Mand

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Mand (मंड)[1] Mand (मांड)[2] Manda (मंडा)[3]/ Mande (मंडे)[4]/ Mander (मंडेर)[5] is gotra of Jats.[6] Mand is given in list of Jat clans by Prof. Dhillon. [7] Jats of Mand gotra live in Rajasthan. Mand (मंड) Jat clan is found in Afghanistan.[8] They are also known as Mahmand (Great Mand) in Afghanistan.[9]

Contents

History

H. W. Bellew writes that Mand is an ancient tribe, corresponding to the modern Wend of Austria, and seems to have made large settlements in Afghanistan at an early period. Clans and sections of Mand appear in many of the Afghan tribes. [10]

H. W. Bellew further writes that With the invading Geta, or Jata in Afghanistan, of whom a principal division was called Mand (the Goth, or Jute, and Wend, of Europe).[11]

Sir H. M. Elliot[12] writes that The infidels who inhabit Sind are called Budha and Mand. They reside in the tract between Túrán, Multán, and Mansúra, to the west of the Mihrán. They breed camels, which are sought after in Khurásán and elsewhere, for the purpose of having crosses from those of Bactria.

Description of Mand by Sir H. M. Elliot

Sir H. M. Elliot[13] writes Budha and Mand:

The city of Fámhal is on the borders of Hind, towards Saimúr, and the country between those two places belongs to Hind. The countries between Fámhal and Makrán, and Budha, and beyond it as far as the borders of Multán, are all dependencies of Sind. The infidels who inhabit Sind are called Budha and Mand. They reside in the tract between Túrán, Multán, and Mansúra, to the west of the Mihrán. They breed camels, which are sought after in Khurásán and elsewhere, for the purpose of having crosses from those of Bactria.

Tht city where the Budhites carry on their trade is Kandábíl, and they resemble men of the desert. They live in houses made of reeds and grass. The Mands dwell on the banks of the Mihrán, from the boundary of Multán to the sea, and in the desert between Makrán and Fámhal. They have many cattle sheds and pasturages, and form a large population.


Sir H. M. Elliot[14] writes: From hence (Debal) to Mámhal and Kambáya the country is nothing but a marine strand, without habitations and almost without water; consequently, it is impassable for travellers. Mámhal is situated between Sind and India. Upon the confines of the desert just mentioned there dwells a hardy race called Mand (Med). They graze their flocks to within a short distance of Mámhal. These people are numerous. They have many horses and camels, and they extend their incursions as far as Dur (Alor) upon the banks of the Mihrán, and sometimes they penetrate even as far as the frontiers of Makrán.


History of Meds and Mands by Elliot

Sir H. M. Elliot[15] writes about Meds and Mand:

[p.526]: They may either have been transplanted to the banks of the Indus when the Medo-Persian empire extended so far to the eastward; or they may have migrated thither at some indefinitely early period; or they may have sought an asylum there upon the occupation of their country by the Scythians; or during the persecution of the Magi, who constituted one of the six tribes of Medes, just as the Pársís did in Guzerát, at a later period and on similar occasion. It is worthy of remark that Ibn Haukal places the Budhas, or Budhyas, in the same category with the Mand, representing them as comprising several tribes to the west of the Indus. Now, the Budii were also one of the six Median tribes, and the juxtaposition of these two names in the province of Sind should not escape notice, for they also may have formed a body of similar emigrants.1

All arguments against the probability of such dispersions stand self-confuted, when we consider that Sindians were on the Euxine;2 and that, besides the familiar instances of Samaritans and Jews under the Assyrians, we read over and over again in Persian history, of the deportations of entire tribes, expressly termed αυασπάστοι by Herodotus.3 Thus we have the removal of Pæo-nians to Phrygia,4 of Barcæans from Africa to Bactria,5 of Milesians to Ampe, near the Tigris,6 of Egyptians to Susa,7 of Eretrians from Eubœa to Ardericca,8 and to Gordyene,9 of Antiochians to Mahúza,10 and others which it would be tedious to specify.

There is another curious coincidence worthy of notice. It is well known, that from below the junction of the Panjáb rivers down to Sihwán, the Indus takes the name of Sar, Siro, or Sira, and from below Haidarábád to the sea, that of Lár. It is more correct, but unusual, to add an intermediate division, called Wicholo, "central," representing the district lying immediately around Haidarábád, just


[p.527]: as on the Nile, the Wustání, "midlands," of the Arabs represented the tract between Upper and Lower Egypt.1 Sir A. Burnes says that Sir and Lár are two Bulúch words for "north" and "south." But the first is a Slavonic word also, which Gatterer and Niebuhr tell us is retained in Sauro-matæ, signifying "northern" Medes. There were also a province of Siracene, and a tribe of Siraceni, and other similar names north of the Caucasus.2 The Slavonic and Persian show a great similarity: thus, spaco signifies "a bitch" in both, and the same with the first syllable of Sauromatæ, or Sar-matæ.3 Hence Sar for the "northern" Indus, was more probably a remnant of Median than Bulúch emigration, though the Persian element could be accounted for, even on the latter supposition, seeing what a strong tincture the Bulúchí language retains of its original Íránian connection.4

Moreover, amongst the several tribes of Kshatriyas, who, having neglected to observe the holy customs, and to visit the Bráhmans, became so degenerate that they were expelled their caste, and regarded as "Dasyus," or robber tribes, Manu enumerates the "Pah-lavas." 5 "They are," continues the holy legislator, "Dasyus, whether they speak the language of Mlechchhas, or that of Áryas." Árya in Sanskrit, airya in Zend, means "noble," "sacred," "venerable;" hence a portion of Upper India is called Aryavarta, "the holy land," or "country of the Áryas." The Medes being also of the same original stock, were universally called Arii. The Áryas of Manu, therefore, are not necessarily, as some interpret, only degenerate natives, but may likewise have been Medes occupying


[p.528]: the valley of the Indus. It is probable that a still earlier, and more degenerate branch of the same family may be spoken of under the name of "Meda," in the code of Manu, "who must live without the town, and maintain themselves by slaying beasts of the forest." Allusion seems here to be made to the Mers of the Árávalí.1

These indications need not be enlarged on further in this place. Many will, of course, look upon them as fanciful and extravagant. Others, who feel so disposed, must pursue the investigation for themselves; for it is foreign to the main design of this Note, which has merely been to show that we have the Meds of the Arabs retaining their own name to this day, as well as probably under a slightly varied form, in and around the original seats of their occupation. That object has, it is hoped, been accomplished satisfactorily, and with regard to all extraneous matter, to use the words of Cicero, sequimur probabilia, nec ultrà quam id, quod verisimile occurrerit, pro-gredi possumus, et refellere sine pertinaciâ et refelli sine iracundiâ parati sumus.2

General Cunningham, in his Report for 1863-64, says:-"The Meds or Mands are almost certainly the representatives of the Man-drueni , who lived on the Mandrus river, to the south of the Oxus; and as their name is found in the Panjáb from the beginning of the Christian era downwards, and in none before that time, I conclude that they must have accompanied their neighbours, the Iatii, or Játs, on their forced migrations to Ariana and India. In the classical writers, the name is found as Medi and Mandueni, and in the Muhammadan writers, as Med and Mand." To show that these


[p.529]: two spellings are but natural modes of pronunciation of the same name, the General notices the various ways in which the name of a village on the Jhelam is spelt in different maps and books- Meriala, Mandiali, Mámriála, Mandyála, Mariála, and Merali.

"The earliest notice of the Meds is by Virgil, who calls the Jhelam Medus Hydaspes. The epithet is explained by the statement of Vibius Sequester, which makes the Hydaspes flow "past the city of Media." Now this is clearly the same place as Ptolemy's Euthy-media , or Sagala, which was either on or near the same river, and above Bukephala. Lastly, in the Peutingerian Tables, the country on the Hydaspes, for some distance below Alexandria Bucefalos, is called Media. Here then we have evidence that the Medi, or Meds, were in the Panjáb as early at least as the time of Virgil, in B.C. 40 to 30, and as we know that they were not one of the five tribes of Yuchi, or Tochari, whose names are given by the Chinese writers, it may be inferred, with tolerable certainty, that they must have belonged to the great horde of Sus, or Abars, who entered India about B.C. 126, and gave their name to the province of Indo-Scythia."

As the date of the Peutingerian Table is not later than A.D. 250, we have a break of upwards of four centuries before we reach the earliest notices of the Muhammadan writers. In these we find the Meds or Mands firmly established in Sindh, along with their ancient rivals the Játs, both of whom are said to be the descendants of Ham, the son of Noah. Rashíd-ud dín further states that they were in Sindh at the time of the Mahábhárata, but this is amply refuted by the native histories of the province, which omit both names from the list of aborigines of Sindh. Ibn Haukal describes the Mands of his time (about A.D. 977), as occupying the banks of the Indus from Multan to the sea, and to the desert between Makrán and Famhal. Masudi, who visited India in A.D. 915-16, calls them Mind, and states that they were a race of Sindh, who were at constant war with the people of Mansura. These notices are sufficient to show, that at some time previous to the first appearance of the Muhammadans, the Meds must have been forced to migrate from the Upper Panjáb to Sindh. There they have since remained, as there can be no doubt that they are now represented by the Mers of the Árávalí Range to the east of the Indus, of Káthiáwar to the south, and of Biluchistán to the west."


[p.530]:

"The name of Mer, or Mand, is still found in many parts of the Punjáb, as in Meror of the Bari and Rechna Doabs, in Mera, Mandra, and Mandanpur of the Sind Ságar Doab, and in Mandali, of Multan. Mera, which is ten miles to the west of Kalar Kahár, is certainly as old as the beginning of the Christian era, as it possesses an Arian Pali inscription, fixed in the side of a square well. The Mers would seem also to have occupied Lahore, as Abú Ríhán states that the capital of Loháwar was named Medhukur or Mandhukur.1 This place is said to have been on the east bank of the Ravi, and, if so, it was most probably Lahore itself, under a new name. There is an old place called Mandhyawála, on the west bank of the Ravi, and only twelve miles to the south-west of Lahore, which may possibly be the Mandhukur of Abu Ríhán. But the old mound of Mirathira, in the Gugera district, in which figures of Buddha and moulded bricks have been discovered by the railway cuttings, is a more likely place. This frequent occurrence of the name in so many parts of the Panjáb, and always attached to old places, as in Mera, Mandra, and Meriali, of the Sindh Ságar Doab, and in Med-hukur or Mandhukur, the capital of Loháwar, offers the strongest confirmation of the conclusion which I have already derived from the notices of the classical authors, that the Meds or Mers were once the dominant race in the Panjáb. The special location of the Medi on the Hydaspes by classical writers of the first century of the Christian era, the evident antiquity of Mera, Meriali, and other places which still bear the name, and the admitted foreign origin of their modern representatives, the Mers, all point to the same conclusion, that the Medi, or Meds, were the first Indo-Scythian conquerors of the Panjáb."

[* * * * "About this time (30 to 20 B.C.) the Meds may be supposed to have retired towards the south, until they finally established themselves in Upper Sindh, and gave their name to their new capital of Minnagara. As this could scarcely have been effected with the consent of the former occupants of Upper Sindh, whom I suppose to have been the Iatii, or Jats, I would refer to this period as the beginning of that continued rivalry, which the historian Rashídu-d dín attributes to the Jats and Meds.2 To this same cause I would also refer the statement of the Erythræan Periplus, that about A.D. 100, the rulers of Minnagara were rival Parthians, who were mutually expelling each other."

Mahmand (Great Mand)

H. W. Bellew[16] writes that The Mahmand — the "Great Mand" — whose composition we have above seen, is a great tribe, or people, and are most largely found in the coast districts north of Bombay. In Afghanistan they are now principally settled in the Peshawar district, and in the independent hill tract lying between the Kabul and Swat rivers ; but there is still a remnant of the tribe left in their ancient seats about Kandahar, in Mand-Hisar and the adjacent villages, where they represent the Mandruani of Pliny, and have given their name to the Helmand river. In Europe they are represented by the modem Wend of the Austrian dominion. Of the hill Mahmand, on the Peshawar border, a large division is called Pandiali, after the district they inhabit ; but the largest division is called Bai, or Baizi, and reckoned at sixteen thousand families. Their chief town is Goshta, and they are said to be an orderly and intelligent people, exhibiting many haracteristics of Indian affinity. The Bai we have seen appearing in the sections of several of the Mandanr and Yusuf clans, and shall find them presently in Kohat, just in the country formerly held by the Greeks, as a flourishing settlement and important strategical position between India and Baktria.

H W Bellew [17] It was in the first half of the fifteenth century, during the reign at Kabul of Mirza Ulugh Beg the grandson of Tymur, or Tamerlane that the retrograde emigration, previously mentioned, took place, when a large body of the Budhist Indians, converted to Islam, and the Gandarians, transformed into Afghans, retained to their native seat upon the Indus. The tribal traditions are to the effect that, about three or four hundred years ago, the Yusufzai, or Mandar, and Mahmand tribes of Afghans were settled on the Ghwara Margha and the head waters of the Tarnak and Arghasan rivers as neighbours and allies. Beyond them, lower down the course of these rivers, were the Tarin, another tribe of Afghans, who still occupy the same positions, and the valley of Peshin. Their lands were in the summer subject to droughts, and were besides in great part waste, owing to the exhaustion at that season of the tributary


[Page-64]: streams and the diminished volume of the rivers. The consequence was a contest for the better lands, and the Tarin tribes, being the stronger of the two parties, gradually encroached upon the "Fat Pastures" (Ghwara Margha) of the Mandar and Mahmand tribes, and finally dispossessed them of their lands.

Conquests of Mahamands

H W Bellew [18] tells us that Whilst the Yusufzai were carrying on the war on the plain country before defined, their kinsmen and allies, the Mahmand, were prosecuting their conquest with equal success in the hill country between the Kabul and Swat rivers in the the Gandhar. They crossed the former river at Dhaka, and in the first instance established themselves in the Goshta district. Here they were soon attacked by a people called Gandhari (Gandharai in the singular) from the lulls to the eastward. The contest thus begun proved fierce and prolonged, till at last the Mahmand, favoured by the operations of the Yusufzai in the plains on the Peshawar side, forced their way into the heart of the country to Gaudhar, its principal town. The name still exists as that of a considerable village or township, as well as of the district in which it stands, and the original inhabitants are still called Gandhdri in distinction to the Mahmand conquerors.

From this central seat of the natives the conquerors descended into the plain, in the angle between the junction of the Swat and Kabul rivers. Subsequently they crossed the latter river, and established themselves along the hill skirts up to the Bara river, in front of the Afridi hills. In their victorious war with the natives the Mahmand appear to have acted with such fierce barbarity that the majority fled the country, and, crossing the Kunar river, found refuge and escape, among an apparently kindred people, in the fastnesses of Kama and Katar (Kafiristan), and in the valleys opening from them upon the Kabul liver as far west as Tagao

Locations in Jaipur city

Ambabari,

Distribution in Punjab

Villages in Hoshiarpur district

Mand named village is in Dasua tahsil in Hoshiarpur district in Punjab

Villages in Jalandhar district

Mand named two villages in Jalandhar -II tahsil in Jalandhar district in Punjab, India.

Villages in Gurdaspur district

Mand is a village in tahsil Batala of Gurdaspur district in Indian Punjab.

See also

Manda

Reference

  1. B S Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), p.240, s.n.141
  2. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. म-60
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. म-60
  4. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. म-11
  5. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p.55,s.n. 1988
  6. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p. 276
  7. History and study of the Jats, Prof. B.S. Dhillon
  8. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, H. W. Bellew, p.18,76
  9. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan , p.86
  10. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, p.18
  11. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan , p.74
  12. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians/V. Ibn Haukal (Ashkálu-l Bilád),p.38
  13. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians/V. Ibn Haukal (Ashkálu-l Bilád),p.38
  14. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians/VIII. Al Idrísí,p.79
  15. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians/Note (C).- Ethnological,pp.526-531
  16. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan,H. W. Bellew, p.86
  17. The Races of Afghanistan/Chapter VI, p. 63-64
  18. The Races of Afghanistan/Chapter VII,p.69

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