- This article is for Alexandria (Egypt). For other cities of this name see - Alexandria (disambiguation)
Alexandria (Arabic: الإسكندرية Hindi: सिकन्दरिया) is a city in Egypt.
It is along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Foundation of Alexandria
Arrian  writes that ....Alexander now led his army into Egypt, whither he had set out at first (from Tyre); and marching from Gaza, on the seventh day he arrived at Pelusium in Egypt. His fleet coasted along also from Phoenicia to Egypt; and he found the ships already moored at Pelusium.2 When Mazaces the Persian, whom Darius had appointed viceroy of Egypt, ascertained how the battle at Issus had resulted, that Darius had fled in disgraceful flight, and that Phoenicia, Syria, and most of Arabia were already in Alexander’s possession, as he had no Persian force with which he could offer resistance, he admitted Alexander into the cities and the country in a friendly way.4 Alexander introduced a garrison into Pelusium, and ordering the men in the ships to sail up the river as far as the city of Memphis,1 he went in person towards Heliopolis,2 having the river Nile on his right. He reached that city through the desert, after getting possession of all the places on the march through the voluntary surrender of the inhabitants. Thence he crossed the stream and came to Memphis where he offered sacrifice to Apis and the other gods, and celebrated a gymnastic and musical contest, the most distinguished artists in these matters coming to him from Greece. From Memphis he sailed down the river towards the sea, embarking the shield-bearing guards, the archers, the Agrianians, and of the cavalry the royal squadron of the Companions. Coming to Canobus,1 he sailed round the Marian lake,2 and disembarked where now is situated the city of Alexandria, which takes its name from him. The position seemed to him a very fine one in which to found a city, and he thought that it would become a prosperous one.3 Therefore he was seized by an ardent desire to undertake the enterprise, and he marked out the boundaries for the city himself, pointing out the place where the market place was to be constructed, where the temples were to be built, stating how many there were to be, and to what Grecian gods they were to be dedicated, and specially marking a spot for a temple to the Egyptian Isis.4 He also pointed out where the wall was to be carried round it. In regard to these matters he offered sacrifice, and the victims appeared favourable.
Alexandria became an important centre of the Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Hellenistic and Roman & Byzantine Egypt for almost one thousand years until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (later absorbed into Cairo).
Hellenistic Alexandria was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; its Great Library (the largest in the ancient world; now replaced by a modern one); and the Necropolis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages.
Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhacotis existed there, and during the Ptolemaic dynasty.
Mahavansa/Chapter 29 (The Obtaining of the Wherewithal to build the Great Thupa) tells that ....WHEN the wherewithal to build was thus brought together he began the work of the Great Thupa on the full-moon day of the month Vesakha, when the Visakha-constellation had appeared.....When the king, glad at heart, had thus had preparation made upon the spot where the Great Thüpa was to be built, he arranged, on the fourteenth day of the bright half of the month Asalha, an assembly of the brotherhood of the bhikkhus.....
Mahavansa/Chapter 29 tells.... From various (foreign) countries also did many bhikkhus come hither; what need to speak of the coming of the brotherhood living here upon the island?
- With eighty thousand bhikkhus from the region of Rajagaha came the thera Indagutta, the head of a great school.
- From Isipatana came the great thera Dhammasena with twelve thousand bhikkhus to the place of the cetiya.
- With sixty thousand bhikkhus came hither the great thera Piyadassi from the Jetarama-vihara.
- From the Mahavana (monastery) in Vesali came the thera Urubuddharakkhita with eighteen thousand bhikkhus.
- From the Ghositarama in Kosambi came the thera Urudbammarakkhita with thirty `thousand bhikkhus.
- From the Dakkhinagiri in Ujjeni came the thera Urusamgharakkhita with forty thousand ascetics.
- With a hundred and sixty thousand bhikkhus came the thera named Mittinna from the Asokarama in Pupphapura.
- From the Kasmira country came the thera Utinna bringing with him two hundred and eighty thousand bhikkhus.
- The wise Mahadeva came from Pallavabhogga with four hundred and sixty thousand bhikkhus, and
- From Alasanda the city of the Yonas came the thera Yonamahadhammarakkhita with thirty thousand bhikkhus.
- From his dwelling by the road through the Vinjha forest mountains, came the thera Uttara with sixty thousand bhikkhus.
- The great thera Cittagutta came hither from the Bodhimanda-vihara with thirty thousand bhikkhus.
- The great thera Candagutta came hither from the Vanavasa country with eighty thousand ascetics.
- The great thera Suriyagutta came from the great Kelasa-vihara with ninety-six thousand bhikkhus.
Alexander Cunningham has identified Alasanda and Kelasa with mentioned in above paragraph. .... He writes that The passage of Pliny describing the position of Alexandria is prefaced by a few words regarding the town of Cartana, which, while they assign it a similar position at the foot of the Caucasus, seem also to refer it to the immediate vicinity of Alexander's city. .....If I am right in identifying Begram with the Kiu-lu-sa-pang of the Chinese pilgrim, the true name of the place must have been Karsana, as written by Ptolemy, and not Cartana, as noted by Pliny. The same form of the name is also found on a rare coin of Eukratides, with the legend Karisiye nagara, or " city of Karisi" which I have identified with the Kalasi of the Buddhist chronicles, as the birthplace of Raja Milindu. In another passage of the same chronicle,  Milindu is said to have been born at Alasanda, or Alexandria, the capital of the Yona, or Greek country. Kalasi must therefore have been either Alexandria itself or some place close to it.
- Asiagh: Ram Swarup Joon writes that Pliny has written that during a conflict between KhanKesh, a province in Turkey, and Babylonia, they sent for the Sindhu Jats from Sindh. These soldiers wore cotton uniforms and were experts in naval warfare. On return from Turkey they settled down in Syria. They belonged to Hasti dynasty. Asiagh Jats ruled Alexandria in Egypt. Their title was Asii
- Asii - The country Assyria or Syria derives its name from Asiaghs. The Asiagh people were inhabitants of Asirgarh. One group of them migrated to Europe. Another group moved to Jangladesh. The origin of word Asiagh is from Sanskrit word "Asii" meaning sword. According to Kautilya the people who depended on "Asii" (sword) for their living were known as Asiagh.
- Sindhu - According to Ram Swarup Joon, Pliny writes that during a conflict between KhanKesh, a province in Turkey, and Babylonia, they sent for the Sindhu Jats from Sindh. These soldiers wore cotton uniforms and were experts in naval warfare. On return from Turkey they settled down in Syria. They belonged to Hasti dynasty. Asiagh Jats ruled Alexandria in Egypt. Their title was Asii.
- Yona (Jat clan Joon): There is mention of Alasanda the city of the Yonas, in the Mahavansa/Chapter 29. Alexander Cunningham has identified Alasanda with Alexandria.
- Rajendra Singh Lunayach (born 1955) is an Indian Industrialist in Alexandria ranking sixth wealthiest person in Virginia along with his wife Neera Singh in 2006. Their Net worth being $1 billion. The couple, pioneers in the wireless industry, turned their investments into a billion-dollar fortune.
- Arrian Anabasis Book/5a
- Arrian Anabasis Book/3a,Ch.3.1
- The Ancient Geography of India/Northern India,pp. 26-30
- Milindu-prasna, quoted by Hardy, in ' Manual of Buddhism,' pp. 440, 516.
- Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter III, p.40-41
- History of the Jats/Chapter III,p.41
- The Ancient Geography of India/Northern India,pp. 26-30