Punjab

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Map of Punjab
Map of Punjab Upper Part
Map of Punjab Lower Part

Punjab (पंजाब) (Punjabi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Urdu: پنجاب‎,) is a state in northwest India. The total area of the state is 50,362 square kilometres (19,445 square miles). The population is 24,289,296 (2000). Punjab's capital is Chandigarh, which is administered separately as a Union Territory since it is also the capital of neighbouring Haryana. Other major cities of Punjab include Amritsar, Jalandhar, Ludhiana and Patiala. The state is the location of one of the world's first and oldest civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization, India's first civilization.

Origin of state

Punjab (India) historically forms a part of the larger Punjab region, which also includes the province of Punjab (Pakistan), the Indian states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh and Delhi and the Union Territory of Chandigarh. Indian Punjab was trifurcated in the year 1966 leading to the formation of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.

The word "Punjab" is a combination of the Persian words 'panj' (پنج) Five, and 'āb' (آب) Water, giving the literal meaning of the Land of the Five Rivers. The five rivers, after which Punjab is named are the Jhelum; the Chenab; the Ravi; the Beas and the Sutlej - all of them are the tributaries of the Indus river.

Agriculture is the largest occupation in Punjab.

Districts and Tahsils in in Punjab

Note - Click the links below to Districts and Tahsils to know more details

District Tahsils in district
Amritsar Ajnala, Amritsar -I, Amritsar- II, Baba Bakala, Khadur Sahib, Patti, Tarn Taran
Bathinda Bathinda, Rampura Phul, Talwandi Sabo
Faridkot Faridkot, Jaitu
Fatehgarh Sahib Amloh, Bassi Pathana, Fatehgarh Sahib, Khamanon
Firozpur Abohar, Fazilka, Firozepur, Jalalabad, Zira
Gurdaspur Batala, Dera Baba Nanak, Dhar Kalan, Gurdaspur, Pathankot
Hoshiarpur Dasua, Garhshankar, Hoshiarpur, Mukerian
Jalandhar Jalandhar - I, Jalandhar -II, Nakodar, Phillaur, Shahkot
Kapurthala Bhulath, Kapurthala, Phagwara, Sultanpur Lodhi
Ludhiana Jagraon, Khanna, Ludhiana East, Ludhiana West, Payal, Raikot, Samrala
Mansa Budhlada, Mansa, Sardulgarh
Moga Bhagha Purana, Moga, Nihal Singhwala
Muktsar Giddarbaha, Malout, Muktsar
Nawanshahr Balachaur, Nawanshahr
Patiala Dera Bassi, Nabha, Patiala, Rajpura, Samana
Rupnagar Anandpur Sahib, Kharar, Rupnagar, S.A.S.Nagar (Mohali)
Sangrur Barnala, Dhuri, Malerkotla, Moonak, Sangrur, Sunam

History

The Indian state of Punjab was created in 1947, when the Partition of India split the former Raj province of Punjab between India and Pakistan. The mostly Muslim western part of the province became Pakistan's Punjab Province; the mostly Sikh and Hindu eastern part became India's Punjab state. Many Hindus and Sikhs lived in the west, and many Muslims lived in the east, and so the partition saw many people displaced and much intercommunal violence. Several small Punjabi princely states, including Patiala, also became part of India. In 1950, two separate states were created; Punjab included of the former Raj province of Punjab, while the princely states were combined into a new state, the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). PEPSU consisted of the princely states of Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot and Kalsia. Himachal Pradesh was created as a union territory from several princely states and Kangra District. In 1956, PEPSU was merged into Punjab state, and several northern districts of Punjab in the Himalayas were added to Himachal Pradesh.

The capital of undivided Punjab province, Lahore, ended up in Pakistan after partition, so a new capital for Indian Punjab state was built at Chandigarh. On November 1, 1966, the mostly Hindu southeastern half of Punjab became a separate state, Haryana. Chandigarh was on the border between the two states, and became a separate union territory which serves as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh was due to transfer to Punjab alone in 1986, but the transfer has been delayed pending an agreement on which parts of the Hindi speaking areas of Abohar and Fazilka, currently part of Firozpur District of Punjab, that should be transferred to Haryana in exchange.

Jat history in Punjab

Ahmed Shah Abdali was aware of the rising Maratha power. He marched against them overran Aligarh and concentrated at Panipat. He appealed to all Muslim rulers to unite themselves against Marathas in the name of Islam. Marathas advanced with an Army of 60,000, to meet Abdali. The Marathas also sought help from all Hindu Rajas, but unfortunately none of them gave any favourable response except Jat Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur. In an operational conference held at Delhi Maharaja Suraj Mal gave a valuable advice to Marathas to avoid pitched battles, wage guerilla warfare to harass and exhaust Abdali's forces and then gives a final crushing blow. To implement this scheme, they would be required to leave their women and heavy baggage. Out of the battlefield across River Chambal. But the narrow-minded Marathas Chief Bhau took it as an affront to his strategic ability and rejected this proposal. Maharaja Suraj Mal returned with his force to Bharatpur. Both the armies remained encamped at Panipat for eight months 8 miles apart from each other. Both the forces shirked to take the initiative to attack. The soldiers of these armies, particularly Marathas were not getting adequate rations and pay. The rations for Abdali's forces were supplied from all the territories of Muslim Nawabs, whereas the Marathas were only getting the rations and fodder from Patiala. Abdali appreciated the source of supply through Patiala and he won over Sardar Alha Singh of Patiala by restoration of his lost territory. The Maharattas were compelled to attack, and were badly defeated. This resulted in the downfall of Maratha power. Abdali had also suffered colossal losses, which rendered him incapable of re-entering India; this battle was fought in l761. A rebellion flared up in the Punjab at that time giving another chance to the Sikh Jathedars to establish themselves an army, in the shape of their 12 Misals.


The Sikh Misals

Having broken off from Banda's subordination the chief Sardars conquered different regions of the Punjab with the help of their followers and established, twelve small kingdoms, which were known by the name of Misals. All these Misals were conquered later by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

  1. The Bhangi Misal - The leather of this Misal was Sardar Hari Singh Dhillon. The Bhangis derive their name from their addiction to 'Bhang'. The capital of this Misal was Amritsar, Poothvar, Jhung, Pindi ghep, Bheerakhusab, Rawalpindi, Hazara, Chinyiot, Gujral, Multan, Sharanpure, Jagadhri, Daodkhel, Dholia, Jidran, Dera Ismail Khan, Bhawalpur, Sunehra, Suryati, Beerwal and Karnala were included in his kingdom. Jhanda Singh Dhillon son of Hari Singh crossed River Attak and defeated the Pathans. The heavy gun of Ahmed Shah Abdali, which was in the possession of the Subedar of Lahore, was snatched away from the pathans and was brought to Amritsar. This was called 'Bhangian. The last chief of this Misal was Sardar Gujar Singh who was defeated by Ranjit Singh.
  2. The Kanhiya Misals - Kanhiya Singh was this leader of the Misal. Bhrewal was its stronghold. The territory of Jammu and Pathankot was under his rule. The annual income from this Misal was forty Lakhs. Kalanaur, Bhatala, Sohiyan Fathegarh, Ajnala, Pathankot, Gurdaspur were also the important possessions of the Kanhiyas. Ranjit Singh was married into this Misal.
  3. The Nakkal Misal - The leader of this Misal belonged to Nakka, Bhunewal, was its capital. Hira Singh Sidhu was the founder of this Misal. This Misal had a large army numbering sixty thousand Ranjit Singh was married into this Misal also. Ranjit Singh took this territory away from a careless chief and handed it over to his nephew Kharak Singh.
  4. The Dule Walia Misal - Tara Singh Gheba was the founder of this Misal. He was a far-sighted man He had predicted that the young man (Ranjit Singh) would disembody all the Misals. In view of this he began to give charity to the poor and needy persons. He had an army of 6,000 soldiers and annual income from the Misal was twenty Lakh Rupees. The important possessions of this Misal were Kheri Khamane, Sialiba, Adhran, Rupar, Dharam kot, Ghanghorana, Bundewal, Beccani, Siahkot, Nakodar. The Chief of this Misal plundered the territories across River Jamuna. They took many guns from the Red Fort of Delhi. This Misal was also annexed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
  5. The Kaporian Misal - The leader of this Misal was Kapora Singh. He hailed from village Sarki. The founder of this Misal was Sham Singh. The annual income of this Misal was forty Lakhs and the standing army was thirteen thousand. Sardar Sham Singh invaded Nadir Shah and occupied the territory across River Sutlej. He defeated the Nawabs of Jalalabad and Loharu. He also fought against George Thompson and having crossed the River Jamuna. invaded and plundered Koil,( Aligarh) Hathras. Ghaziabad, Rampur, Bareilly, KashGanj, and Chandosi etc. Sardar Bhaghail Singh got his territory back from Raja Amar Singh of Patiala after a long and tough fight. He received fifty thousand Rupees cash from Akbar II and received the royal word, to get the Gurudwara Sis Ganj completed. Bhagail Singh remained peacefully in Haryana till his last days with Kaithal as his Capital.
  6. The Kalsa Misal - This Misal was a branch of Larsian. The founder of this Misal was Sardar Gurbax Singh of Ralsian Village. His son was Jodh Singh.
  7. The Faizal Purian Misal - The leader of this Misal was Chaudhary Daleep Singh who was a true follower of the Panth, The annual income of this Misal was five Lakh. Daleep Singh, himself received Pahul from Guru Gobind Singh. His son Kapura Singh converted all the Jats of these territories into Sikhs. His son Budh Singh constructed the sacred tank of Taran Taran at a cost of Rupees one lakh.
  8. The RamGarhia Misal - The leader and founder of this Misals was Jassa Singh Tarkhan, Ramgarhia, This misal was as big as the Bhangi Misal. Sardar Jassa Singh was very vain and haughty. Maharaja Ranjit Singh put him into prison but later pardoned him and gave him a high rank in his army.
  9. The Nishanian Wali Misal - The leaders of this Misal were brave and fearless. During the invasions they led the army as an advanced guard with the insignia of the Panth. Their strong hold was Ambala. They got Lakhs of Rupees annually as the share of the Government. Singhwala, Khanna, Doraha, Sandm, Zika, Ambala, Jhoran, Shahabad and Lashkari Khan were their Parganas.
  10. The Shahidan Waif Misal - Eight chiefs of this misal were killed one after an-other while serving the Panth. They helped Guru Gobind Singh and Banda Bahadur whole heartedly against Nawab Jehan Khan. Deep Singh1 Sindhu, Gurubax Singh, Suddha Singh, Buddha Singh, Sher Singh, Durga Singh, Basant Singh and Hira Singh were the chief who laid their lives for the Panth.
  11. The Ahluwalia Misal - The leader of this Misal was Sandhu Singh, a Jat of the 'Kalal' or distiller caste. Butthe true founder was Jassa Singh Ahluwalia so thisMisal was named after him as Ahluwalian Misal. This hisal lost its existence after the war of the Sikhs with the British.
  12. The Sukar Chakian Misal - Begha Mal Bhathi belonged to Suker Chak village. He was the founder of this Misal. Afterwards, Budha Singh, Charat Singh, Sardar Maha Singh held the reins of 'Sardari'. The most powerful of the Sukar Chakia Misal was Ranjit Singh son of Maha Singh. He conquered all the Misals and founded the Sikh State with Lahore as its Capital. He was called the 'Lion of the Punjab'. Budha Singh was the first Sikh who receieved Pahul from Guru Gobind Singh. Donda Singh was the second brother of Charat Singh, whose heirs were known as Sindhan Wala.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Maharaja Ranjit Singh ascended the throne at the age of 11 years and his mother Raj Kaur looked after the administration during his minority. His father-in-Law Jai Singh who belonged to Kanhiyan Misal had also died. His Mother-in-law Sada Kaur proved to be a lady of great courage and sagacity. She used to put on a man's robe and bear arms and became the leader of the troops of both the misa's. Gradually they began to annex the territory belonging to other Misals and by the time Ranjit Singh grew up his territory had extended considerably.

In 1794 Shah Zaman, grand son of Ahmad Shah Durani attacked and occupied Lahore. He returned only because of the fear of an invasion by the Iranians and Lahore was reoccupied by the Sardars of the Bhangian Misal. Shah Zaman had left behind 12 heavy guns because of floods in the river Jhelum.

Ranjit Singh succeeded in taking 8 guns out of the river and sent them to Shah Zaman in Kabul. For this he was given the title of Raja and also the permission to occupy Lahore. First of all, Ranjit Singh decided to subjugate two big Misals of Bhangian and Ramgarhian. Thereafter he succeeded in defeating all the other Misals and various Nawabs.

The British who in by then become masters of the greater part of India except the Punjab, were very farsighted rulers. They immediately made friendship with Ranjit Singh and thus prevented his expansion towards the East. This agreement was made on 25th April 1809. Thereafter, Raja Ranjit Singh spent all his life in fighting against the Pathans and making them acknowledge his supremacy. The Pathan women used to frighten their children by the name of Hari Singh Nalwa.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh was devotee of Sadhus. He died June 1839. His army included Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs.

In administration he did not like any interference by the Jats. With this policy, he committed a big mistake. He appointed three Dogra Sardars Dhyan Singh, Gulab Singh and Suchet Singh, belonging to the same family as the sole administrators both in civil and military affairs. After the death of Ranjit Singh they were responsible for civil war amongst the Sikhs, but ultimately the Dogra Sardars carved out the kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir for themselves.

After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh his eldest son Kanwar Kharak Singh ascended the throne. He was not a capable man, but he did not permit his minister Dhyan Singh to do what he liked. At the age of 28, Kharak Singh was declared insance and then got murdered. It is said that he was murdered by Dhyan Singh. When they returned after cremating the body of Raja Kharak Singh, a door fell mysteriously on the head of Naunihal Singh and he died instantaneously.

Thereafter, Dhayan Singh suceeded in convincing the Rani of Kharak Singk that the throne should not go to Sher Singh. It was announced that the Rani of Naunihal Singh was pregnant and Sher Singh's son Pratap Singh should not be considered the claimant to the throne. It was also decided that Sher Singh should retire to his jagir in Patiala. He accepted it gladly.


In the absence of Sher Singh, Sardar Saindha Walia and Dhyan Singh started conspiracies with the help of the British. Thereupon, Sher Singh decided to seize the throne forcibly. Rani Zidhan was killed by a maid servant. A year after this event Sardar Lahana Singh and Ajit Singh Sidhanwalia,who were cousins of Ranjit Sineh, killed Sher Singh and Pratap Singh and placed Daleep Singh, the youngest son of Ranjit Singh, on the throne and put a Tilak on his forehead with the blood of their fingers. Daleep Singh's mother Rani Chand Kaur, became his guardian and Hira Singh, son of Dhyan Singh, became the minister. But he was killed by the Sikh Sardars. On hearing this news, an elder brother of Daleep Singh, named Pishora Singh declared himself an independent ruler in the fort of Attock. Mantri Jawahar Singh, grandson, of last Mantri Dhyan Singh, sent Sardar Chattur Singh Attariwala, and Tiwana Sardar Fateh Khan Motiyanwala against Pishora Singh but later they joined with Pishora Singh promising him the throne of Lahore.

One night, however, they throttled him to death in his camp. Later on, these two Sardars were also killed by other Sikhs.

Ultimately there was a revolt in the army of Daleep Singh and the soldiers demanded higher wages. His clever mother, Chand Kaur, thought it best to bring the army into conflict with the British and provoked them to invade British territory across the river Satluj and thus gain higher wages. At the same time she sent a letter to British Governor informing him how the rebel troops were marching against the British and warned them that if after conquering those forces they would try to occupy her territory across the river Satluj she would not be responsible for the consequences. In December 1845 there was a severe battle at Mudki between the British and the Sikh troops, in which the British came out victorious.


The next battle at Firoz Shah was a draw. In 1846, Sir Henry Smith defeated the Sikhs at Aliwal-In 1847, there was another battle at Sobraon in which the Sikhs lost 8,000 soldiers and the British 2500. The Sikhs had to give away their territory between the rivers Bias and Satluj, as war indemnity to the British.

Jammu and Kashmir was taken over by Gulab Singh in return for one crore of Rupees.

Thereafter, MoolRaj, Governor of Multan killed two British Officers. Lord Lake marched against him with 74,000 troops and 40 guns. The Sikhs were supported by Mohammed Kabuli. In this war 24th Regiment of the British Army suffered heavy losses. Ultimately in the battle of Gujrat the Sikhs were defeated and the British occupied the Sikh kingdom. Maharaja Daleep Singh was given a handsome pension and sent away to England, where he lived for the rest of his life.

States and principalities of Jats

Phulkian dynasty

The gotra of this royal dynasty is Siddhu. Sidhu Brar belonged to the Bhati gotra. According to their history, their ancestors, having been ousted from Ghazni, had come to India in Yudhishthiri Samvat 3008. The leader was either Bhattrak, the founder of Bhati gotra, or his father. Bhatinda and Bhatner( Bhatnair) were named after him. Among the successors of Sidhu, Phool was a lucky man and his decendants founded various states like Nabha, Patiala, Jind, Bhadaur, Bhalaur, Nodhgarh, Faridkot, Malodh etc.

Patiala State

Patiala was one of the four big states of India. When the leaders of the Sikh Panth, taking advantage of the weakness of the Mughul dynasty, became determined to extend their power, one of their leaders was Alha Singh, son of Chaudhary Rama, who fought against Ahmed Shah Abdali. 20,000 of his followers were killed. To earn his friendship Ahmed Shah returned his territory. After Abdali's return to Kabul, Allha Singh annexed the territory of Sirhind also his son, Sardar Amer Singh, got the title of Raja from Kabul.

Raja Karan Singh of this dynasty helped the British to suppress the 1857 uprising. As a reward states Kaithal and Baghat and several Parganas belonging to Nawab of Jhajjar were given to him.

Maharaja Bhupinder Singh, seventh in the dynasty occupied a high place among other princes. He brought about improvement in all spheres. The Patiala forces secured high position in games under his leadership.

After his death, his son Yadvendra Singh succeeded to the throne and proved to be a very good ruler and administrator. During his rule the state merged in the Indian Union.

Jind State

Phool's grandson, Sardar Gajpal Singh, was the founder of this state. He married his daughter who was the mother of Ranjit Singh to Sardar Mahan Singh Sukharchakiya. In 1772 AD Emperor Shah Alam gave him the title of Raja. In 1773 he was victorious in the battle of Sirhind and annexed certain parts of Sirhind. Later he also seized Rohtak and Dadri. As a reward of helping the British in the 1857 uprisisng, Lord Lake granted him various parganas of Gohana.

Nabha State

Sardar Hamir Singh, in the fourth generation of Phool, obtained a Jagir in Kapurgarh and Sangrur belonging to Chaudhary Taloka. After the conquest of Sirhind the pargana of Molodhgarh came into his share. The Annual income of this state was Rs. 1,30,000.

Faridkot State

Faridkot state came into existence in the 12th generation of Phool and was founded, in 1600 AD by Kapur Singh. His grandson, Amir Singh, extended the territories. He fought two wars against Ranjit Singh. The annual income of this state was Rs 3,54,800.

Randhawa Chiefs of Talwandi

In 1640 AD Chaudhary Randhir Chand founded the village Bhandahi on arrival from Rajputana( Rajastana) and his grandson Targha founded Talwandi. In the fourth dynasty Pradhan Chand's son Santosh Singh adopted Sikhism. Working in the Jattha of Sardar Jai Singh he obtained Banga Talwandi as a Jagir.

Randhawa Chief of Khundha

The ancestor of this dynasty, Randhawa, was very famous in Rajasthan. His son Kajal Singh, became the leader of a Jattha in Patiala and worked with enthusiasm and occupied the Parganas of Kowshera, Jafarwal, Khurha and Shahpur.

Mann chiefs of Bhaga

Chaudhary Amar Singh Mann, resident of Bhaga joined the Kanhaiya Misal and annexed the Pargana, of Sokalgarh, Sujanpur Dharmakot and Dharampur.

Mann chiefs of Mughal Chak

Chaudhary Ladha Mann of this dynasty, came from Sidipur Lowa in Rohtak district and settled down in Gujaranwala. He founded a small village named Maina. Thereafter, he became the Chaudhary of 22 villages. Sardar Mahatab Singh of this dynasty occupied 82 villages due to the weakness of the Mughal Emperor. He was a member of the Bhangi Misal.

Siddhu chief of Saranwali

The leader of this dynasty, Hasan, fought fierce battles against the people of Kariya community. Later, they settled down in Gurdaspur and his widow daughter was married to Ranjit Singh's elder son Kharak Singh. The annual income of this Jagir was Rs. 36,000.

Sindhu chiefs of Badala

Sardar Mochal Singh, leader of this dynasty, founded the village of Mochal near Uska. After several generations Chaudhary Durga Das was appointed Chaudhary on behalf of the Moghuls. Later Sardar Mahtab Singh occupied 82 villages due to the weakness of the Mughal emperor. He was a member of Bhangi Misal.

Chiefs of Kalas Bazwa

Chaudhary Manga was a famous leader of this dynasty. Both Sikh and Muslim descendants of Chaudhary Manga worship at his fortress. His son, Kalas, obtained a Jagir. Dewan Singh son of Jai Chand Jogi, in this dynasty adopted Sikhism and was an important leader of the Bhangian Misal. Sardar Hari Singh Dhillon adopted him as his Dharmputra. In 1816 AD the daughter of Sardar Joth Sngh was married to Ranjit Singh, son of Kharak Singh.

See also

References


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