
  21. Thakur Deshraj : Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88.
  22. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88.
  23. name=" Thakur Deshraj : Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88.
  24. Thakur Deshraj : Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88.

Author: Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क

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