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Map of Syria in Middle East Countries
Western Central Asia

Assyria (Aššūrāyu) was a major Mesopotamian East Semitic kingdom, and often empire, of the Ancient Near East.


Centered on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia (modern northern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey) the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times, the last of which grew to be the largest and most powerful empire the world had yet seen.


Assyria was existing as an independent state for a period of approximately nineteen centuries from c. 2500 BC to 605 BC, spanning the Early Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age. For a further thirteen centuries, from the end of the 7th century BC to the mid-7th century AD, it survived as a geo-political entity, for the most part ruled by foreign powers, although a number of small Neo-Assyrian states such as Assur, Adiabene, Osroene and Hatra arose at different times between the 1st century BC and late 3rd century AD.

As a substantial part of the greater Mesopotamian "cradle of civilization" which included Sumer, Akkad and much later Babylonia, Assyria was at the height of technological, scientific and cultural achievements for its time. At its peak, the Assyrian empire stretched from Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea to Persia (Iran), and from what is now Armenia to the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt.

Assyria is named for its original capital, the ancient city of Aššur (a.k.a. Ashur) which dates to c. 2600 BC (located in what is now the Saladin Province of northern Iraq), originally one of a number of Akkadian city states in Mesopotamia. In the 25th and 24th centuries BC, Assyrian kings were pastoral leaders, and from the late 24th century BC became subject to Sargon of Akkad, who united all the Akkadian Semites and Sumerian-speaking peoples of Mesopotamia under the Akkadian Empire, which lasted from c. 2334 BC to 2154 BC. Following the fall of the Akkadian Empire c. 2154 BC,[1] and the short lived succeeding Neo-Sumerian Empire which ruled southern Assyria but not the north, Assyria regained full independence.

The history of Assyria proper is roughly divided into three periods, known as Old Assyrian, Middle Assyrian and Neo-Assyrian. These terms are in wide use in Assyrology and roughly correspond to the early to Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age, respectively. In the Old Assyrian period, Assyria established colonies in Asia Minor and the Levant and, under king Ilushuma, it asserted itself over southern Mesopotamia. From the mid 18th century BC, Assyria came into conflict with the newly created state of Babylonia, which eventually eclipsed the far older Sumero-Akkadian states in the south, such as Ur, Isin, Larsa and Kish.

Assyria experienced fluctuating fortunes in the Old Assyrian period. Assyria became a regionally powerful nation with the Old Assyrian Empire from the late 21st century to the mid 18th century BC. Following this, it found itself under Babylonian and Mitanni-Hurrian domination for short periods in the 18th and 15th centuries BC respectively, and another period of great power occurred with the rise of the Middle Assyrian Empire (from 1365 BC to 1056 BC), which included the reigns of great kings, such as Ashur-uballit I, Arik-den-ili, Tukulti-Ninurta I and Tiglath-Pileser I. During this period, Assyria overthrew the Mitanni-Empire and eclipsed both the Hittite Empire and Egyptian Empire in the Near East.

Beginning with the campaigns of Adad-nirari II from 911 BC,[2] it again became a great power over the next three centuries, overthrowing the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt and conquering Egypt,[3] Babylonia, Elam, Urartu/Armenia, Media, Persia, Mannea, Gutium, Phoenicia/Canaan, Aramea (Syria), Arabia, Israel, Judah, Edom, Moab, Samarra, Cilicia, Cyprus, Chaldea, Nabatea, Commagene, Dilmun, the Hurrians, Sutu and Neo-Hittites, driving the Ethiopians and Nubians from Egypt,[4] defeating the Cimmerians and Scythians and exacting tribute from Phrygia, Magan and Punt among others.[5]

After its fall (between 612 BC and 605 BC), Assyria remained a province and geo-political entity under the Babylonian, Median, Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Roman and Sassanid empires until the Arab Islamic dominance of [ Mesopotamia]] in the mid-7th century, when it was finally dissolved, after which the remnants of the Assyrian people (by now almost exclusively Eastern Rite Christians) gradually became a minority in their homeland.[6]

List of rivers of Syria

Tributaries are listed under the river into which they flow.

Flowing into the Mediterranean

Flowing into the Persian Gulf by the Shatt al-Arab:

Flowing into endorheic basins

Aleppo basin

Ghouta oasis

Al-Hijanah Lake

Dead Sea

Jat History

The country Assyria or Syria derives its name from Asiaghs. The Asiagh people were inhabitants of Asirgarh. One group of them migrated to Europe. Another group moved to Jangladesh. The origin of word Asiagh is from Sanskrit word "Asii" meaning sword. According to Kautilya the people who depended on "Asii" (sword) for their living were known as Asiagh.

Ram Swarup Joon[7] writes that Pliny has written that during a conflict between KhanKesh, a province in Turkey, and Babylonia, they sent for the Sindhu Jats from Sindh. These soldiers wore cotton uniforms and were experts in naval warfare. On return from Turkey they settled down in Syria. They belonged to Hasti dynasty. Asiagh Jats ruled Alexandria in Egypt. Their title was Asii.

It is confirmed by different historical and geographical works, as cited by Maulana Mubarakpuri that Jats had settled in large number in Antioc and coastal town of Syria under the patronage of the pious and Umayyad caliphate (Khilafat-e-Rashidah and Banu Umayyab) [8], [9]

Bhim Singh Dahiya[10] writes that Raja Ben/Ven Chakravarti, (the Chakva Ben of the legends) is famous in India from Punjab to Bengal, though he is not allotted any place in the present history. It was known that the Vens had played an important role in the history of Central Asia from very ancient times. One of their principal cities was Ardinis (the city of the Sungod) also called Musasir, Menuas (810 B.C.), the grandson of Sarduris I, then subjugated the other Jat clans. "Parsuas (present Parsvals) had already been attacked by Ispuinis, and Menuas now proceeded to subdue the Manna, farther east, on the southern side of Lake Urmia". [11] He brought the Diaus, the Dia or Dayaeni of the Assyrians (present Dahiya clan) under control on the banks of Euphrates, which was made the western boundary of the kingdom. Menuas built many canals through the mountains which were cut open, and one of the canals is now called Shamiram Suo. He built the city of Menuasgert (Melazgert). His son, Argistis I, annexed the territories of the Etius and the Dayaeni. Mileds (Mardii of Herodotus) were brought under control. Sarduris II, his son fought many wars with the Assyrians and won them. He proclaimed his victory over Ashur Nirari V (754-745 B.C.). Later on under Tiglath Pilesar III Assyria avenged the defeats and Sargon of Assyria claims to have destroyed a city of Sarduris, named Riar.

सीरिया या असीरिया

दलीप सिंह अहलावत लिखते हैं -

सीरिया- इस देश को श्याम भी कहते हैं, तात्पर्य सेनीटोरियम श्री कृष्णजी से है। एशिया माईनर (लघुएशिया), सीरिया या शाम, अरब और तुर्की साम्राज्य ‘ओटोमेन ऐम्पायर’ कहलाता है जो अपभ्रंश है ‘यदुमनु’ का। तात्पर्य है यदुवंशियों का साम्राज्य। सीरिया की राजधानी बेबीलोन थी जो श्रीकृष्णजी के उत्तराधिकारी महाराज बाहुबल के नाम पर है। [12]

असीरिया - जो आज कुर्दिस्तान प्रदेश कहलाता है। यह ईरान और इराक़ के बीच में है। इसको मालवा के असिगढ़ के असि-असियाग जाटों ने जाकर बसाया था। यहां पर एक लाहियान जिला भी है। भारत के लोहियान जाट इसी जिले से लौटे हुए हैं। आज भी इस प्रान्त में जाटों की संख्या अधिक है। इन लोगों की शक्ल-व-सूरत, चाल-ढाल तथा वस्त्र आदि भारतीय जाटों से मिलते जुलते हैं, केवल ये लोग मुसलमानधर्मी हैं।[13]

Further reading

See also


  1. Georges Roux (1964), Ancient Iraq, pp. 161–191.
  2. Georges Roux (1964), Ancient Iraq, pp. 161–191.
  3. Georges Roux (1964), Ancient Iraq, pp. 161–191.
  4. Georges Roux (1964), Ancient Iraq, pp. 161–191.
  5. Georges Roux (1964), Ancient Iraq, pp. 161–191.
  6. Parpola, Simo (2004). "National and Ethnic Identity in the Neo-Assyrian Empire and Assyrian Identity in Post-Empire Times" (PDF). Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies (JAAS)
  7. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter III, p.40-41
  8. Qazi Athar, pp, 66-67
  9. Zafarul Islam: Qazi Athar Mubarakpuri’s Studies on Jats, The Jats, Vol. II, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006. p. 27
  10. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Antiquity of the Jats,p.297
  11. Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. IlI, p. 174.
  12. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV (Page 411)
  13. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV (Page 415)

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