Puran Singh

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Puran Singh or Puran Singh Jat (पूरनसिंह जाट) was a Chieftain of Garhwal clan 13th century at Garhmukteshwar in Hapur district in the state of Uttar Pradesh.



It is believed that Garhwal gotra of the Jats was named after the 52 chieftains of the Jats, who had 52 Garhs [fortresses], each chief with his own independent fortress (garh). Nearly 500 years ago, one of these chiefs, Ajai Pal, reduced all the minor principalities under his own sway, and founded the Garhwal kingdom.

According to Thakur Deshraj[1], during the period of Anangpal they were the rulers of Garhmukteshwar. One ancestor of Rajpal was Jat chieftain named Mukta Singh, who constructed the Garhmukteshwar fort. When Prithvi Raj became the ruler of Delhi he attacked Garhmukteshwar. There was a severe war and Garhwals were able to repel the army of Prithvi Raj Chauhan but the circumstances of that time forced them to move out from there and migrated to Rajasthan.

At Talawdi when there was war between Muhammad Ghori and Prithvi Raj, Jats attacked the army of Mughals but they did not support Prithvi Raj because he had occupied their state. One Jat warrior Puran Singh became General of the Army of Malkhan. Malkhan had become popular due to support of Puran Singh.

When Garhwals lost Garhmukteshwar, they came to Rajasthan and occupied Ker, Bhatiwar, Chhawsari etc near Jhunjhunu in 13th century. As per their bards when these people came to this place, Johiya, Mohiya Jats were the rulers of this area. Bhats have mentioned them as Tomars. When Muslim influence increased in this area they had wars with them as a result they moved from here to there. One of these groups moved to ‘Kuloth’, which was ruled by Chauhans.[2] After a war they occupied Kuloth. Sardar Kurdaram who was a descendant of Garhwals of Kuloth had been tehsildar of Nawalgarh.

It is also said that due to war from inside of the fort they were called Garhwals. Those who fought war from out side the fort were called ‘Bahrola’ or ‘Barola’. Those who fought on the gate were called ‘Falsa’ (local name for gate). It shows that this gotra is title based. [3]

Another view is that possibly they were Panduvansi or Kuntals. Bhats have mentioned them as Tomars and Tomars were also Panduvansi. [4]

Garhmukteshwar has also been mentioned in the Bhagvat Purana and the Mahabharata. It is said that it was a part of the ancient city of Hastinapur (the capital of the Kauravas). There was an ancient fort here, which was repaired by a Maratha leader named Mir Bhawan. The name of the place is derived from the great temple of Mukteshwar Mahadeva, dedicated to the goddess Ganga who is worshipped here in four temples, two situated on a high cliff and two blow it.

Malkhan and Puran Jat in Archaeological Survey of India Report

Source - Archaeological Survey of India, Report of a Tour in Bundelkhand and Malwa, 1871-72 and in the Central Provinces, 1873-74 by J D Beglar, Assistant Archaeological Survey, Vol. VII, Calcutta, 1878, p.15-16

[p.15]: Prithi Raj, who was at Sambhar with a large army, immediately marched towards Mahoba, and first threatened Sirsa, or Sirwagarh, the Governor of which, Malkhan, sent pressing appeals for aid to Parmal, but Mahil Deva persuaded Parmal to reply lightly that, as he was Governor of Sirwa, he should defend it and drive out Prithi Paj, as, though the invasion was of such small moment that the Governor of a single district could hurl it back.

Malkhan, though greatly hurt at this supercilious reply.

[p.16]: nevertheless determined to do his utmost to resist. He despatehed Puran Jat, one of his chiefs, to secure the ghat near Gwalior, and prepared his forces to oppose Prithi Raj.

Prithi Raj had many brave commanders, all relatives of his own ; the names of some of them have been preserved, Janjhan Ray, Kaimach Ray, sons of Someswar, brothers of Prithi Raj ; Harwal Sing and Mardan Sing, sons of Prithi Paj ; Jangi Ray, Dimbha Ray, Nahar Deo and Nahar Pal, Dhandu Ray and Chawand Ray (Chohat Mal), commanders of the right and left. Prithi Paj at last advanced up to Sirwagarh, reaching it in 12 days from Sambhar ; he attacked it three times, and was repulsed, the third time with the loss of Dimbha Ray. At that time there appears to have been no ravines about Sirwagarh, and the expression “ kos bhare Sirsa-ke-kacchar gyo parke tha bharat se” shews that nearly a kos of level land then intervened between the fort and the kachar or steep bank of the river Pahoj.

A last great battle was fought, when Malkhan with desperate courage sallied forth to attack Prithi Raj himself in his camp. The battle raged all night, and Malkhan was killed when 2-1/2| dands were left of the night, but his headless body fought on and repulsed Prithi Raj. On the morrow, Sirwagarh submitted, and Malkhan’s wife became a Sati, giving over her husband’s command to his brother Alkhan with Prithi Raja’s approval. Prithi Raj then advanced unopposed, and sat down with a detachment near Mahoba, which, however, appears to have been entirely undefended by any works ; the main body of his troops being encamped at Basrahi near Jalalpur on the Betwa River.

गढ़वाल गोत्र का इतिहास

गढ़वाल: ठाकुर देशराज लिखते हैं कि आजकल यह राजपूताने में पहुंच गए हैं। गढ़वाल इनकी उपाधि है। अनंगपाल के समय में गढ़मुक्तेश्वर में इनका राज्य था। राजपाल के वंशजों में कोई जाट सरदार मुक्तसिंह थे, उन्होंने गढ़मुक्तेश्वर का निर्माण कराया था। जब पृथ्वीराज दिल्ली का शासक हुआ तो इन्हें उसके सरदारों ने छेड़ा। युद्ध हुआ। अमित पराक्रम के साथ चौहानों के दल को इन्होंने हटा दिया, किन्तु स्थिति ऐसी हो गई कि इन्हें गढ़मुक्तेश्वर छोड़ना पड़ा और यह राजपूताने की ओर चले गये।1 तलावड़ी के मैदान में जिस समय मुहम्मद गौरी और पृथ्वीराज में लड़ाई हुई तो जाटों ने मुसलमानों पर आक्रमण किया, उन्हें तंग किया, किन्तु पृथ्वीराज से उन्हें कोई सहानुभूति इसलिए नहीं थी कि उसने उनके एक अच्छे खानदान का राज हड़प लिया था। यही क्यों, पूरनसिंह नाम का एक जाट योद्धा मलखान की सेना का जनरल हो गया। उसने मलखान के साथ मिलकर अनेक युद्ध किये। वास्तव में मलखान की इनती प्रसिद्धि पूरनसिंह जाट सेनापति के कारण हुई थी।1 गढ़वालों का शेष वर्णन राजस्थानी जाटों के वर्णन में लिखा है।[5]

ठाकुर देशराज लिखते हैं कि गढ़वाल का कुछ वर्णन संयुक्त-प्रदेश के जाटों के इतिहास में हम लिख चुके हैं। गढ़मुक्तेश्वर का राज्य जब इनके हाथ से निकल गया, तो झंझवन (झुंझनूं) के निकटवर्ती-प्रदेश मे आकर केड़, भाटीवाड़, छावसरी पर अपना अधिकार जमाया। यह घटना तेरहवीं सदी की है। भाट लोग कहते हैं जिस समय केड़ और छावसरी में इन्होंने अधिकार जमाया था, उस समय झुंझनूं में जोहिया, माहिया जाट राज्य करते थे। जिस समय मुसलमान नवाबों का दौर-दौरा इधर बढ़ने लगा, उस समय इनकी उनसे लड़ाई हुई, जिसके फलस्वरूप इनको इधर-उधर तितर-बितर होना पड़ा। इनमें से एक दल कुलोठ पहुंचा, जहां चौहानों का अधिकार था। लड़ाई के पश्चात्

जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-599

कुलोठ पर इन्होंने अपरा अधिकार जमा लिया। सरदार कुरडराम जो कि कुलोठ के गढ़वाल वंश-संभूत हैं नवलगढ़ के तहसीलदार हैं। यह भी कहा जाता है कि गढ़ के अन्दर वीरतापूर्वक लड़ने के कारण गढ़वाल नाम इनका पड़ा है। इसी भांति इनके साथियों में जो गढ़ के बाहर डटकर लड़े वे बाहरौला अथवा बरोला, जो दरवाजे पर लड़े वे, फलसा (उधर दरवाजे को फलसा कहते हैं) कहलाये। इस कथन से मालूम होता है, ये गोत्र उपाधिवाची है। बहुत संभव है इससे पहले यह पांडुवंशी अथवा कुन्तल कहलाते हों। क्योंकि भाट ग्रन्थों में इन्हें तोमर लिखा है और तोमर भी पांडुवंशी बताये जाते हैं।[6]


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