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Asii, also written Asioi,Asiagh and probably also Asiani, were one of the nomadic tribes, mentioned in Roman and Greek accounts who are said to have been responsible for the downfall of the state of Bactria circa 140 BCE. These tribes are usually identified as Scythian or Saka peoples.

Mention by Panini

Ishika (इशीका) is a term mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [1]

Jat Gotras Namesake

Acina or ššina was one of the last kings of the kingdom of Elam, and ruled briefly in 522 BCE. He was toppled by Darius I and later depicted in chains in the Behistun Inscription.[2]

Asiagh in India are Asii

In India they are known as Asiagh people.They are a part of Jat race and greater scythian race.They inhabit north and north-west India.

Thakur Deshraj has mentioned in his book on History of Jats “Jat Itihas” (Hindi) (1934) that the country Assyria gets its name from Asiagh gotra Jats. The origin of word Asiagh is from Sanskrit word ‘Asii’ meaning (sword). According to Kautilya the people who depended on ‘Asii’ (sword) for their living were known as Asiagh. The Asiaghs moved from Asirgarh in Malwa to Europe. Those who settled in Jangladesh were called Asiagh and those who moved to Scandinavia were known as Asii. Jats entered Scandinavia around 500 BCE and their leader was Odin. James Tod considers Odin to be derived from Buddha or Bodan. The Asii Jats founded Jutland as their homeland in Scandinavia. The religious book of Scandinavia ‘Edda’ mentions that the ancient inhabitants of Scandinavia were Jats or Jits who were Aryans known as Asi people and came to this land from Asirgarh.

Asirgarh is a site of an ancient fort situated in Burhanpur district of Malwa region in Madhya Pradesh, India. Thakur Deshraj further quotes Scandinavian writer Mr Count Johnsturn who says that Scandinavians came from India. According to James Tod Scandinavia is derived from Sanskrit word ‘Skandhnabh’.

The above view is further supported by Mangal Sen Jindal (1992): History of Origin of Some Clans in India (with special Reference to Jats), (ISBN 81-85431-08-6) that the people of Scandinavia were Jats and they founded Jutland as their homeland

The texts relating to them are very brief and there is little definitely known about them. Many theories have been proposed by historians and other scholars as to their origins, relationships, language, culture, etc., but so far no consensus has emerged.

Ram Swarup Joon[3] writes that Pliny has written that during a conflict between KhanKesh, a province in Turkey, and Babylonia, they sent for the Sindhu Jats from Sindh. These soldiers wore cotton uniforms and were experts in naval warfare. On return from Turkey they settled down in Syria. They belonged to Hasti dynasty. Asiagh Jats ruled Alexandria in Egypt. Their title was Asii

Asela In Mahavansa

Mahavansa/Chapter 21 tells...Two Damilas, Sena and Guttika, sons of a freighter who brought horses hither,' conquered the king Süratissa, at the head of a great army and reigned both (together) twenty-two years justly. But when Asela had overpowered them, the son of Mutasiva, the ninth among his brothers, born of the same mother, he ruled for ten years onward from that time in Anuradhapura.

A Damila of noble descent, named Elara, who came hither from the Chola-country to seize on the kingdom, ruled when he had overpowered king Asela, forty-four years, with even justice toward friend and foe, on occasions of disputes at law.

Getic Asii

According to James Todd [4] The Getic Asii carried this veneration for the steed, symbolic of their chief deity the sun, into Scandinavia : equally so of all the early German tribes, the Su, Suevi, Chatti, Sucimbri, Getae, in the forests of Germany, and on the banks of the Elbe and Weser. The milk-white steed was supposed to be the organ of the gods, from whose neighing they calculated future events ; notions possessed also by the Aswa, sons of Budha (Woden), on the Yamuna and Ganges, when the rocks of Scandinavia and the shores of the Baltic were yet untrod by man. It was this omen which gave Darius Hystaspes 1 (hinsna, ' to neigh,' aspa, ' a horse ') a crown. The bard Chand makes it the omen of death to his principal heroes. The steed of the Scandinavian god of battle was kept in the temple of Upsala, and always " found foaming and sweating after battle." " Money," says Tacitus, " was only acceptable to the German when bearing the effigies of the horse." 2

In the Edda we are informed that the Getae, or Jats, who entered Scandinavia, were termed Asi, and their first settlement As-gard. 3

Pinkerton rejects the authority of the Edda and follows Torfaeus, who " from Icelandic chronicles and genealogies concludes Odin to have come into Scandinavia in the time of Darius Hystaspes, five hundred years before Christ."

1 [Hystaspes is from old Persian, Vishtaspa, ' possessor of horses.' The author derives it from a modern Hindi word hinsna, ' to neigh,' possibly from recollection of the story in Herodotus iii. 85.]
2 [He possibly refers to the statement (Germania, v.), that their coins bore the impress of a two-horse chariot.]
3 Asirgarh, ' fortress of the Asi ' [IGI, vi. 12].

[p.78]: This is the period of the last Buddha, or Mahavira, whose era is four hundred and seventy-seven years before Vikrama, or five hundred and thirty-three before Christ.

The successor of Odin in Scandinavia was Gotama ; and Gautama was the successor of the last Buddha, Mahavira, 1 who as Gotama, or Gaudama, is still adored from the Straits of Malacca to the Caspian Sea.

" Other antiquaries," says Pinkerton, " assert another Odin, who was put as the supreme deity one thousand years before Christ" [65].

Mallet admits two Odins, but Mr. Pinkerton wishes he had abided by that of Torfaeus, in 500 A.C.

It is a singular fact that the periods of both the Scandinavian Odins should assimilate with the twenty-second Buddha [Jain Tirthakara], Neminath, and twenty-fourth and last, Mahavira ; the first the contemporary of Krishna, about 1000 or 1100 years, the last 533, before Christ. The Asii, Getae, etc., of Europe worshipped Mercury as founder of their line, as did the Eastern Asi, Takshaks, and Getae. The Chinese and Tatar historians also say Buddha, or Fo, appeared 1027 years before Christ. " The Yuchi, established in Bactria and along the Jihun, eventually bore the name of Jeta or Yetan, 2 that is to say, Getae. Their empire subsisted a long time in this part of Asia, and extended even into India. These are the people whom the Greeks knew under the name of Indo-Scythes. Their manners are the same as those of the Turks . 3 Revolutions occurred in the very heart of the East, whose consequences were felt afar." 4

The period allowed by all these authorities for the migration of these Scythic hordes into Europe is also that for their entry into India.

The sixth century is that calculated for the Takshak from Sheshnagdesa ; and it is on this event and reign that the Puranas declare, that from this period " no prince of pure blood would be

1 The great [maha) warrior [vir). [Buddha lived 567-487 b.c. : Mahavira, founder of Jainism, died about 527 B.C.]
2 Yeutland was the name given to the whole Cimbric Chersonese, or Jutland (Pinkerton, On the Goths).
3 Turk, Turushka, Takshak, or ' Taunak, fils de Tnrc ' (Abulghazi, History of the Tatars).
4 Histoire des Huns, vol. i. p. 42.

[p. 79]:

found, but that the Sudra, the Turushka, and the Yavan, would prevail."

All these Indo-Scythic invaders held the religion of Buddha : and hence the conformity of manners and mythology between the Scandinavian or German tribes and the Rajputs increased by comparing their martial poetry.

Similarity of religious manners affords stronger proofs of original identity than language. Language is eternally changing — so are manners ; but an exploded custom or rite traced to its source, and maintained in opposition to climate, is a testimony not to be rejected.

Strabo, Trogus and Justin

The three main surviving classical sources are those of Strabo, Trogus and Justin. Both Trogus' Historiae Philippicae (as preserved in Justin) and Strabo's Geography exist in a number of ancient manuscripts containing significant textual variations which have led to widely varying translations and interpretations.

Trogus (Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus; fl. 1st century BCE) wrote his Historiae Philppicae in Latin. Unfortunately, only his 'Prologues,' which are rather like chapter headings, have survived intact. He mentions only three tribes involved in the conquest of Bactria: the Asiani, Sacaraucae and the Tochari, of whom the Sacaraucae were said to have been destroyed. The Asiani are reported as becoming, at some point, rulers over the Tochari, though this text is sometimes translated as the “Asian kings of the Tochari.”

Marcus Junianus Justinus, (usually referred to simply as Justin in English), a late 2nd or 3rd century Roman historian, wrote an "epitome" or condensation of Trogus' history. The last datable event recorded by Justin is the recovery of the Roman standards captured by the Parthians in 20 BCE, although Trogus’ original history may have dealt with events into the first decade of the 1st century CE.

Strabo (Στράβων; 64/63 BCE – 24 CE), who wrote in Greek (and completed his Geography in 23 CE), around the time of Trogus. He mentions what appears to be four tribes (though, in reality, may be only three - see below): the Asioi (commonly accepted as the equivalent of the Latin Asii), the Pasianoi, the Tacharoi (or Tokharoi) and the Sakaraukai.

Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus' evidence

Trogus' accounts are very brief:

Trogus’ Prologue, Book 41:

"In Bactrianis autem rebus ut a Diodoto rege constitutum imperium est: deinde quo regnante Scythicae gentes, Saraucae et Asiani, Bactra occupavere et Sogdianos." From Trogus' Prologue, Book 41[5]
"The report on the history of the Baktrians first speaks of king Diodotos by whom this realm was founded. Next, under which Scythian tribes' rulers – namely the Saraucae and the Asiani – Baktra and the country of the Sogdians was occupied. Next, under which [Greek] ruler Scythian tribes, namely the Saraucae and Asiani, occupied Bactria and the land of the Sogdians." English version of Seel's German translation.[6]

Trogus' Prologue, Book 42:

"Additae his res Scythicae. Reges Tocharorum Asiani interitusque Saraucarum."

This passage has been translated into English as:

"There is also a section on Scythian history, then one on the Asian kings of the Tochari, and on the demise of the Saraucae." [7]

It appears that the Tochari and Sacaraucae of Trogus must be identical with the Tokharoi and Sakaraukai (sometimes wrongly given as 'Sakarauloi' – as in the Loeb edition) of Strabo.

Strabo’s evidence

The earliest known Greek text of the key passage from Strabo's Geography 11.8.2 is that of the 'Vatican palimpsest' (Vat. Gr. 2306) dated to the 5th century. It reads


This translates literally as:

"But the best known of the nomads are those who took away Baktrianē from the Greeks; the Asioi and the Pasianoi, and the Tacharoi and the Sakaraukai, who originally came from the other side of the Iaxartou [River] that adjoins that of the Sakai and the Sogdoanou and was occupied by the Saki."

As early as the 18th century, J. F. Vaillant (Arsacidarum imperium, II, Paris 1725, p. 61) proposed that the phrase usually given as ΑΣΙΟI KAI ΠΑΣΙΑΝΟI . . . (= [The] Asioi and Pasianoi . . .), in Strabo 10.8.2, should be amended to ACΙΟΙ H ACΙΑΝΟ (= [The] Asioi or Asianoi . . .).

Vaillant had correctly noticed that Trogus (Prologues XLI) mentions the "Scythian" people of the Asiani, who must surely be identified with the Asioi of Strabo. This is definitely the reading of the earliest surviving copy of Strabo’s Geography, the "Vatican palimpsest" - see above.

"The history of this manuscript has only been understood since the studies consecrated to W. Aly. Copied in Byzantium about the end of the 5th century . . . .
All the later manuscripts with Π and all the direct quotations of medieval times derive from a single prototype of the "Geography" carrying the title of Γεωγραφικά." [8]

The 'Vatican palimpsest' was completely written in capital italic Greek letters arranged in three rows with no spaces between the words.

Pliny the Elder's evidence

Pliny the Elder (23 CE–25 August 79 CE) wrote his famous Naturalis Historia makes only a very brief, though tantalising, mention of a people called the 'Asini':

". . . and the Asini, a people who dwell in three cities, their capital being Bucephala, which was founded around the tomb of the horse belonging to king Alexander, which bore that name. Above these peoples there are some mountain tribes, which lie at the foot of Caucasus, the Soseadæ and the Sondræ, and, after passing the Indus and going down its stream, the Samarabriæ, the Sambraceni, the Bisambritæ, the Orsi, the Anixeni, and the Taxilæ, with a famous city, which lies on a low but level plain, the general name of the district being Amenda: there are four nations here, the Peucolaitæ, the Arsagalitæ, the Geretæ, and the Assoï." [9][10]
"Pliny mentions as neighbours of the Soseadae the people of the Asini, who are reigning in the city of Bucephela. From these three data; 1) the Tacoraei are neighbours of the Besadae/Sosaeadae; 2) the Asini are the neighbours of the Sosaeadae; 3) The Asiani are kings of the Thocari, it follows that the Asini of Pliny's text are identical with the Asiani, who are the kings of the Tocharians. This implies that—at least in the time of Pliny—the Kushāṇas were kings of the region between Jhelam and Indus and that Bucephala was one of their cities. It seems that Pliny availed himself of a recent description of this territory and that Ptolemy knew these data too."[11]

This town - Bucephalus/Bukephalus - has been identified with modern Jalāpur.[12]

Theories on the identification of the Asii

It is generally accepted that Trogus' Asiani were probably identical to the Asii of Strabo,[13] perhaps leaving an extra tribe, the 'Pasiani' of Strabo, to account for.

Some scholars believe that the Asii are the asiagh people of India.Asii and the Pasiani were one and the same tribe, with 'Pasiani' a simple mistake for 'Asiani' and just a different form of the name for the Asii. Others believe the 'Pasiani' were a separate tribe, with the Greek letter Π a scribal error for Η, in which case the beginning of the passage would read: "[the] Asii also (known as) the Asiani"; while others believe that 'Pasiani' is a mistaken form of 'Gasiani' (with the Greek letter Π a scribal error for Γ).[14][15][16]

Here are references to a few other hypotheses and theories:

* Asii/Asio is equivalent to Sanskrit Aswa/Asva,Asiagh and Asvaka and refers to horses and "horse folks". James Tod and some other scholars following him think that the Greek term Asii/Asio is equivalent to Sanskrit Aswa/Asva and Asvaka and refers to 'horse' as well as the Scythic people connected with horse-culture.[17][18][19][20]. As for the Aswa or Asvaka people, they are generally believed to be a sub-section of the wider Kamboja group, [21], a wide-spread tribe of horsemen inhabiting both sides of the Hindukush mountains.

* The Asii/Asiani = the Yuezhi or Kushans? W. W. Tarn first thought that the Asii (adjectival form, "Asiani") were probably one part of the Yuezhi, the other being the Tochari. However, he later expressed doubts as to this position.[22][23].

* The Asii/Asiani may simply be a transcription of the Isse[dones] of Herodotus. Taishan Yu proposes that Asii were "probably" the dominant tribe of the confederacy of four tribes "from the time that they had settled in the valleys of the Ili and Chu" who later invaded Sogdiana and Bactria. "This would account for their being called collectively "Issedones" by Herodotus." He also states that the "Issedon Scythia and the Issedon Serica took their names from the Issedones."[24] Yu believes that the Issedones must have migrated to the Ili and Chu valleys, "at the latest towards the end of the 7th century B.C."[25][26]

* The Asii/Asiani are to be identified with the Alans and Asses (i.e. a western Central Asian population, rather than the Yuezhi-Tochari of eastern Bactria) - from whom the modern Ossets (Ossetians) derive their name. Main article: Alans

This theory identifies "the Asii with the later Alans and Ases (from whom the modern Ossets derive their name), that is a western Central Asian population, rather that the Yuezhi-Tochari of Eastern Bactria. . . . With the new identification of the Asii-Asiani, the Prologues seem instead to concern two later distinct periods already disconnected from the time of Eucratides. Moreover, from a geographical point of view, they describe events not related to the eastern, but to the western border of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom, that is a region which was in close contact with Parthia. Therefore, the ethnonym of the Asii-Asiani should be transferred westwards, that is to a different historical context (the Kangju area)."[26][27]

* The Asiani can be identified with the Kushans. Main article: Kushans

"One of the most important sources of information on nomad migration in Central Asia is Justin's Prologue to Pompeius Trogus (prologue to book XLII), which states that 'the Asiani are kings of the Tochari and destroyed the Scaraucae' (Reges Tocharorum Asiani interiusque Sakaraucarum). It is possible to conclude from this extract that the Asiani and the Tochari were closely related tribes. What is more, it indicates that the 'Asiani' dominated the 'Tochari' (Reges Tocharorum Asiani). We can identify the 'Asiani' with the 'Kushans' (von Gutschmidt 1888; Haloun 1937; Bachhofer 1941; Daffina 1967), one of the leading tribes, which subsequently came to power and created a great empire. It is noteworthy that Justin says that the Tochari were ruled by the Asiani, while the Chinese sources identify them as the largest of the five Yuezhi principalities."[28]

* The Asii were probably one of three Scythian tribes, whereas the Tochari were probably not, and should be identified with the Yuezhi.[29] Main article: Scythian

* The Asii were identical with the Paisani (Gaisani) and were, therefore, also the Yuezhi.[30]

* The Asiani are to be identified with the Wusun. Main article: Wusun

"It has been suggested that the Wusun may also be identified in Western sources as their name, pronounced then *o-sən or *uo-suən, is not far removed from that of a people known as the Asiani who the writer Pompeius Trogus (1st century BC) informs us were a Scythian tribe."[31]

* The Yuezhi and the Wusun were originally two branches of the same people, the Yuezhi being the 'Moon clan'; while the Wusun were the 'Solar clan'.[32]

Asii are Risikas/Arsikas and Asiagh Jats

The Sabha Parava of Indian epic Mahabharata many sections of which are believed to relate to historical scenario around Christian era refers to the Bahlikas, Daradas, Kambojas, Dasyus, Lohas, Parama Kambojas [33], uttara (northern) Risikas [34] and the Parama Risikas [35].

The latter four tribes, by implications, are placed north of Hindukush in Central Asia [36].

Patanjali in his Mahabhasya refers to Arsikas [37] which are said to be same as Risikas. Kasika on Panini (IV.2.132) also mentions Arsikas and connects them with the Risikas [38]. Sanskrit tribal name Risika has its adjective form as Arsika. The Prakrit form of Risika exist as Isi and Isika [39][40] (or Asi and Asika).

The Grecians were acquainted both with the Sanskrit forms Risika/Arsika as well as with their Prakrit forms Isi/Isika. The Grecian Asii (Appolodorus) is believed to represent Prakrit Isi and the Plinian Arsi is believed to be equivalent to Sanskrit Arsika. Of the four Scythian tribes mentioned by Strabo viz.: Asii, Pasiani, Tochari and Sacarauli, their equivalents have also been found in the Indian literature/sources.

Pliny the Elder (23–79), however knew about the Arsi People who may or may not be same as Asii of Apollodorus. As classical Asii/Asioi stands for Prakrit Isi/Isika or Sanskrit Risika [41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49], Plinian Arsi may also be derived from Sanskrit Arsika [50].

"We have seen above that the Grecians knew of Asiani and Arshi. There should be no difficulty now to acknowledge that the Prakrit Ishi-Ishika stands for the Grecian Asii and the Grecian Arshi stands for the Sanskrit form Arshika. Perhaps these were the constituents of the Yüeh-Chi (Yue-chis). The Uttara Rishikas could be equated to Ta Yüeh-Chi of the Chinese history." [51].

"It is not difficult now to see that the Greek Asii is from Sanskrit Isi or Isi, and probably the Greek Arsi may be derived from Sanskrit Arsika" [52].

The tribal name Risika and Arsika of the Sanskrit texts are connected together in the Indian literature "Risikesu jatah Arsikah, Mahisakesu jatah Mahisakah"[53][54][55].

J. L. Brockington also identifies the epic Risikas with Asii or Asioi of the classical writers: "...the Risikas, who are therefore by implication in Central Asia and possibly to be identified with Asioi referred to by Strabo (2.24)" [41][56].

The name Pasiani has never been explained satisfactorily. J. Marquart thinks that Pasiani is same as Asiani. Von Gutschmid thinks that Pasiani and other three names mentioned by Strabo attempt to render Yue-chi in Greek [57]. W. W. Tarn, Moti Chandra and some other scholars think that, "As Asiani is the (Iranian) adjectival form of Asii, so Pasiani would be the similar adjectival form of, and would imply, a name *Pasii or *Pasi" [58][59][60].

As for the Pasiani, Moti Chandra further suggests that the Grecian form Pasii could well stand for Sanskrit name Parama-Risika [61][62].

B. M. Barua and I. N. Topa also write: "Asii/Asiani correspond to Chang Kien’s Yue-chi and Asiani and Pasiani are the Indo-Iranian forms of Indo-Aryan Asika-Risikas and the Parama Risikas" [63][64].

In the inscription on the pedestal of one Bodhisatta image, a women named Amoha is called Asi (Arsi). In the alms house inscriptions of Huvishaka are mentioned the Sakareya and Prachini people respectively. Pasii or Pasiani are seen to be equivalent to Prachini and Sakaraula to Sakareya in the above Inscriptions [65].

Many scholars have pointed out that 'Yuezhi' in Chinese translates literally as the 'Moon clan" or 'Moon tribe' and have sought supporting evidence with varying degrees of success.[66][67][68][69][70]. Mahabharata refers to Kamboja king Chandravarman as descendant of 'Candra' or 'moon' [71]. In one version of Mahabharata, the king Chandravarma Kamboja is substituted with Chandravarma Risika which seems to endorse the view that the Kambojas and Risikas were allied or cognate/or agnate people and one may have been a branch of the other as P. C. Bagchi, B. N. Puri, Ishwa Misra and some other scholars think [72][73][74][75]. The Udyogaparava of Mahabharata also very intimately relates the Kambojas with the Risikas. In fact, the Risikas are said to be the Kambojas, according to precise translation of the epic verse of Udyogaparava [76]. And the Sabha Parava of the same epic also groups the Parama-Kambojas with the Lohas, Risikas and the Parama-Risikas and styles them as allied tribal groups [77]. Kalhana's Rajatarangini, while depicting historical scenario around Kashmir (~730 AD to 740 AD), brackets the Kambojas with the Tukharas [78] and localizes them in the valleys of Oxus [79]. In Markandeya Purana, the Tukharas are again mentioned with Kambojas, Daradas, Barbaras and Chinas, and all this people are branded as "vahyato narah" (races of men outside) [80]. All these references seem to relate the Kambojas with the Tukharas (Risikas or Asii).

S. Lévi had shown on strong grounds that the Yuezhi existed in the Deccan between 25 and 130 BCE, and now Lévi's claim has been supported by numerous literary sources such as the Ramayana [81], epic Mahabharata [82], Kasika[83], the Mahabhasya of Patanjali[84], Brhat Samhita of Varahamihira [85], Markandeya Purana [86] and Matsya Purana[87] etc., as well as the epigraphic evidence from the Nasik Cave Inscriptions of Queen Balasri which mentions the Risikas (Asikas) as a component of Gautamiputra Satkaranai's empire [88] and strongly endorses the earlier migration of Risikas/Asikas (Asii or Yuezhi) in the Deccan also. The Kambojas are also abundantly attested to have migrated and settled in south-west and southern division of India. See: The Kambojas in West/Southwest India: [5]


  1. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.214
  2. Potts, D. T. (2015). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. p. 316. ISBN 9781107094697.
  3. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter III, p.40-41
  4. [[Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, James Todd Annals/Chapter 6 Genealogical history of the Rajput tribes subsequent to Vikramaditya]],pp.77-79-
  5. M. Iuniani Iustini epitoma Historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi, Accedunt prologi in Pompeium Trogum", p. 323. Ed. Otto Seel. (Stuttgart 1972). (Latin text based on an edition of Franz Ruel).
  6. Pompeius Trogus: Weltgeschichte von den Anfängen bis Augustus. Im Auszug des Justin, p. 438. Otto Seel. Artemis Verlag, Zürich/München.
  7. Justin: Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, p. 284. (1994) Translated and with introduction by J. C. Yardley. The American Philological Association.
  8. Translated from: Strabon. Géographie. Vol. 1. (1969). Germaine Aujac and François Lassere. Paris. Les Belles Lettres (Association Guillaume Budé) pp. LIII and LVII.
  9. Translation from: Pliny the Elder, The Natural History. John Bostock, and H.T. Riley, (1855). VI,23.20 [1]
  10. "The Murundas and the ancient trade-route from Taxila to Ujjain." P. H. L. Eggermont. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 9 (1966), p. 281 and n. 5.
  11. "The Murundas and the ancient trade-route from Taxila to Ujjain." P. H. L. Eggermont. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 9 (1966), p. 283.
  12. Archaeological Reconnaissances in North-western India and South-eastern Īrān, pp. 31-32 and n. 15. Aurel Stein. (1937). Macmillan and Co., London.
  13. Iaroslav Lebedynsky. (2006). Les Saces: Les «Scythes» d'Asie, VIIIe siècle av. J.-C. — IVe siècle apr. J.-C. Editions Errance, Paris. ISBN2-87772-337-2
  14. "The Yüeh-chih and their migrations." K. Enoki, G. A. Koshelenko and Z. Haidary. In: History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250", p. 173. Harmatta, János, ed., 1994. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
  15. "The Tokharians and Buddhism", p. 3. Xu Wenkan, In: Studies in Central and East Asian Religions 9, pp. 1-17 (1996). Downloaded on June 14, 2003, from: [2]
  16. A Study of Saka History, pp. 140-141. Taishan Yu. Sino-Platonic Papers No. 80. July, 1998. Dept. of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, University of Pennsylvania.
  17. "In Aswa, we have ancient race peopled on both sides of the Indus and probable etymon of Asia. The Assaceni, the Ari-aspii, the Aspasians and (the Asii) whom Strabo describes as Scythic race have the same origin. Hence Asi-gurh (Hasi/Hansi) and Asii-gard, the first settlements of Scythic Asii in Scandinavia" (see: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Reprint (2002), Vol I, p. 64. Also see: pp. 51-54, 87, 95; Vol-2, P 2, James Tod; The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia: Commercial ..., 1885, p 196, Edward Balfour.
  18. The racial history of India, 1944, p 814-15, Chandra Chakraberty - Ethnology.
  19. Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations, 1953, pp 148, 152, Chandra Chakraberty - Sanskrit literature.
  20. While writing on the ethnography of Afghanistan, H. W. Bellow gives following information on the Asi/Asii: Yusaf (same as Isap) is divided into five clan—Isa, Musa, Bai, Aka and Urya. They occupy Kohistan or hill country of the Yusafzai or Isap, which is commonly called Yoghistan or independent country. Isa which is the Musalman form of Asi (Asva) has following sections Alisher, Aymal, Aypi, Burhan, Dadi, Gadae, Hasan, Hoti, Hyasw, Kika, Kamal, Kamboh (i.e Kambojia), Kanra, Khadin, Khaki, Kotwal, Lughman, Madi, Makho, Mama, Mashu, Musara, Mirhamad, Nasrat, Panjpao, Salar, Sen, Shergha, She, Taju, Taos, Warkam, Walayati, Ya, Zakarya etc (See: An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, 1891, pp 80, 146, 150 Henry Walter Bellew).
  21. Historie du bouddhisme Indien, p. 110, E. Lammotte; Hindu Polity, A constitutional History of India in Hindu Times, 1978, p 140, K. P. Jayswal; Essai sur les origines du mythe d'Alexandre: 336-270 av. J. C., 1978, p 152, n 12, Paul Goukowsky; History; Panjab Past and Present, pp 9-10, Buddha Parkash; East and West, 1950, pp 28, 157-58, Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Editor, Giuseppe Tucci, Co-editors Mario Bussagli, Lionello Lanciotti; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133 fn 6, pp 216-20, (Also Commentary p 576 fn 22), H. C. Raychaudhury, B. N. Mukerjee; History of Indian Buddhism: From the Origins to the Saka Era, 1988, p 100 - History.
  22. W. W. Tarn. The Greeks in Bactria and India. 2nd edition. (1951), pp. 284, 286, 533. Cambridge.
  23. Taishan Yu. A Study of Saka History, p. 40, n. 30. (1998) Sino-Platonic Papers. University of Pennsylvania.
  24. Taishan Yu. A Study of Saka History, pp. 12, 15, 24, 140. (1998) Sino-Platonic Papers. University of Pennsylvania.
  25. Taishan Yu. A Study of Saka History, pp. 21 and 38, n. 13 (1998) Sino-Platonic Papers. University of Pennsylvania.
  26. 26.0 26.1 J. P. Mallory and Victor H.Mair. (2000) The Tarim Mummies, p. 92. Thames & Hudson Ltd., New York and London. ISBN 0-500-05101-1.
  27. Rapin, Claude (2007). "Nomads and the Shaping of Central Asia." In: After Alexander: Central Asia before Islam. Proceedings of the British Academy - 133, Eds. Joe Cribb & Georgina Herrmann, pp. 59-60. ISBN 978-0-19-726384-6.
  28. Kazim Abdullaev (2007). "Nomad Migrations in Central Asia." In: After Alexander: Central Asia before Islam. Proceedings of the British Academy - 133, Eds. Joe Cribb & Georgina Herrmann, p. 75. ISBN 978-0-19-726384-6.
  29. A. K. Narain. The Indo-Greeks, p. 132. (1957). Oxford University Press.
  30. J. Markwart. Ērānšahr. (19o1), p. 206. Referred to in: Taishan Yu. A Study of Saka History, p. 38, n. 17. (1998) Sino-Platonic Papers. University of Pennsylvania.
  31. J. P. Mallory and Victor H.Mair. (2000) The Tarim Mummies, pp.91-92. Thames & Hudson Ltd., New York and London. ISBN 0-500-05101-1.
  32. Rannie tyurki. Ocerki istorii i ideologii. (2002) Üry Aleksey Zuev. Daik-Press, Almaty, Kazakhstan. In Russian. English title: Early Türks: Essays of History and Ideology. Draft translation by Norm Kisamov, ), p. 10. See also, pp. 21, 23, 29-30, 33-34.
  33. Farthest Kambojas or Para-Kambojas.
  34. NOTE: Besides Northern Risikas, there was also another section of the Risikas called southern Risikas, inhabiting southern India near about Khandes on Krishna river which fact is amply attested from literary sources like Ramayana, Mahabharata, Markandeya Purana, Brhat-Samhita of Varahamihira, Patanjali, Kasika as well as by Nasik Cave Inscriptions of Queen Balasri of Satavahana dynasty which mentions the Risikas (Asikas) as a component of Gautamiputra Satkaranai's empire.
  35. Farthest Risikas or Para-Risikas.
  36. Mahabharata 2.27.24-27; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 11 sqq, Moti Chandra; Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 168, M. R. Singh; India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 64, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala - India; A Grammatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Reviews of the ..., 1953, p 62, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala, Surya Kanta, Jacob Wackernagel, Arthur Anthony Macdonell, Peggy Melcher - India; The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala.
  37. Mahabhasya IV.2.2.
  38. Kasika IV.2.132 .
  39. Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 18, Moti Chandra; Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India, 1977, p 94, Moti Chandra - History.
  40. It is remarkable to note that in the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute's edition of the Mahabharata the footnote gives the Prakrit forms of Risika as Isi and Isika (See: Mahabharata, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute edition, See foot note for Risika.
  41. 41.0 41.1 Sanskrit Epics, 1998, p 200, J. L. Brockington.
  42. Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India, 1977, p 94.
  43. Cf: "Strabo refers to the Asioi, who, along with the Tokharoi and the Sakrauoi, conquered Bactria from the Greeks. Perhaps, the Asioi are the per4haps the Rishikas or the Yueh-chis. The process of Arjuna's victory in the north direction shows that the Rishikas resided in Central Asia, as the former had defeated them in the north after defeating the Vahlikas, Kamboja, Daradas, Lohas and the Parama Kambojas. They resided in that region up to the 1st quarter of the 2nd century BC. Thus, it is apparent that epic refers to them in their original home (Central Asia) (Ref:Political Ideas and Institutions in the Mahābhārata, Based on Poona Critical Edition: (based on Poona critical edition), 1975, p 18, Brajdeo Prasad Roy).
  44. Journ. Bihar and Orissa, Res. Soc., XVIII, 1, 97 et 99; Cf: Fragments de textes koutchéens, Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le "tokharien": Publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et un introd. sur le "tokharien" par Sylvain Lévi, 1933, p 6, Sylvain Lévi; Journal asiatique, Item notes: v.222-223 (1933), p 6, Société asiatique (Paris, France), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France)- Oriental.
  45. Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1957, p 10, item notes: v.37 1956, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute; For Asi/ASi = Risika, also see: Political and social movements in ancient Panjab (from the Vedic age upto [sic] the Maurya period), 1964, p 96, Buddha Prakash; The Indian Historical Quarterly‎, 1954, p 227, item notes: v.30-31 1954-1955, India.
  46. Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations, 1953, p 183, Chandra Chakraberty.
  47. Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 18, Moti Chandra - India.
  48. King Asoka and His Inscriptions, 1968, p 96, B. M. Barua, I. N. Topa.
  49. India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 68, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala.
  50. Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations, 1953, p 183, Chandra Chakraberty.
  51. Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India, 1977, p. 94. Abhinav Publication, New Delhi. See also: Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 18, Moti Chandra - India.
  52. Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 18, Moti Chandra.
  53. Kasika IV.2.132
  54. Political and social movements in ancient Panjab (from the Vedic age upto [sic] the Maurya period), 1964, p 96, Buddha Prakash.
  55. Jats, the Ancient Rulers: A Clan Study, 1980, p 76, Bhim Singh Dahiya.
  56. See also: India as Known to Panini: (a Study of the Cultural Material in the AShtadhyayi)‎, 1953, p 71, V. S. Agrawala.
  57. Goeg., XI, 8, 2, Von Gutschmid.
  58. Seleucid-Parthian Studies, 1930, p 11; The Greeks in Bactria & India, 1938, p 292, William Woodthorpe Tarn
  59. Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India, 1977, p 94, Moti Chandra; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 17, Moti Chandra.
  60. Proceedings of the British Academy, 1930, p 113, British Academy, Balasundara Gupta; Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations, 1953, p 148, Chandra Chakraberty - Sanskrit literature.
  61. Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 17, Moti Chandra.
  62. See also: Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India, 1977, p 94.
  63. See: King Asoka and His Inscriptions, 1968, p 96, B. M. Barua, I. N. Topa.
  64. Parama Risika of the epic would be Para-Risika (Para-Arsika) i.e further Risikas, which could easily become Pasika in Prakrit, Pasiani in Iranian form as well as of the classical writings.
  65. Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India, 1977, p xi, Moti Chandra.
  66. "The Yüeh-chih Problem Re-examined." Otto Maenchen-Helfen. JAOS, Vol. 65, No. 2 (Apr. – Jun., 1945), p. 80, n. 10.
  67. "Nugae Indo-Sericae." John Brough. In: W. B. Henning Memorial Volume. Eds: Mary Boyce and Ilya Gershevitch. London, 1970, pp. 87-88 and nn. 30-36.
  68. "Kaniṣka et Ṥātavāhana, deux figures symboliques de l’inde au premier siècle." Sylvain Lévi. JA, (1936). Vol. 228 (Janv.-déc. 1936), pp. 62-121.
  69. Nanā on Lion: A Study in Kushāṇa Numismatic Art. (1969), p. 96.The Asiatic Society, Calcutta.
  70. "Bactrian Language", p. 345. (undated) N. Sims-Williams. In: Encyclopaedia Iranica, pp. 344-349. [3]
  71. Sanskrit
    Candra.varmati vikhiyaatah || 32 ||
    MBH, 1/67/31-32, Gorakhpore edition)
    Translation: "The foremost among the sons of Diti known by the name of Candra and handsome as the lord of the stars himself became on earth noted as Chandravarma, the king of the Kambojas" (The Mahabharata, Book 1, Ch 67, Adi Parva, Kisari Mohan Ganguli, tr.[4]).
  72. India and Central Asia, Bengal (Calcutta), 1955, P.C.Bagch.
  73. Buddhism in Central Asia, p. 90.
  74. The Journal of Central Asian Studies, 2003, p 33,University of Kashmir Centre of Central Asian Studies - Central Asia.
  75. Journal of Tamil studies‎, 1985, p 86, 87, International Association of Tamil Research, International Institute of Tamil Studies - History.
  76. Shakanam Pahlavana.n cha Daradanam cha ye nripah./
    Kamboja RishikA ye cha pashchim.anupakashcha ye 15.// (MBH 5/4/15)
    Translation: "These kings of the Shakas, Pahlavas and Daradas, these are Kaamboja-Rshikas and these are in the western riverine area" (Ishwa Misra: IndianCivilzation Forum; JatHistory Forum).
  77. Lohan.ParamaKambojaan.Risikaan.uttaran.api./
    MBH 2.27.26-27.
  78. Rajatrangini 4.164-166.
  79. Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1990, p 195, D.C. Sircar - History; Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, 1996, Ch 26, p 528, Shyam Singh Shashi; Purana, Vol V, No 2, July 1963, The Land of Kamboja, p 252, D. C. Sircar.
  80. Markendeya Purana, LVII.39.
  81. Bengali Ramayana, Kishkindha Kanda, XLI.16; Real Ramayana, Kishkindha Kanda, XLI.19; Cf: Works, 1865, p 167, H. H. Wilson.
  82. Mahabharata 8.5.20; MBH 6:9.
  83. Kasika IV.2.132
  84. Arsikas of Mahabhasya IV.2.2.
  85. Brhat Samhita, 16.11ab, Varahamihira; See: Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p. 280, M. R. Singh.
  86. Markandeya Purana Chapter 58.20-28.
  87. The Matsya Puranam, 1917, pp. 50-51, Srisa Chandra Vasu.
  88. Epigraphia Indica, VIII, p 60.

See also