History of the Jats/Chapter III

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History of the Jats

Ram Sarup Joon

1967 (Eng Tr by Lieutenant Colonel Dal Singh)

Printed at the Jaitly Printing Press, 147, Lajpat Rai Market,Delhi-6

Chapter III: Jats of Central Asia & Europe


The word Turk has been derived from Takshan and Takshak is a well-known Jat-Gotra. The Greek historian Strabo writes that the Takshaks named Kardastan as Takshakstan. Later the name was changed to Turkistan and consequently, the inhabitants began to be called -Turks. The capital of this country was originally known as Takshkhand, which changed to Tashkand or Tashkent.

The Tartars admit themselves to be Chandravanshi. Abul Gazi, the Scythian historian, writes that the forefathers of the Turks were descendants of Tar Jatali, a Jat.

In or about 200 BC serious internal strife occurred in Turkistan. Various tribes fought among themselves. Neung Nu, the Chinese historian writes that during these battles, a tribe known as Uti (Uchi) was winked out of the country .

During its westward withdrawal this, tribe was intercepted by another tribe called Daushan. The

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[Note: two maps are given here showing 25 Ancient kingdoms of the Jats and back sides of the maps are blank]

Uchis got divided into two groups. One of these settled down On the borders of Tibet. The other settled on the banks of Sihun River and was known as Scythians. They defeated the Saka tribe and passed through Afghanistan. When exactly they did so is not known. They advanced through the Bolan Pass, crossed the River Indus and occupied the area upto the river Ganga. They got integrated with the local population to such an extent that they ceased to be called Scythians. This event has given rise to the historical ambiguity that Jats, Ahirs and Gujars are of Scythian descent. No Jat, however claims this honour bestowed on him by some historians who have looked only that for and no further.

On the other hand, there is sufficient evidence to prove that these Scythians themselves were Jats and so easily amalgamated with their kith and kin. These very Scythians had named their territory in Turkistan as Jug Jats and a province in Iran as Jatali. The Khisans of Khamrian were known as Jat i-Iran. [1]

General Cunningham writes that the inhabitants of Jatali province in Iran are of Jat community of Yayati Dynasty. He also writes that people of the Shavi sub caste are the descendants, of the daughter of Daksha, and Raja Daksha was a Surya Vanshi.

Herodotus writes that when Alexander the Great attacked Dara, King of Iran, and the major part of Dara's army consisted of Jat troops. Dara was very proud of these soldiers. Confidence in their bravery encouraged him to face Alexander. Todd also supports this fact and writes that the Jat contingent consisted of two hundred chariots and fifty elephants and formed the right flank of Dara's army. The Jat charioteers scattered Alexander's army. Alexander then sent for Scythian Jat troops. These were mostly Dahiya Jats and were equipped with lances. With the help of these troops Alexander defeated Dara. The

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Greek historian writes that these Dahiya Jats contributed a great deal to the later successes of Alexander.[2]

Jats have a big gotra called Shavi. Iran was at one time known as Shavi country. Huen Tsang and Fa-hien have mentioned in their accounts of their Indian travels, that through Tartary, Kashgar and, Pamir, they reached Shavi country. Lord Shiva or Shavi is known as prophet Shish in Iran, and his shrine on the banks of River Tigris is visited by a large number of Pilgrims. A province in Iran is called Seistan, a derivative of Shavi-Stan. The Jats of Shavi gotra came to be known as Shavisthians or Scythians. The Great Scythian writer Abul Gazi has called himself a Chandravanshi Jat. He also writes that the mother of Scythian community was the daughter of Aila or Ailya Devi,[3]

The Sakas invaded Iran from the coast of Baltic Sea and looted a lot of treasure. When they were busy dividing the booty amongst themselves, at night the Jats made a surprise raid and snatched everything back.

To commemorate their success, the Jats built two temples on a rock and dedicated these two Amavash Devi and Unin Devi. An annual fair is held there even until to day.

Afghanistan and Baluchistan

Afghanistan was called Upguanstan, Baluchijostan both of that are Sanskrit words. Both these countries were part of India till, as late as the Mogul period. King Seth of the Ardas branch of Yayati dynasty had a son called Arh, whose son Gandhara founded the town of Gandhar, now known as Kandhar. Gandhari, mother

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of Duryodhana was from this town. Jats have gotras of this dynasty named Gaindhar, Gaindhala and Gaindhu. King Gaj founded Ghazni.

Todd, quoting Strabo writes that a large number of people East of Caspian Sea are called Scythians and further East live the Dahiyas the Maha Jati, who used to provide three hundred horsemen and seven hundred foot soldiers in times of need.

Gedown and Niel write that the forefathers, of Laumiri Baluchis were Jats.

According to Todd, in ancient times the boundaries of Jat kingdom of Sindhu, included parts of Baluchistan, Makran, Balorari and the Salt Ranges.[4]

People of Gill gotra came to known as Gilzai Pathans; Gill Jats at one time ruled the area of Hindukush Mountains. The last ruler of Ghazni was Subhag Sen. At the time of Alexander's invasion king Chitra Verma ruled Baluchistan.

According to Todd, in 1023, Umer Bin Moosaiw wrested Hirat and Kaikan from the Jats and made 3000 Jat soldiers prisoners. The Tawarikh Tibri by Sulaiman Nadvi also mentions this event. It states that a Jat Commander of Umer Bin Moosa refused to join the attack. But in spite of this, Umer was victorious despite heavy losses.[5]

Sialkot and Quetta of Baluchistan were capitals of Madrak Kings.

Makran province of Baluchistan belonged to the Jats. When King Sapur the second of Sasanian dynasty

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became friendly with Samudra Gupta, Sindhu and Makran provinces were given to the Jats.

In the history of the ruling dynasty of Jaisalmer there is reference to an event in Yudhisthra Samvat 3008, that when their ancestors were driven out of Gazni and were advancing towards India, they had to battle with Tak-is (Takshaks) on the banks of River Indus.


Amir Mahoye, ruler, of Iraq, took away 20,000 Jats from India and settled them in Iraq. According to Todd, Indian names of Vegetables like 'Bhindi' and 'Tori' are still used in Iraq.

Caliph Omar encouraged Jats to settle down the frontiers of Iraq for defence. Prophet Ali entrusted the protection of his treasury in Bagdad to the Jats. Calif Walid granted high positions to Jats in his army and sought their help in defence against the Italians (Romans?).

Sulaiman Nadvi writes in Tawarikhe Tibri that when Ayesha, wife of Hazrat Mohammed fell ill, a Jat Physician was called to attend on her.

There is reference to Mirh Jats in the history of Arabs. These Jats were brought from Sindh and settled in Arabia during the Abbasid rule. They were fierce warriors.

Syria and Egypt

Pliny writes that during a conflict between Khankesh, a province in Turkey, and Babylonia, they sent

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for the Sindhu Jats from Sindh. These soldiers wore cotton uniforms and were experts in naval warfare.

On return from Turkey they settled down in Syria. They belonged to Hasti dynasty. Takshak Jats ruled Alexandria in Egypt. Their title was Asi.


Herodotus, a famous Greek historian, has described himself as a descendant of Atre (Atreya).

Some people in Greece consider Balram, brother of Lord Krishna as their ancestor. Yunan, the other name of Greece is after the name of Chandra Vanshi King Yavan who was from Satjit branch of Yadu.

Dr. Radhakrishnan, in his history of the world writes that the people, who were called Hellene in Greece, settled there about 2000 years before Christ and named their country Hellas. They were Aryans and brought their bards with them. They worshipped Sun, Moon and Goddesses like the Indian Aryans. In 480 BC Iranians conquered Greece. At that time King of Sparta was Leonidas.

Alexander's General Seleucus was from Hellene confederacy. After being defeated by Chandra Gupta Maurya, he gave his daughter Eellen in marriage to him. Seleucus, before returning, recruited a large number of Jats in his army and settled them in an area named Mawrya and a small island called Jatroti.

Italy, Balkans, Spain And Portugal

In 500 BC, Jats took part in the civil war in Italy. When the hunters invaded Italy, the Jats defeated them on the battlefield of Nester. As a reward the ruler of Italy permitted them to occupy the Danube basin called Balkans now. After four years, differences arose between the Jats and king Theodius of Italy,

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who attacked the Jats. The Jats were victorious and occupied Asia Minor. Then they attacked Rome and after defeating the famous military commander Allers, occupied the south Eastern portion of Italy. Theodius gave his daughter in marriage to the Jat leader. The Jats vacated Italy, advanced into and settled in Spain and Portugal.

In 490 BC, there was another battle after which Jats occupied the whole of Italy and ruled there for 65 years upto 425 BC. During this period Italy made a great measure of progress.

After the death of the great Jat leader Totila, the Jat power declined and they were driven out of Italy. Soon after, the Arabs drove the Jats out of Spain and Portugal. Consequently Jats were so weakened and scattered that they ceased to exist as a recognised group in this area.


The name Scandanavia has been derived from Sikandh Nabh, Todd, while quoting Triner, writes that the Angle Saxons were Shah Nag Vanshi Jattias or Uties. After invading Scandanavia they founded Jutland. Todd writes that the greatest community of Scandanavia was Shiva Vanshi Jats. The customs of Sati and Johar were common amongst them and they had brought these with them from India. The non-Jat Population of Jutland used to call these customs barbarous. On the death of Baldeer, a Jat leader, his elder wife Nanna was allowed the right to perform Sati but his younger wife Udan was not allowed the honour.

Quoting Herodotus Todd writes[6] that these people 'worshipped according to Indian customs and swore on their weapons. They named their capital Asgarh. It is of

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interest that the ancient name of Hansi in Hissar district of Haryana was also Asgarh.

They considered the sight of certain birds as a good omen. Herodotus and Strabo agree that in about 2000 BC, the Jati community lived in Jutland. They built a temple there dedicated to their Goddess Ahilya. Her abode was in the garden and a cow drew her chariot. They also built the temple Apsala. The name of their God was Oven, which meant Budha the forefather of Chandra Vansh.


In his history of Britain, Shiv Chand Kapoor writes that when Scots from the North attacked England, the Britain sought the help of the Roman Emperor but it did not come. Then they appealed to the Jutes of Denmark who came, stopped the Scots and drove them out. Along with the Jutes came the Angles and the Saxons. They preferred the fertile land of Britain to there and settled there. Uttar Chand Kapoor writes in history of England that Canterbury was the capital of the Juts.

Dennis Butler in his book ' The Story of a year, writes, "When Harold arrived at Hastings, many in his army were armed with pitch forks, Scythes and the stone axes that had served the Jutes six centuries earlier.[7]

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Ancient Kingdoms of the Jats

MAP: Ancient Kingdoms of the Jats ~ 1 Haridwar Vedic Age By Vir Bhadra

2 Khandu/Khandava Van Indraprastha by Taxak Pandava Dhillon

Mahabharat till 800 BC.

3 Mathura by Bachhik Mahabharat Age

4 Rohitak by Shivi Dynasty

5 Siyalkot by Madraka.

6 Taxila by Taxika Mahabharat Age

7 Sindh Country by Midh Sindus

8 Peshawar by Lachhvi Dynasty about 3rd Century

9. Qeita by Madrak

10. Makran Province by Sindhus

11. Kabul by Dard Mahabharat Age

12 Gazni By Madraka Raja Gaj 100 BC.

13. Gandhar by Raja Gandhar Mahabharat Age

14 Tashkand by Taxika Mahabharat Age

15 Seistan Province By Shivi Jats 2000 BC

16 Jatali By Jat Tribes 2000 BC

17 Jag Jats by Scythian Jats

18. Basra By Sindhu Jats 6th Century

19 Sheriya Country by Midh Sindhu Jats

Ancient Kingdoms Colonies of Jats

20. Scandanavia Denmark Jutland By Shivi Jats

21 Germany by Shiv Gotr Jutes

22 England by Jute Saxon Angal Norman Tribe from Germany

23. Rom (City) By Midh 3rd century

24. Denube States by Goth Army

25. Moriya Jatoti (Greece) By Morya Army

26 Magadh by Chandra Gupta Maurya


  1. Todd's Rajasthan - Urdu edition
  2. Todds Rajasthan, Urdu Edition, p.232
  3. Todds Rajasthan, Urdu Edition, p.152
  4. Todds Rajasthan, Urdu Edition, p.198
  5. Todds Rajasthan, Urdu Edition, p.181
  6. Todds Rajasthan, Urdu Edition, p.1181
  7. Todds Rajasthan, Urdu Edition, p. 207

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