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Location of Mavanda in Sikar District

Mawanda (मावण्डा) (Maonda, Mavanda, Maunda) is a medium-size village in Neem Ka Thana tehsil of Sikar district in Rajasthan.

It may be a group of two villages:

Jat Gotras


The Battle of Maonda 14.12.1767

The famous battle of Maonda took place on 14 December 1767 between the armies of Maharaja Jawahar Singh of Bharatpur and the Raja of Jaipur. [1]

K. R. Qanungo[2]describes about The Battle of Maonda as under:

[p.118]: No incident of the history of the eighteenth century is so green in the memory of the country-side, and nothing is so much distorted by national prejudices as the armed pilgrimage of Jawahar Singh to Pushkar through Jaipur territory - the fierce battle of Mawda (Maonda), and his inglorious retreat. The Jat attributes the disaster to the intrigue of the Rao Raja Pratap Singh the founder of the Alwar State - who having quarrelled with his suzerain, Madho Singh of Jaipur, fled for protection to Suraj Mal, and afterwards incited Jawahar Singh against his overlord. He is said to have treacherously deserted Jawahar and directed the Jaipur army to attack the Jats when entangled in a difficult pass. The Rajput version on the other hand is that Jawahar Singh demanded the surrender of the wife of Nahar Singh, which the Maharaja of Jaipur declined because the lady feared ill-treatment at the hands of Jawahar. She afterwards swallowed poison,7 lest a calamity should befall her protector on her account. The brave Naruka chief whose patriotism prevailed over his sense of gratitude for the hospitality of the Jat, came over to the army of Jaipur and fought for upholding the honour of his country. No more authentic account of it can be found than that in the unbiased narrative

7. Appendix, p. 111, Life of Maharaja Sawai Iswari Singh (in Hindi) by Thakur Narendra Singh Verma, Vaidic Press, Ajmer.

[p.119]: of Father Wendel, who penned it within twelve months of its occurrence.

"The Jats .... had for many years past some quarrels (with the Raja of Jaipur) regarding a small tract of country8 not far from Deeg, where there was always subject for misunderstanding, as ordinarily happens on the frontier between different territories. It went at last to the extent of having troublesome consequence by an open rupture which appeared inevitable. This affair, however, had been, or seemed about to be settled by compromise. Jawahar Singh proud of his forces9 and riches and puffed up by his fortune, did not cease to treat haughtily the Rajputs and their Raja, and also with a certain insolence which was neither seasonable nor decent for him .... He at this time took the fancy to go and make a pilgrimage to the Pushkar lake in Marwar territory, close to Ajmer and to have also an interview with the Rathor Raja of that country, with whom he commenced a sort of limited friendship .... Having then with this design assembled all his forces, more to make a show than from necessity, in spite of the dissuasions of others, he began the journey of more than 70 kos outside his own country with a numerous10 army, as if he was going to fight against all the Rajputs and conquer their territories" [French MS., p. 67].

With banners unfurled and drums beating, the Jat proudly set is foot upon the soil of Amber and marched

8. This refers to Kama (long. 77°-20' lat. 27°-40'), situated about 15 miles north-west of Deeg. Kama was for a long time a bone of contention between the two States. Raja Ranjit Singh Jat got it from Mahadji Sindhia and since then has been in possession of the Bharatpur Rajas.

9. Jawahar Singh had a large and well-disciplined army led by able European captains. Somru had been in his employ since 1765 and M. Rene Madec, the renowned French general joined his service in the month of June or July of the year 1767 (Le Nabob Rene Madec, p. 45]. The restless mind of the Raja hit upon this adventure as an opportunity to test the minds of his army upon the Kachhwahas.

10. Harcharan, author of the Chahar-Gulzar-i-Shujai gives an exaggerated estimate of Jawahar's army: "Sixty thousand horses, one lakh of footmen, and two hundred guns."

[p.120]: triumphantly towards the holy lake, doing great damage to the Rajput territory. A momentary stupor had seized the Kachhwaha, but the heir of Man Singh and Mirza Raja Jai Singh could not long bear the defiant flourishes of the enemy (challenging him to a trial of strength). The whole of Amber, peasants and lords, rose to their feet to strike a blow for her honour. Maharaja Madho Singh, whose fiery Sisodia blood had been cooled down by old age and misfortune, was roused to a sense of his honour by his feudal chiefs. They said to him in indignation and sorrow, "Will you suffer to be thus insulted by a man whose father and grand-father were the tenants of your house and who stood with folded hands before your ancestors?" "By no means" replied the Raja "so long as the seed of Kachhwahas remains on earth." The levy en masse of Amber was ordered. Dalel Singh and other Rajput chiefs with twenty thousand horsemen and an equal number of infantry occupied the road by which Jawahar was expected to return.

Raja Jawahar Singh had reached the holy lake and after finishing his ablutions there, he halted for some days and sealed a vow of friendship by the exchange of turbans with Raja Bijay Sing Rathor, who met him there. The Rajputs were watching his return march; but his army being a large and powerful one, they did not offer him a pitched battle. Jawahar Singh avoided the direct route, and tried to make his way through Tornawati, a hilly country, thirty miles north of Jaipur. Rao Raja Pratap Singh who had been for several years a refugee at Bharatpur, now deserted Jawahar Singh, and joined the forces of Jaipur. He counselled an attack upon the Jat army while it was threading its way trouh a defile and the famous battle of Maonda was fought on the 14th Dec. 1767.

This battle has been the theme of many a stirring ballad; each side claiming the victory and extolling the heroism of their respective chiefs. The memory of this ancient feud still causes some heart-burning to both peoples. M. Madec who had accompanied Raja Jawahar Singh to Pushkar, and fought for him on a occasion, has left the following account of event. "The latter [Raja of Jaipur], piqued by the insult, followed the Jats, with his army, on their return. He had

[p.121]: 16,000 cavalry. Near Jaipur the Jats had to traverse a defile. They made their baggage go ahead, in such a way as to cover them. They hoped to escape the pursuit of their enemies, but were overtaken and attacked at a disadvantage. The Jats routed them by a counter-march. The artillery and infantry of the assailants were too slow. The Jats took advantage of it to enter the defile, preceded by their baggages at a distance of three leagues. The Raja of Jaynagar engaged in pursuing them in the gorge, and overtook them in the middle. The Jats then made a half-turn to offer battle.

They engaged towards noon. The enemy cavalry put at the very first, that of the Jats to the rout. The latter saved themselves by falling back upon their baggage, crying out that all was lost; the peasants then plundered a great part of the baggage. But the party of Madec and that of the German Sombre, who laboured in that affair with all the bravery and prudence of a great soldier, restored the battle and defeated the Raja of Jaynagar. Nearly 10,000 men fell in the two armies together, among them nearly all the generals of the enemy's army. The victors, deprived of their baggage, of which they could not find even the fragments, were themselves put to great hardship. They had to abandon a part of their artillery11 on account of the state of the road" (Le Nabob Rene Madec, pp. 49, 50).

11. Wendel thus describes the plight of the vanquished: "The fortune of the Jats remains shaken and the result has been entirely fatal to them. They have returned home despoiled, stupefied and overthrown, and Jawahar Singh, having left there all his train of artillery (70 pieces of different calibres), tents and baggage" [French MS, 68]. Suraj Mal the bard of Bundi, commemorates this episode thus:

ताबत छत्र अरु तोप कोस लुट्टे कच्छबाहन।
भरतनेर गए जट्ट मारवाय सिपाहन॥
जित्ते कुरम जोध नाग जट्टन गिनि नाहर।
समरु बेहुनजु संग जाय पकरेहिं जवाहर॥
संस्कृत भुजंग ससिमान सक 1824 हमतक यह जंग हुब।
जयनेर विजय जट्टन भजन भइ विदित आव्रज भुब॥

[p.122]: On that fateful day Jawahar Singh fought with his accustomed vigour and tenacity, and maintained his ground till the darkness of evening brought him respite. Dalel Singh the brave commander-in-chief of the Jaipur army fell in the fight with three generations of his descendants and none but boys of ten remained to represent the baronial houses of Jaipur. The aggressor, however, was overthrown and once more it was proved that God is not always with the heaviest battalion as tyrants believe.

मांवडा-मंढोली युद्ध

भांडारेज राजावतों के अधिकार में: कुम्भाणीयों के बाद भांडारेज राजावतों के अधिकार में आ गया तथा स्वतंत्रता प्राप्ति के के बाद विलीनीकरण तक यह धूला संस्थान का क़स्बा था मांवडा - मंढोली को विषयवस्तु बनाकर लिखे गए धूला इतिहास 'कूर्म-विजय' में उल्लेख है कि बूंदी अभियान के सिलसिले में दलेलसिंह राजावत की सेवाओं से प्रसन्न होकर सवाई जयसिंह ने उन्हें दो परगने - भांडारेज और खेड़ा बख्शे.[3]

दलेलसिंह राजावत का मांवडा-मंढोली युद्ध में प्राणोत्सर्ग:सवाई ईश्वरी सिंह के शासनकाल में राव दलेलसिंह ने राजमहल की लड़ाई सहित अनेक युद्धों में भाग लिया. तत्पश्चात सवाई माधव सिंह प्रथम के शासनकाल में जयपुर रियासत और भरतपुर महाराजा जवाहरसिंह के बीच 14 दिसंबर 1767 में नीम का थाना के पास मांवडा-मंढोली नामक स्थान पर भीषण युद्ध लड़ा गया, जिसमें जयपुर की सेना का नेतृतव वयोवृद्ध राव दलेलसिंह ने किया। इस युद्ध में दलेल सिंह ने अपने कुंवर लक्षमण सिंह और मात्र 11 पौत्र भंवर राजसिंह सहित लड़ते हुए वीरगति प्राप्त की. इस प्रकार मांवडा-मंढोली के रणक्षेत्र में धूला (भांडारेज) की एक साथ तीन पीढ़ियां काम आईं. [4]

रणमल सिंह ने लिखा है कि हमारे गाँव कटराथल के दो राजपूत जयपुर-भरतपुर के बीच हुये युद्ध (मावण्डा) में मारे गए थे। उनकी छतरियाँ आज भी गाँव मैं मौजूद हैं। [5]

Pachewar was a Tajimi thikana of Khangarot Kachhwahas. Shyam Singh Khangarot was a noted Jagirdar of Pachewar during the reign of Sawai Jaisingh. Shyam Singh's great grandson Jeet Singh (Ajeet Singh) died in fighting with Jats in Maonda- Mandoli war in 1767.[6]

मांवडा-मंढोली युद्ध:ठाकुर देशराज के इतिहास में

ठाकुर देशराज[7] लिखते हैं कि भारतेन्दु जवाहरसिंह ने पुष्कर स्नान के उद्देश्य से सेनासहित यात्रा शुरू की। प्रतापसिंह भी महाराज के साथ था। जाट-सैनिकों के हाथ में बसन्ती झण्डे फहरा रहे थे। जयपुर नरेश के इन जाटवीरों की यात्रा का समाचार सुन कान खड़े हो गए। वह घबड़ा-सा गया। हालांकि जवाहरसिंह इस समय किसी ऐसे इरादे में नहीं गए थे, पर यात्रा की शाही ढंग से। जयपुर नरेश या किसी अन्य ने उनके साथ कोई छेड़-छाड़ नही की और वह गाजे-बाजे के साथ निश्चित स्थान पर पहुंच गए।

स्नान-ध्यान करने के पश्चात् भी महाराज कुछ दिन वहां रहे। राजा विजयसिंह से उनकी मित्रता हुई। इधर महाराज के जाते ही राजपूत सामंतो में तूफान-सा मच गया। उधर के शासित जाट और इस शासक जाट राजा को वे एक दृष्टि से देखने

जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-656

लगे। इस क्षुद्र विचार के उत्पन्न होते ही सामंतों का संतुलन बिगड़ गया और वे झुण्ड जयपुर नरेश के पास पहुंचकर उन्हें उकसाने लगे। परन्तु जाट सैनिकों से जिन्हें कि उन्होंने जाते देख लिया था, उनकी वीरता और अधिक तादात को देखकर, आमने-सामने का युद्ध करने की इनकी हिम्मत न पड़ती थी।

जवाहरसिंह को अपनी बहादुर कौम के साथ लगाव था, उसकी यात्रा का एकमात्र उद्देश्य पुष्कर-स्नान ही नहीं था, वरन् वहां की जाट-जनता की हालत को देखना भी था। उनको मालूम हुआ कि तौरावाटी (जयपुर का एक प्रान्त) में अधिक संख्या जाट निवास करते हैं तो उधर वापस लौटने का निश्चय किया। राजपूतों ने लौटते समय उन पर आक्रमण करने की पूरी तैयारी कर ली थी। यहां तक कि जो निराश्रित प्रतापसिंह भागकर भरतपुर राज की शरण में गया था और उन्होंने आश्रय ही नहीं, कई वर्ष तक अपने यहां सकुशल और सुरक्षित रखा था, षड्यन्त्र में शामिल हो गया। उसने महाराज की ताकत का सारा भेद दे दिया। राजपूत तंग रास्ते, नाले वगैरह में महाराज जवाहरसिंह के पहुंचने की प्रतीक्षा करते रहे। वे ऐसा अवसर देख रहे थे कि जाट वीर एक-दूसरे से अलग होकर दो-तीन भागों में दिखलाई पड़ें तभी उन पर आक्रमण कर दिया जाए।

तारीख 14 दिसम्बर 1767 को महाराज जवाहरसिंह एक तंग रास्ते और नाले में से निकले। स्वभावतः ही ऐसे स्थान पर एक साथ बहुत कम सैनिक चल सकते हैं। ऐसी हालत में वैसे ही जाट एक लम्बी कतार में जा रहे थे। सामान वगैरह दो-तीन मील आगे निकल चुका था। आमने-सामने के डर से युद्ध न करने वाले राजपूतों ने इसी समय धावा बोल दिया। विश्वास-घातक प्रतापसिंह पहले ही महाराज जवाहरसिंह का साथ छोड़कर चल दिया था। घमासान युद्ध हुआ। जाट वीरों ने प्राणों का मोह छोड़ दिया और युद्ध-भूमि में शत्रुओं पर टूट पड़े। जयपुर नरेश ने भी अपमान से क्रोध में भरकर राजपूत सरदारों को एकत्रित किया। जयपुर के जागीरदार राजपूतों के 10 वर्ष के बालक को छोड़कर सभी इस युद्ध में शामिल हुए थे। सब सरदार छिन्न-भिन्न रास्ते जाते हुए जाट-सैनिकों पर पिल पड़े। जाट सैनिकों ने भी घिर कर युद्ध के इस आह्नान को स्वीकार किया और घमासान युद्ध छेड़ दिया। आक्रमणकारियों की पैदल सेना और तोपखाना बहुत कम रफ्तार से चलते थे। जाट-सैनिकों ने इसका फायदा उठाया और घाटी में घुसे। करीब मध्यान्ह के दोनों सेनाएं अच्छी तरह भिड़ीं। इस समय महाराज जवाहरसिंह जी की ओर से मैडिक और समरू की सेनाओं ने बड़ी वीरता और चतुराई से युद्ध किया। जाट-सैनिकों ने जयपुर के राजा को परास्त किया। परन्तु जाटों की ओर से सेना संगठित और संचालित होकर युद्ध-क्षेत्र में उपस्थित न होने के कारण इस लड़ाई मे महाराज जवाहरसिंह को सफलता नहीं मिली। लेकिन वह स्वयं सदा की भांति असाधारण वीरता और जोश के साथ अंधेरा होने तक युद्ध करते रहे।

जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-657

जयपुर सेना का प्रधान सेनापति दलेलसिंह, अपनी तीन पीढ़ियों के साथ मारा गया। यद्यपि इस युद्ध में महाराज को विजय न मिली और हानि भी बहुत उठानी पड़ी, परन्तु साथ ही शत्रु का भी कम नुकसान नहीं हुआ। कहते हैं युद्ध में आए हुए करीब करीब समस्त जागीरदार काम आये और उनके पीछे जो 8-10 साल के बालक बच रहे थे, वे वंश चलाने के लिए शेष रहे थे।


As per Census-2011 statistics, Mawanda Kalan village has the total population of 2810 (of which 1460 are males while 1350 are females).[8]

Notable persons

External Links


  1. History of the Jats:Dr Kanungo,p.120
  2. History of the Jats:Dr Kanungo/Reign of Raja Jawahar Singh,pp.118-122
  3. Dr. Raghavendra Singh Manohar:Rajasthan Ke Prachin Nagar Aur Kasbe, 2010,p. 11
  4. Dr. Raghavendra Singh Manohar:Rajasthan Ke Prachin Nagar Aur Kasbe, 2010,p. 12
  5. रणमल सिंह के जीवन पर प्रकाशित पुस्तक - 'शताब्दी पुरुष - रणबंका रणमल सिंह' द्वितीय संस्करण 2015, ISBN 978-81-89681-74-0, पृष्ठ 111
  6. Dr. Raghavendra Singh Manohar:Rajasthan Ke Prachin Nagar Aur Kasbe, 2010,p. 70
  7. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter IX,pp.656-658

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