Ratanpur

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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क
Ratanpur on Map of Bilaspur district
Ratanpur Fort

Ratanpur (रतनपुर) is an ancient historical village in Kota tahsil of Bilaspur district in Chhattisgarh.

Location

Ratanpur is in east of Kota town, situated about 25 km from Bilaspur on the Katghora Road.

Origin of name

Ratanpur derived its name after it was colonized by King Ratandev I. It is site of The Ratanpur fort built in Ratanpur, which is looked after by the Archaeological Survey of India.

Ratanpur in epics

Ratanpur city has been mentioned in Ashwamedha Parva of Mahabharat, links with Ramayana and has also been mentioned in Satyanarayan Katha.

There are many mythological stories connected to Ratanpur –

a) Kapardidev, husband of Ravana’s sister Surpanakha was ruling from this place in Treta Yuga. He kidnapped devi Parvati and consequently was killed by lord Shiva. Surpanakha wept so much on her husband’s bereavement that tears rolling from her kajal decorated eyes formed a pond of dark coloured water. This pond is known as Kajal Talab of Ratanpur.

b) This place is considered birth place of Kaushalya, mother of Lord Rama.

c) During Mahabharata period King Mordhwaj was ruler of Ratanpur. His son prince Tamradhwaj stopped the horse of Ashwamedha Yajya of Pandava King Yudhisthira and defeated great warrior Arjuna in following battle.

d) Mythology also has it that the shoulder of Lord Shiva’s consort Sati fell at Ratanpur making it one of the Shaktipeeths.

History

For some period in Fifth-Sixth Century A.D., Nala kings dominated this area followed by Kalchuri Kings of Tumman who had Ratanpur as their capital.

Ratanpur was once an important seat of power. Kalchuri Kings commanded Dakshin Koshala, area covering major part of Chhattisgarh state today, from Ratanpur. Thus Ratanpur was historic capital of Chhattisgarh and as such it has an important place in history and culture of Chhattisgarh state. In fact, even before Kalachuri Kings started ruling from Ratanpur, it has its own importance of being a city having its existence in all four yuga. It was known as Manipur in Stya Yuga and Dwapar Yuga, as Heerapur in Treta Yuga, as Ratnapur in early Kaliyuga and as Ratanpur in modern times.

Major role of Ratanpur in history started with Kalachuris. Kalachuris were one of the most prominent Kshatriyas of Medieval India. They ruled in various parts of India between 7th century to 18th Century. They had many branches. Most prominent ones are known as

Near 1000 AD prince Kalingaraja of Tripuri branch established his capital at Tamman and thus founded Ratanpur dynasty of Kalachris. This branch of Kalachris also called themselves Haihaiyavanshis. Around 1050 AD King Ratandev shifted capital of Kalchuri kingdom from Tumman to Ratanpur. Various Kings of this dynasty ruled over Dakshin-Koshala (the area now known as Chhattisgarh) for over 700 years from Ratanpur.

Ratanpur rulers

The rulers of the dynasty was as under- Kalingraja → Kamalaraja → Ratnadev → Prithvidev → Jajjwaldev → Ratnadev II etc. Among later kings Kalyan Sai was most prominent who was contemporary of Mughal King Jehangir. During their long rule Kalchuris left various powerful imprints in the area, which can be traced in and around Ratanpur.

History of Ratanpur Fort

Ratanpur Fort in Bilaspur, India is an old fort whose exact date of construction is shrouded in mystery. There is no historical evidence to dispel the haze that blurs the construction of this once impressive fort. There is also not enough information that could make it clear as to who commissioned the construction of this fort.

Ratanpur Fort, at present, lies in a dilapidated state. Due to the absence of proper maintenance, the fort has lost its grandeur and splendor. It is not difficult to form a conception as to how the fort looked during its prime. Dereliction with regard to its proper maintenance and preservation has stripped off the fort of its former magnificence. Here you can marvel and appreciate the exquisite stone sculpture over the frame of the Ganesh Gate. Take a close look at the idols of Ganga and Jamuna that grace the gate. At the entrance, Lord Shiva, in his Tandav Dance pose is bound to grab eyeballs.

Temples at Ratanpur

Ratanpur is also dotted with a number of temples among which mention must be made of the following temples:

  • The Mahamaya Temple,
  • Baba Bairavnath Temple,
  • Bhuddeshwar Shiva Temple,
  • Ekbira Temple,
  • Ratneswar Mahadev Temple.
  • Girijabandh Hanuman Mandir is an ancient shrine located at Ratanpur.

Bilaigarh Plates of Prithvideva II : Kalachuri year 896 (1144 AD)

English Translation
Success ! Ôm ! Adoration to Brahman !
  • (Veise.1) - Adoration to that reality Brahman, which is attributeless, all-pervasive, eternal and auspicious, the ultimate cause (of the universe) and supreme light conceivable by the mind.
  • (V. 2) The foremost luminary of the firmament is the sun, the Primeval Being. Then was born from him his son Manu, the first of kings. In his family there was Kârtavïrya born on the earth.
  • (V.3) - There was the king, the divine and illustrious Kârtavîtya, an ornament of the earth, who threw into bondage Râvana who had propitiated Siva with the embrace of (Parvati) the daughter of the Himalaya, who was terrified as he (the Râvana) lifted up the (Kailâsa) mountain with ease, and who (i.e. , Râvana) was greatly enraged when his offerings to the three-eyed (Siva), were washed away by the stream of the greatly flooded Rëvâ which was turned by the suddenly placed dam of his mighty arms.
  • (V. 4) - The king born in his family became known on the earth as Haihayas. An ornament of their family was that illustrious Kôkkala (I) endowed with all excellences who laid the fire of distress in the minds of (his) enemies, who accumulated fame after (amassing) the fortune of religious contemplation, (and) who was always dear to good people (as) one who made them happy.
  • (V. 5) - He had eighteen very valiant sons, who destroyed their enemies even as lions break open the frontal globes of elephants. The eldest of them, an excellent prince, became the lord of Tripuri and he made his brothers the lords of mandalas by his side.
  • (V. 6) - In the family of a younger brother of these there was born Kalingaraja who exterminated hostile kings with the fire of his valour and who was to the faces of the wives of the great warriors even as the full moon is to day-lotuses.
  • (V. 7)- From him also there was born a son who became famous by the name of Kamalarâja (and appeared) lovely with his far-spreading spotless glory. When the sun of his valour rose, the assemblages of lotuses bloomed even at night.
  • (V. 8) - Thereafter he begot Ratnarâja (I), whose face was like the moon, and who acquired a mass of religious merit by obliging the (whole) world; (and) who, destroying (his) enemies by the valour of the pair of his arms, spread (his) fame in the three worlds.
  • (V. 9) - (His wife) named Nônallâ was dear to him as valour is to a brave person. Their son was Prithvîdëva (I), the best of kings.
  • (V. 10) - The son of the queen Râjallâ, begotten by Prithvïdëva (I), was the brave king Jâjalladëva (I), the wish-fulfilling tree, bearing the fruit of fortune, which yielded their desired objects to good people, — (he) who was wont to worsbip ail gods; who was (annoying like) a thorn to his fierce foes, and the god of love incarnate to the extremely lovely ladies who saw him.
  • (Verse.11)- His son Prithvîdëva (II) of well-known fame, who has planted his lotus-like foot on the rows of hostile princes' heads, has become the lord of kings — (he) who, by devastating Chakrakota, overwhelmed the illustrious Ganga king with anxiety in regard to the crossing of the ocean which was the sole means (of saving his life).
  • (V. 12) - In the family of the sage Vatsa there was born formerly a Bràhmana named Hâpûka of great renown who, being foremost among those learned in the Vëdas, became dear to the world and possessed blameless prosperity, being smeared by whose glory, which in colour was as it were akin to powdered camphor and liquid sandal paste, the surface of the firmament shone all round.
  • (V. 13) - He had a well-known son named Jîmûtavâhana, who by his life sanctified the earth, and attracted prosperity by his merits, and in whose case the goddess of fortune herself gave up her natural fickleness.
  • (V. 14) - To him was born a wise son named Dëlhûka who has an intellect proficient in Vedântic principles and matchlessly radiant in regard to Smritis. Clever and noble as he is, his greatness is for obliging the (whole) world.
  • (V. 15) - Having learnt (from him) the Sakambhari vidyà, which is incomparable in all the worlds and having defeated his enemies with ease in the forefront of the battle Brahmadëva, the well-known feudatory (of Prithvïdêva II) regards him highly as the sole match for (Brihaspati) the preceptor of gods
  • (V. 16) - Prithvîdëva (II) granted him the village Paṇḍaratalāī in the Ēvaḍi mandala on the occasion of a solar eclipse.
  • (V. 17) - Those, who will be born in this family should confirm this copper (charter) so long as the serpent (Shesha) supports the earth with a thousand pillar-like hoods.
  • (V.18) - Whoever may hereafter be a king or a minister should also protect with care this religious gift of mine.
  • (Here follow four benedictive and imprecatory verses)
  • (V.23) - This prasasti incised on copper (plates) was composed by the illustrious Malhaṇa, the son of Śubhankara, who being well read is a bee on the lotuses in the form of poets and has used words with splendid significance in a large number of prabandhas (works).
  • (V.24) - These excellent copper-plates were prepared by Vâmana, written by a son of Kîrti, and incised by a son of Lakshmidhara.
The year 896 . .

Seal


The King, the illustrious Prithvîdëva.
Bilaigarh Plates of Prrithvideva II : Kalachuri year 896 (1144 AD)[1]

Reference - Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 551-554


No 89 ; Plate LXXII

These plates were discovered in 1945 at Bilaigarh, the chief town of the former Bilaigarh Zamindarî, in the Raipur District of the Chhattisgarh Division in Madhya Pradesh. They were sent by the Commissioner of the Chhattisgarh Division to the Government Epigraphist for India. They are edited here for the first time from an excellent impression kindly supplled by the Government Epigraphist.

They are two copper-plates measuring 11 8" broad and 6 5" high. They weigh 137 tolas. They have their rims raised for the protection of the writing and contain marginal decorative designs on three sides. They were strung together by means of a ring, about 1.8 in diameter. The central portion of the ring was flattened into a round disk to serve as a seal of the plates. The upper half of this seal contains the figure of Gaja-Lakshmi in relief while the lower half has the legend Kāja-srīmat-Prithvīdevah engraved in two lines. The record consists of 36 lines, 18 being inscribed on the inner side of each plate. The average size of the letters is .25".

The characters are Nagari Worthy of note are the forms of the following letters : — Initial i consists of two curves with a looped end, turned in opposite directions and placed one below the other ; see iti, L-9 , dh is in a transitional form , its top does not yet show a horn, but the vertical stroke is slightly bent to the left, see -narādhipa-, L-16, the left limb of ś has become separated from the vertical on the right; see śūra- L-12. The avagraha is used to indicate the elision of a in lines 3, 10, 17, 20 and 29.

The language is Sanskrit Except for om namô Vrahmanë in, the first Line and the date in the last, the whole record is metrically composed. The verses, of which there are twenty-four, are all numbered The orthography shows the usual peculiarities, viz. , the use of v for b except in the form babhûvuh ; see vrahamanê, L.1 ; of s for ś as in sasvata-, L.4, and Vice versa in -sahaśrëna, L. 28, and the reduplication of the consonant following r; see nirggunam, L.1,

The inscription refers itself to the reign of Prithvïdëvâ II of the Kalachuri Dynasty of Ratanpur. The object of it is to record the royal grant of the village Paṇḍaratalāī situated in the Ēvaḍi-mandala to a Brâhmana named Dêlhûka on the occasion of a solar eclipse. The plates were granted in the year 896 of an unspecified era. The record was composed by Malhaṇa, the son of Śubhankara. The copper-plates were prepared by Vâmana and the charter was written on them by a son of Kîrti. The writer's personal name is not mentioned in the present inscription due to the exigencies of the metre, but he may be identical with Sûpata the son of Kïrtidhara, who wrote a grant of this very king Prithvîdëva II in the following year K 897. The record was incised by an unnamed son of Lakshmidhara. Lakshmïdhara incised the Sarkhô plates of Ratnadêva II, dated K 880 and the Amôdâ plates of Prithvîdëva II, dated K. 900. His son, who incised the present plates, may have been Dharanïdhara, mentioned in the grant of K. 897.


The date of the present inscription must evidently be referred to the Kalachun era. No details of the solar eclipse mentioned in it are given, but supposing that it occurred in the same year in which the plates were issued, as seems probable, we get some data for verification. According to the epoch of 247-48 A.C , there were two solar eclipses in the expired Kalachuti yeat 896, one of which occurred in the purnimànta Mâgha (on the 6th December 1144 A.C) and the other in the pûrmmànta Ashâdha (on the 22nd June -1145 AC), while there was none in the current Kalachuri year 896. The plates were therefore granted some time in the year 1144-45 A.C

The genealogy of Prithvïdëva II down to his father Ratnadëva II is given here in verses 3-10 which are repeated Verbatim from the earlier grants of the dynasty as the prasasti had then become stereotyped Verse 11 which describes the reigning king is, however, new and occurs only in the present grant. It gives the interesting information that Prithvïdëva II filled the contemporary Ganga king with anxiety when he devastated Chakrakota, as the Ganga king realised that the only way to save his life was to cross the ocean. Chakrakota bas been identified with the central portion of the former Bastar State. The name probably survives in the present Chitrakuta, about 30 miles north by west of Jagdalpur, the capital of the former Bastar State.[2] The Ganga adversary of Prithvïdëva II is not named, but as the devastation of Chakrakôta had taken place some time before 1144-45 AC, when the present grant was made, it must have occurred during the reign of Anantavarman-Chôdaganga. This mighty Ganga Emperor had invaded the Kalachuri kingdom towards the close of the reign of Ratnadëva II, but he suffered an ignominious defeat. Soon after his accession Prithvidëva II seems to have attacked and devastated Chakrakôta. The Rajim stone inscription, dated in the same year as the present grant, viz , K 896, states that Jagapāla conquered Kākayara, modem Kānker, which borders the former Bastar State on the north, during the reign of Prithvïdëva II. The Kalachuri kings were often at war with the Naga rulers of Chakrakôta. Prithvïdëva II's grandfather Jâjalladëva I had taken the Nâga king Sômêsvara prisoner and released him only at the intercession of his mother. The history of the Nâga kingdom of Chakrakôta is still enveloped in obscurity. Sômësvara was succeeded by Kanharadëva who was reigning 1111 AC. His successor, whose name is still unknown, must have been the adversary of Prithvïdëva II.

Prithvïdëva II's devastation of Chakrakôta is said to have struck terror in the heart of Anantavarman-Chôdaganga, who ruled over the neighbouring kingdom of Kalinga. The Kalachuri king does not seem to have attacked the Ganga kingdom on this occasion. Jagapâla's inscnption also does not mention any victory over the Ganga king though it mentions the conquest of Bhramaravadradësa which was probably identical with the Bhramarakôtyamandala in the Nâga kingdom. Prithvïdëva invaded the Ganga territory later on during the reign of Jateśvara alias Madhukāmārnava, the son and successor of Anantavarman.

The pedigree of the donee begins in verse 12. His grandfather was Hāpūka Who belonged to the Vatsa gôtra. He was famous for his knowledge of the Vëdas. His son was Jīmûtavâhana and the latter's son was Dêlhûka to whom the present grant was made. He is eulogised as proficient in the Vëdânta philosophy and the Sakambhari vidyâ.


Of the geographical names which occur in the present grant, Kôsala has already been shown to be the ancient name of Chhattisgarh and the adjoining territory to the east. Paṇḍaratalâï, the village granted may be identical with that mentioned min the Shëorinârâyan inscription of K 919, where Amanadëva, a scion of a collateral branch of the Kalachuri family, made some benefactions. There are several vjllages of the name Pendri or Pendriâ in Chhattisgarh, but the one nearest to Bilaigarh and Shëorinaràyan is Pendriâ, about 7 miles north-west of the latter place Èvaḍi, the head-quarters of the mandala of the same name, cannot be identified.

Ratanpur stone inscription of of Prithvideva II : Kalachuri year 915 (1163 AD)

Reference - Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 501

This inscription was brought to notice as early as 1825 by Sir Richard Jenkins who published a short account of it in the Asatic Researches, Vol XV, pp 504-5.

The inscription is one of Brahmadêva, a feudatory prince of Prithvïdëva II, of the Kalachuri Dynasty of Ratanpur. The object of it is to record the religious and charitable works of Brahmadêva at several places. It is dated in the year 915 (expressed in decimal figures only) of an unspecified era. This date must, of course, be referred to the Kalachuri era. The year, if expired, would correspond to 1163-64 A.C. This is the last known date^ for Prithvïdëva, for the next certain Kalachuri date 919 belongs to the reign of his successor Jâjalladëva II.


The inscription opens with the customary obeisance to Siva, which is followed by three verses invoking the blessings of the deity. The next verse describes Sesha, the lord of serpents Verses 5-8 eulogise the Talahari-mandala which is called an ornament of the earth.

The only point of historical interest mentioned in the extant portion is that he obtained a victory over Jatesvara who is evidently identical with the homonyms son of Anantavarman Chôdaganga. We are next told that Prithvïdêva, the lord of Kôsala, called him from the Talahâri-mandala, and entrusting the government of his country to him, obtained peace of mind. This Prithvïdëva is evidently the second prince of that name in the Kalachuri dynasty of Ratanpur. The next eighteen verses (22-39) describe the benefactions of Brahmadëva. He constructed a temple of Dhûrjati (Siva) at Mallâla and excavated a tank, evidently at the same place. The religions merit of the former he assigned to his lord, Prithvïdëva. Besides these, he built ten shrines of Tryambaka (Siva) and dug two lotus-ponds at some place, the name of which is lost. At Varëlâpura he constructed a grand temple of Srîkantha and at Ratnapur he built nine shrines of Parvati. At the latter place he excavated also a large step-well and two tanks, one on the north and the other on the south of the City. Several other religious and charitable works of Brahmadëva are next mentioned, viz, a tank at the village Gôṭhâlî, a temple of Dhûrjati at Nârâyanapura, tanks at Bamhanï, Charauya and Tëjallapura, a temple of Siva at Kumatâkôta and a mango-grove as well as a charitable feeding house evidently at the same place. Verse 39 records that he donated the village Lôṇâkara to the god Sômanâtha who is probably identical with the deity installed in the temple at Kumarâkôta.

The next two verses (40-41) are devoted to the description of Anantapâla of the Gauda limeage, who was a keeper of records, and his son Tribhuvanapâla who composed the present prasasti. Then are mentioned the scribe Kumârapâla and the engravers Dhanapati and Isvara (V 43-44).

As for the localities mentioned in the present inscription, Mallâla is evidently modern Mallâr, 16 miles south-east of Bilaspur. Varëlâpura or Barëlapura is Barëlâ, 10 miles south of Ratanpur. Nârâyanapura and Bamhanï still retain their names, the former is situated on the Mahànadï in the Raipur District, while the latter is 4 miles north by east of Akaltarâ. Rai Bahadur Hiralal identified Kumarâkôta with Kotgadh, but from some other records the old name of the latter appears to have been Vikarnapura. Gôṭhâlî, Chatauya and Tëjallapura cannot now be traced, but the last of these may have been situated not very far from Shëormârâyan, for it seems to hâve been founded by Tëjalladëva, a Kalachuri prince of a collateral branch, who is mentioned in an inscription at Shëormârâyan.* Finally, Talahâri mandala is probably identical with the ancient Taraḍamsaka bhukti mentioned in the Mallâr plates of Mahâ-Siva-gupta. It is highly glorified in the present inscription probably because Mallâr and other places, where Brahmadëva constructed his religious and charitable works, were included in it. It seems thus to have comprised the southern portions of the Bilaspur and Janjgir tahsils and the northern portion of the Raipur District.


Wiki editor notes -

  • Mallāla - Mallāla is modern Malhar, 16 miles south-east of Bilaspur district, in Masturi tahsil.
  • Gôṭhâlî - ?
  • Chatauya - ?
  • Tejallapura - ?
  • Talahâri - Talahari mandala is probably identical with the ancient Taraḍamsaka bhukti mentioned in the Mallâr plates of Mahâ-Siva-gupta. Tarad is a Jat Clan.

on a black stone which is said to have been found at Mallār a village 16 miles south-west of Bilaspur in the tahsîl and district of Bilaspur (now in Masturi tahsil as Malhar) in Chhattisgarh.

The inscription refers itself to the reign of Jâjalladëva II of the Kalachuri Dynasty of Ratanpur. The object of it is to record the construction, at Mallâr, of a temple of Siva under the name of Kêdârabya Brâhmana named Sômarâja. It is dated in the year 919 (expressed in decimal figures only) of an unspecified era. The date must, of course be referred to the Kalachuri era. The year, expired would correspond to 1167-68 A.C.

After two mangal-slôkas invoking the blessings of Siva and Ganapati, the inscription describes Ratnadëva as a fierce cloud which extinguished the continuously raging flames of the spreading mighty fire of the valour of the king Chôdaganga.' This plainly refers to the victory of Ratnadëva II over Anantavarman - Chôdaganga, the mighty king of Kalinga. We are next told that Ratnadëva (II) had a son named Prithvïdêva (II), whose son Jâjalladëva (II) was ruling when the present record was put up

The inscription next gives the genealogy of Sômarâja. At the village Kumbhaṭî in Madhya-desa (Middle Country) watered by the celestial river (Gangâ), there lived a Brâhmana named Prïthvïdhara of Krishnâtrëya gotra with pravaras Atrëya, Ārchanânasa and Syavasva. His son Gangâdhara came, in course of time, to the country of Tummâna where he was honoured by Ratnadêva II with the gift of the village Kôsambï Gangâdhara's son, Sômarâja was proficient in both the Mîmâmsâs, the Nyâya and Varsësesika systems, and refuted the doctrines of the Charvakas, Bauddhas and Jainas. He constructed a temple of the god Këdara at Mallâla, at which the present inscription was evidently put up. The record was composed by Ratnasimha, the son of name, who belonged to the Vâstavya family and owed his rise to the llustnous Râghava. The latter is evidently identical with the homonymous astrologer who is mentioned as one of the donees in the Amôda plates of Jâjalladëva II. Both Mame and Ratnasimha are mentioned in the Ratanpur stone inscription of the reign of Prithvïdëva II, dated V 1207, which was composed by Ratnasimha's son Dëvagana. The present record was written on the stone by the Kshatriya Kumârapâla of the race of Sahasrâijuna, who, as already stated, is named as the scribe in several other records. It was incised by the sculptor Sâmpuia.

Of the geographical names mentioned here, Madhya-dësa roughly corresponds to the present Uttar Pradesh. Kumbhatî can not be identified. Tunamâna has already been shown to be identical with Tumân, 16 miles north-east of Ratanpur. Mallâla is clearly Mallâr (Malhar) in Masturi tahsil of Bilaspur district, where the stone is said to have been found. There is no Village in the Bilaspur District exactly correspond mg to Kôsamvî or Kôsambï, but if Kôsamvi of the text is a mistake for Kosandhï, the village would be represented by Kôsamdih, 8 miles from Mallâr.


Wiki editor note -

  • Tumân - The ruins of capital of Kalacuris Tuman can be still seen in north-west of Laafaagadh Jamindari (Kota tahsil) in present Bilaspur district. [3] Lufa or Lapha town in in north of Pali town.

Sanskrit text

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Wiki editor notes

References


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