Ani Ram

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Ani Ram was nephew of Badan Singh and played an important role in establishing the state of Bharatpur. Ani Ram and Rup Singh were btothers from Sinsini.

Bishan Singh's fight against Jats

On the other side of the Yamuna, the Jat rebels had flocked to and fortified various garhis, Sogar, Awar, Kasot, Sonkh, Pingora, Sewar, Dahara, Chakora, Undera, Bachhamadi, Chiksana, Ratanpur, Bhatawali and others. Besides the prominent Fateh Singh, Churaman and Nanda Jat, the other rebel leaders were Partap, Durga, Balram Jat, Jagman, Banarasi, Bansahana, Lodha, Bukna and Maujia.[1]

The reports of such renewed depredations and Bishan Singh's delay in repressing the rebels infuriated Aurangzeb. He reprimanded the Raja and reduced his mansabby 500 zats and 1,000 sawars (1690). However, Bishan Singh did not lose heart. Combining diplomacy with valour, the Raja and his general, Hari Singh continued their fight against the Jats. [2]

In January, 1691, Bishan Singh sent Hari Singh to attack Awar and he himself moved towards Sonkh. On 21st May 1691, the Kachhwahas captured Sogar with a surprise attack. Achala and Rustam Sogaria were [p.46]: stayed at Sogar. [3]

Meanwhile, some miscreants had gathered at Rarah (7 miles to north-east of Bharatpur). Gaj Singh attacked and captured it (September, 1693), though the defenders escaped.71 There was, however, no rest for Bishan Singh. Pressed ill one area, the rebel chieftains, Churaman, Ani Ram and others now raised their heads in the south-western region of Agra. Chaikora (8 miles to the south of Sikri), the castle of Maujea Jat, served as the base for their renewed activities. Bishan Singh, therefore, decided to besiege this garhi. But the Jat leaders had slipped away before he could do so. [4]

Jai Singh's Jat Expedition: Siege Of Thun (September 1716 - May 1718)

Dr Girish Chandra Dwivedi[5] mentions Rup Singh during Jai Singh's Jat Expedition: Siege Of Thun (September 1716 - May 1718)....

[p.67]: On 15th September (9th Shawwal), Jai Singh started on the auspicious day of Dashehra.51 Jai Singh commanded a big army consisting of about 50,000 cavalry and more of infantry.52 Promising to procure for him a mansab, the Raja

51. Roznamcha, 137; Shivadas, 16; Iqbal, 23; Ahwal 59; K.K., II 776; Memoires des Jats, 14; Siyar, I, 139; M.U. I,439; Majma-ul-Akhbar in Elliot, VIII, 360.

52. Shivdas. 16 and 25; Iqbal, 23; Memoires des Jats, 14 says that the big numbers gave the impression as if Jai Singh "was going to conquer a whole kingdom."

[p.68]: won over Bayzid Khan Mewati " a trusted follower of Churaman" and paced him to lead his vanguard.53

On getting the news of the Raja's coming, Churaman dispersed guerilla contingents under his son, Mohkam Singh, and his nephews, Badan Singh and Rup Singh to harass and intercept the invaders. When Jai Singh reached near Kama (14 miles south of Deeg, 24 miles south-west of Thun), Badan Singh, taking 2,000 horses, surprised Bayzid Khan, on 15th October, 1716. Bazid was wounded in the fight. But Badan Singh had to fall back after the arrival of Rajput re-inforcements. Ja1 Singh fixed his base camp at Kama. A few days later (end of October), he occupied Radhakund (4 miles, north of Gowardhan) and prepared to press the enemy on two sides.54 As Jai Singh moved on, the local Jat population, evacuating their dwellings, scattered to other places or repaired to Thun, where Churaman lay "determined to defend himself to the 1ast."55 The fort of Thun, with its lofty ramparts, a very deep ditch and thickly wooded environs, was rendered fairly strong. Churaman had stored provisions sufficient for several if not altogether 20 years. On the eve of the siege he asked the merchants to evacuate Thun leaving their goods and property behind. He assured them of compensation if he emerged victorious.56 Besides his own warrior tribesmen, Churaman had about 12,000 professional sanyasi fighters in his stronghold.He also employed many Afghans of Shahjahanpur and Bareilly at three rupees per day. This apart, he enjoyed the support of the local people including the Mewatis.57 who were ready to harass the imperialists through guerilla tactics.

In the second week of November, 1716, the imperialists moved closer to Thun. On 9th instant, Rup Singh with 2,000 horses fell upon the advance guards of the Raja. A severe action ensued near Thun in which Rup Singh was wounded and his brother Ani Ram fell, fighting bravely. The same day, Jai Singh fixed his camp near Thun and began efforts to-besiege the forts.58

53. Shivdas, 17; Iqbal, 24.

54. Akhbarat, 16, 18, 19,29,27 October, 1716.

55. Memoires des Jats. 14-15.

56, Shivdas, 19-20 and Iqbal. 26-27, assert that it was not Churaman but Jai Singh who asked the traders to move away from them. This looks funny. The truth is rather the other way round. Vide Irvine, Later Mughals, I,324; Qanungo, Jats, 52.

57. Shivdas, 16, 17, 18; Iqbal, 23, 24; Akhbarat, 20 October, 1716; Satish Chandra, Parties and Politics, 124.

58 Akhbarat, 9, 21 November, 1716, Kamwar, 11, 418.

[p.69]:.....The overall situation, however, did not materially change with the arrival of the fresh enforcements. Jai Singh could suppress neither the tenacious defenders nor the audacious robbers. Gallant Rup Singh and Muhkam Singh with their guerilla forces continued to resist successfully, the assailants. In the second week of December, 1717, the Rajputs attacked (Bhusawar, south of Thun), then defended by Chura's brother, Ati Ram. Rup Singh and Muhkam Singh, leading succour fought desperately but were overpowered. The Jats, then, fell back to Jharsauli to offer resistance to the south of Thun. In such continual fighting both sides 'suffered heavy losses'.

Dr Girish Chandra Dwivedi[6] mentions Rup Singh.... Subsequently, the Jat chief set out in the Sayyid's company with his Sons, brother and nephews for the Court.75 Reaching Delhi on 31 st March,

75. Shivadas, 22; Iqbal, 29.

[p.72]: 1718 (10th Jamadi I, 1130 A.H.), Churaman directly went to the Wazir and took up his residence close to his palace. This friendliness between them afflicted the heart of the Emperor and "strengthened the roots of (his) discord (with the Wazir)".76 On 9th April, 1718 (l9th Jamadi I) Churaman was formally presented to the Emperor by the Wazlr, Abdullah Khan. Churaman presented 1,000 asharfis, while his son, Muhkam Singh and two nephews, Rup Singh and probably Badan Singh presented 500 asharfis each. They were favoured with special khilats and horses. Other associates of the Jat chief were given ordinary khilats.77 Wendel asserts that Churaman received from the Emperor the title of 'Fateh Sihgh' with the appointments like the small Rajas.78 The terms of the treaty were finalised through Abdullah Khan. On 20th April, the Wazir submitted to the Emperor that a peshkash of 50 lakhs in cash and goods fixed up on Churaman to be paid in successive installments. Farrukh Siyar gave his approval.79

76 Kamwar, II, 426-427; Ahwal, 59; Siyar, I, 140; Also see KK, Il, 777.

77 Kamwar, II, 427; Roznamcha, 178 and 137; Shivdas 22 and 25; Iqbal, 30; Also Shah, 2. U.N. Sharma, (Itihas, I, 271) claims that the mansab of Churaman was increased, and the "high and decorative medal of Omra" was also granted to him.

78. Memoires des Jats, 84.

79. Kamwar, II, 427. Satish Chandra (Parties and Politics, 125) and following him Dr. Pande (Bharatpur, 21) say that Churaman surrendered Deeg etc. As the subsequent narrative would reveal, this surrender was effective on paper only.

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