Johiya

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Johiya (जोहिया)[1] [2][3] Joiya (जोईया)[4] Johil/Johila (जोहिल)[5] [6][7] is a gotra or clan of Jats. They are found in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.[8] They are also found in Pakistan. Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mentioned it as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia. [9] Juhiya (जुहिया) [10] Yahya is the Musalman form of Johya in Afghanistan.[11] James Tod places it in the list of Thirty Six Royal Races.[12]

Origin

This gotra started after vansha. They are originally Yaudheya Jats. Their area was Churu division. The area on the banks of Sutlej river upto Bahavalpur in Pakistan was Johiyawar (जोहियावाड़).[13]

History

Ram Swarup Joon[14] writes about 'Yodha, Yaudheya, (Johiya): Thaka, Janjoha and Bath gotras are branches of this gotra. According to the Mahabharata Yodhya Kings gave presents on the coronation ceremony of Yudhisthira. Arrian, the historian of Alexander the Great, also refers to Yodha ruling dynasty. Chanakya also mentions Yodhya republic in his Arthashatra. Before


History of the Jats, End of Page-108


the establishment of the Rathor Kings in Bikaner Rangmahal was the capital of Johiya king Sheer Singh. These people are related to Dangle and Bagar gotras. The Yodha Jats considers Nabhaji of the Yadu dynasty as their ancestor. Many Johiya Jats are now followers of Islam and are settled on the banks of River Satluj and in the State of Bahawalpur.

Four types of coins belonging to the Johiya (Yaudeya) kings have been found. On one type there are the figures of a bull and an elephant. On the other there is some god. On the third is written Yodhya Republic and on the fourth Jai Yodhya . A rock inscription of Shaka Raja Rudragamana has been found in the Pillar edict of Samudragupta.

Saiyad Nasir Hussain and Ata-Ullah were busy in settling the chaotic conditions. Saiyad Ata-Ullah invaded Bidli-Gari and killed Badra Sen and the villagers were made to run away. Mohammadans allowed the Roras and Kalals to settle down in place of Jats because the former was more loyal to the Mohammadans. Badra Sen's family had to wander homeless. Seven of his brave soldiers came there clothed as Brahmins, they drank and conspired with the Kalals, as result of which, the Muslim ruler was killed. Later on they met the sons of the Muslim ruler, and told them that they were Brahmins and were loyal to them. They brought their families. Soon they dominated the administration. After gaining sufficient power they shed their sacred threads (colloquially speaking - put it in the Gol) and became Gulia Jats. All the inhabitants of Badli and neighboring villages, however, knew that these people belonged to Badra Sen's family. Only one of them was a Brahmin who did not drink. He also settled down at Badli as is known to the elders of their village and has probably been passed down to the generations by word of mouth. According to this, Sant Sarang Dev and seven brothers of Dhulia Jat gotra came from Kharnal village in the Indergarh Pargana in Nagore (Nagaur).


History of the Jats, End of Page-109


According to James Todd[15] Joiya, Johya race possessed the same haunts as the Dahia, and are always coupled with them. They, however, extended across the Ghara into the northern desert of India, and in ancient chronicles are entitled ' Lords of Jangaldesha,' a tract which comprehended Hariana, Bhatner, and Nagor. The author possesses a work relative to this tribe, like the Dahia, now extinct. Their origin is very uncertain ; in Bahawalpur they now repudiate Rajput descent, and claim to be descendants of the Prophet. [16]

They are derivatives of Yaudheya clan. The Yaudheys were very famous democratic clans. Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mention it as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia. [17] Earlier they were in Central Asia and than they migrated to northern Salt-range, Punjab region in India and at the time of Alexander invasion in Punjab in 326 B.C. they fought with Alexander The Great and than Johya along with Sihag,Punia,Godara,Saran and Beniwal migrated to north Rajasthan region known as Jangladesh and ruled there till 15th century .

James Tod writes that Bhatti Chief Rao Lakhar was the contemporary of Kanardeo Sonigara, whose life was saved by his (Lakhar's) wife's knowledge of omens. Lakhur was ruled by this Rani, who was of the Soda tribe. She invited her brethren from Amarkot ; but the madman, her husband, put them to death, and threw their bodies over the walls. He was allowed to rule four years, and was then replaced by his son, Punpal. This prince was of a temper so violent that the nobles dethroned him, and recalled the exiled Jaitsi from Gujarat. Punpal had a residence assigned him in a remote quarter of the state. He had a son, Lakamsi, who had a son called Rao Raningdeo, who by a stratagem pointed out by a Khurl Rajpoot, took Maroth from the Johyas, and Poogal from the Thories, whose chief, styled Rao, he made captive ; and in Poogal he settled his family. [18]


James Todd[19] writes - The various tribes inhabiting the desert and valley of the Indus would alone form an ample subject of investigation, which would, in all probability, elicit some important truths. Amongst the converts to Islam the inquirer into the pedigree of nations would discover names, once illustrious, but which, now hidden under the mantle of a new faith, might little aid his researches into the history of their origin. He would find the Sodha, the Kathi, the Mallani, affording in history, position, and nominal resemblance grounds for inferring that they are the descendants of the Sogdoi, Kathi, and Malloi, who opposed the Macedonian in his passage down the Indus ; besides swarms of Getae or Yuti, many of whom have assumed the general title of Baloch, or retain the ancient specific name of Numri ; while others, in that of Zjat Jat, preserve almost the primitive appellation. We have also the remains of those interesting races the Johyas and Dahyas, of which much has been said in the Annals of Jaisalmer, and elsewhere ; who, as well as the Getae or Jats, and Huns, hold places amongst the " Thirty-six Royal Races " of ancient India.[20]


Rajatarangini[21] mentions a temple of Johila during last days of king Harsha of Kashmir.

Table of Jat republics in Jangladesh

Dr Karni Singh, a well known political personality and author, records that Jats had established powerful governments in north India. Prior to 1488 Jats had seven Janapadas of Godara, Saran, Sihag, Beniwal, Puniya, Johiya in desert region of Bikaner. Following are the main clans and their heads with capital and number of villages in each territory. [22], [23]

S.No. Name of janapada Name of chieftain No. of villages Capital Names of districts
1. Punia Kanha Punia 300 Jhansal[24]/Luddi[25] Bhadra, Ajitpura, Sidhmukh, Rajgarh, Dadrewa, Sankhoo
2. Beniwal Raisal Beniwal 150 Raisalana Bhukarkho, Sanduri, Manoharpur, Kooi, Bae
3. Johiya Sher Singh Johiya 600 Bhurupal Jaitpur, Kumana, Mahajan, Peepasar, Udasar
4. Sihag Chokha Singh Sihag 150 Suin/Pallu Rawatsar, Biramsar, Dandusar, Gandaisi
5. Saharan Pula Saran 300 Bhadang Khejra, Phog, Buchawas, Sui, Bandhnau, Sirsala
6. Godara Pandu Godara 700 Shekhsar Shekhsar, Pundrasar, Gusainsar Bada, Gharsisar, Garibdesar, Rungaysar, Kalu

It is thus clear that out of 2670 villages in the Jangladesh, 2200 villages were under the rule of Jats. Each canton bore the name of the community, and was subdivided into districts.

Villages founded by Johiya clan

Sub divisions of Johiyas

Bhim Singh Dahiya[26] provides us list of Jat clans who were supporters of the Johiya when they gained political ascendancy. The following Jat clans supported the ascendant clan Johiya and became part of a political confederacy:[27]: Pasal, Mondhla, Khichar, Jani, Machra, Kachroya, Sor and Joiya.

H.A. Rose on Joiya

H. A. Rose [28] gives detailed account of Joiyas as under:

The Joiya (जोइया) is one of the 36 royal races of Rajputs, and is described in the ancient chronicles as "lords of the Jangal-des," a tract which comprehended Hariana, Bhattiana, Bhatner, and Nagor. They also held, in common with the Dehia with whom their name is always coupled, the banks of the Indus and Sutlej near their confluence. Some seven centuries" ago they were apparently driven out of the Indus tract and partly subjugated in the Bagar country by the Bhatti; and in the middle of the 16th century they were expelled from the Joiya canton of Bikaner by the Rathor rulers for attempting to regain their independence. Tod remarks that "the Rajputs carried fire and sword into this country, of which they made a desert. Ever since it has


[Page-411]:remained desolate, and the very name of Joiya is lost, though the vestiges of considerable towns bear testimony to a remote antiquity." The Joiya, however, have not disappeared. They still hold all the banks of the Sutlej from the Wattu border nearly as far down as its confluence with the Indus, though the Bhattis turned them out of Kahror, and they lost their semi-independence when their possessions formed a part of the Bahawalpur State ; they hold a tract in Bikaner on the bed of the old Ghaggar just below Bhatner, their ancient seat; and they are found in no inconsiderable numbers on the middle Sutlej of Lahore and Ferozepur and on the lower Indus of the Derajat and Muzaffargarh, about a third of their whole number being returned as Jats. The Multan bar is known to this day as the Joiya bar. General Cunningham says flint they are to be found in some numbers in the Salt Range or mountains of Jud, and identifies them with the Jodia or Yodia, the warrior class of India in Panini's time (450 B.C.), and indeed our figures show some 2,700 Joiya in Shahpur. But Panini's Jodia would perhaps more probably be the modern Gheba, whose original tribal name is said to be Jodra, and Gheba a mere title. The Joiya of the Sutlej and of Hissar trace their origin from Bhatner, and have a curious tradition, current apparently from Hissar to Montgomery, to the effect that they cannot trace their Rajput descent in the male line. The Hissar Joiya make themselves descendants in the female line of Sejaor Sameja, who accompanied the eponymous ancestor of the Bhatti from Muttra to Bhatner. This probably means that the Joiyas claim Yadu ancestry. The Montgomery Joiya have it that a lineal descendant of Benjamin, Joseph's brother, came to Bikaner, married a Raja's daughter, begot their ancestor, and then disappeared as faqir. The tradition is perhaps suggested by the word joi, meaning "wife." The Montgomery Joiya say that they left Bikaner in the middle of the 14th century and settled in Bahawalpur, where they became allies of the Langah dynasty of Multan, but were subjugated by the Daudpotra in the time of Nadir Shah.

The Multan Joiya say that they went from Bikaner to Sindh and thence to Multan. This is probably due to the fact of their old possessions on the Indus having died out of the tribal memory, and been replaced by their later holdings in Bikaner. They are described by Captan Elphiustone as “of smaller stature than the great Ravi tribes, and considered inferior to them in regard of the qualities in which the latter especially pride themselves, namely bravery and skill in cattle-stealing. They possess large herds of cattle and are bad cultivators."

The Mahars are a small tribe on the Sutlej opposite Fazilka, and are said to be descended from Mahar, a " brother of the Joiya. They are said to be quarrelsome, silly, thievish, fond of cattle, and to care little for agricultural pursuits."

In Bahawalpur the mirasis of the Joiyas have compiled for their a pedigree-table which makes them and the Mahars Quraishis by origin and descended from Iyas, a descendant of Mahmud of Ghazni. But the mirasis of each sept of the Joiyas give a different pedigree above Iyas, a fact which tends to show that the Joiyas were in their origin a confederation of warrior clans.

The Lakhwera sept and others recount the following tale. They say that Iyas, son of Bakr, came to Chuharhar (now Anupgarh), the capital of Raja Chuhar Sameja, in the guise of a faqir, and married Nal, the Raja's eldest daughter,* by whom he became the father of Joiya in 400 H. Joiya was brought up in the house of his mother's father as a Hindu.


* Pal and Sal being the other two.


[Page-412]: though his father was a Muhammadan and had married Nal by nikah and so Joiya's children, Jabbu, Isung, Bisung, Nisung, and Sahan Pal, received Hindu names. From the youngest (apparently) of these sons the Joiyas claim descent.* The Joiyas as a tribe regard Ali Khan, Lakhwera, ra'is of Shahr Farid as their chief, and his influence extends over the Joiyas in Multan. A Joiya who has committed theft will not deny the fact before this chief.

The Lakhwera, Bhadera, Ghazi Khanana, Kulhera, Daulatana, Kamera and Mangher septs and a few others, observe the vinayak ceremony. This consists in slaughtering two rams (ghattas) and making a pulao (with rice cooked in ghi) of the flesh. This is given in charity in the name of their ancestor Allahditta who single-handed resisted a party of 50 Baloch who tried to raid the cattle he was tending in the Cholistan. Allahditta was killed, but his bravery is commemorated in the winaik and his tomb in the Taj-Sarwar is greatly frequented by the tribe. Lunan's name is also mentioned in the winaik, because he fell in this tight with Lahr Joiya, a descendant of Jai Sung at Kharbara in Bikaner, where his tomb still exists. The descendants of the Joiyas shown in the pedigree-table from Bansi upwards observe only the winaik of Lunan, not that of Allahditta.

The Joiyas are brave, but, like the Wattus, addicted to theft. The Lakhwera sept is the highest in the social scale and has a great reputation for courage. The tribe is devoted to horses and buffaloes. No Joiya considers it derogatory to plough with his own hands, but if a man gives up agriculture and takes to trade or handicraft the Joiyas cease to enter into any kind of relationship with him. Sahn Pal is said to have coined his own money at Bhatner, a proof that he exercised sovereign power. Bawa Farid-ud-Din, Shakarganj, converted Lunan, Ber and Wisul to Islam and blessed Lunan, saying " Lunan, dunan, chaunan" i.e., "may Lunan's posterity multiply." These three brothers wrested the fortress of Bhatinda from the Slave Kings of Delhi and ruled its territory, with Sirsa and Bhatner, independently.

Lakhkho, son of Lunan, headed a confederation of the Joiyas, Bhattis, Rathors and Waryas against the Vikas, or Bikas, the founders of Bikaner, whose territory they devastated until their king, Raja Ajras, gave his daughter Kesar in marriage to Lakhkho, and from that time onwards the Hindu Rajputs of Bikaner gave daughters to the Muhammadan Joiyas as an established custom up to within the last 50 years, when the practice ceased.

After Lakhkho, Salim Khan rose to power in the time of Aurangzeb. He founded a Salimgarh which he gave to Pir Shauq Shah, whence it became called Mari Shauq Shah, and founded a second Salimgarh, which was however destroyed by Aurangzeb's orders, but on its ruins his son Farid Khan I founded Shahr Farid in Bahawalpur. After the downfall of the Mughal empire the Lakhwera chiefs continued for some time to pay tribute at Multan and Nawab Wall Muhammad Khan Khakwani, its governor, married a Joiya girl, Ihsan Bibi, and thus secured their adherence, which enabled him to find a refuge among the Admera and Saldera Joiyas when the Mahrattas took possession of Multan in 1757 A. D. After this the Joiyas under Farid Khan II revolted against Salih Muhanmaad Khan, whom the Mahrattas had appointed governor of Multan, and plundered his territory, but in 1172 A. D., when Ahmad Shah, Abdali, had expelled the Mahrattas from Multan he re-appointed Wali Muhammad Khan to its governorship and to him the Joiyas submitted. Under the emperor Zaman Khan, however, the Joiyas again rose in rebellion and at the instance of the governor of Multan Nawab Mubarak Khan of Bahawalpur annexed the territory of Farid Khan II.

The Joiya septs are very numerous, 46 being enumerated as principal septs alone. Of these the more important are the Lakhwera, Daulatana, Bhadera Nihal-ka, Ghazi-Khanana, Jalwana, which has a sub-sept called Bhaon, their ancestor having been designated Nekokara-Bhai or the " virtuous brother " by Abdulla Jahanian. Most of the Joiya septs are eponymous, their names ending in -ka and sometimes in -era.

The following septs are found in Montgomery (where they are classed as Rajput agriculturists) : — Akoke, Bahlana, Bhatti, Firozke, Bassanke,


* This table is printed in full in the Bahawalpur Gazetteer, p. 46.
† Joiyas are divided into a large number of "naks" : (i) Lakhwera. (ii) Mahmudera, Kamrana, Madera (all three equal), (iii) Jalwana and Daulatana. The grading of the tribe in the social scale is as above. They intermarry, as a rule, only among themselves, but a nak of one grade will not give daughters to a nak of a lower grade, though the former will take from the latter. :In the time of Akbar they were the predominate tribe of the Mailsi and Lodhran tahsils, and then, or soon after, four brothers, Jagan, Mangan, Luddan and Lai colonised the country round Luddan, and were followed by fresh bands from across the Sutlei. Multan Gr., 1902, p. 139.

[Page-413]: Jamlera, Jhandeke, Jugeke, Lakhuke, Langaheke, Luleke, Mihruke, Momeke, Panjera, Ranoke, Sahuke, Sanatheke and Shalbazi : and in Multan Sabul and Salhuka, and Saldera, but the latter are in this District classed as Jats. Indeed both in Montgomery and in Multan the Joiyas as a tribe appear to rank both as Jats and Rajputs. In Amritsar they are classed as Rajputs and in Shahpur as Jats. In Montgomery the Kharrals and Hindu Kambohs each possess a Joiya (agricultural) clan.

Alexander encountered with the Johiyas

Alexander Cunningham[29] writes that - It seems highly probable therefore that he may have carried the Greek arms to Ajudhan on the banks of the Satlej, from which his march would have been along the course of that river by Ludhan, Mailsi, Kahror, and Lodhran, to Alexander's camp at Uchh. In this route he must have encountered the Johiya Rajputs, who have occupied


1 Briggs's ' Ferishta,' iv, 380.


[p.245]: both banks of the Satlej from Ajudhan to Uchh from time immemorial. I think therefore that the Abastani, whom Perdikkas subdued have a strong claim to be identified with the Johiya Rajputs. The country about Multan is still called Johiya-bar or Yaudheya-wara.

The Johiyas are divided into three tribes, named Langavira or Lakvira, Madhovira or Madhera, and Adamvira or Admera. The Sambracae would appear to have been divided into three clans, as being a free people without kings they chose three generals to lead them against the Greeks. Now Johiya is an abbreviation of Jodhiya, which is the Sanskrit Yaudheya, and there are coins of this clan of as early a date as the first century of the Christian era, which show that the Yaudheyas were even then divided into three tribes. These coins are of three classes, of which the first bears the simple inscription Jaya-Yaudheya-ganasya, that is (money) " of the victorious Yaudheya tribe. The second class has dwi at the end of the legend, and the third has tri, which I take to be contractions for dwitiyasya and tritiyasya, or second and third, as the money of the second and third tribes of the Yaudheyas. As the coins are found to the west of the Satlej, in Depalpur, Satgarha, Ajudhan, Kahror, and Multan, and to the eastward in Bhatner, Abohar, Sirsa, Hansi, Panipat, and Sonipat, it is almost certain that they belong to the Johiyas, who now occupy the line of the Satlej, and who were still to be found in Sirsa as late as the time of Akbar. The Yaudheyas are mentioned in the Allahabad inscription of Samudra Gupta, and at a still earlier date by Panini in the Junagarh inscription of Rudra Dama. 1 Now the great grammarian was


1 Dr. Bhau Daji in ' Bombay Journal,' vii. 120.


[p.246]: certainly anterior to Chandra Gupta Maurya, and his mention of the Yaudheyas proves that they must have been a recognised clan before the time of Alexander. The inscription of Rudra Dama, in which he boasts of having "rooted out the Yaudheyas, shows that this powerful clan must have extended their arms very far to the south, otherwise they would not have come into collision with the princes of Surashtra. From these facts I am led to infer that the possessions of the Johiyas in the time of Alexander most probably extended from Bhatner and Pakpatan to Sabzalkot, about halfway between Uchh and Bhakar.

I will now examine the different names of the people who made their submission to Alexander during his halt at the confluence of the Panjab rivers. According to Curtius they were called Sambracae or Sabracae ; 1 according to Orosius Sabagrae ; and according to Diodorus, who placed them to the east of the river, Sambastae. 2 They were a powerful nation, second to none in India for courage and numbers. Their forces consisted of 60,000 foot, 6000 horse, and 500 chariots. The military reputation of the clan suggests the probability that the Greek name may be descriptive of their warlike character, just as Yaudheya means " warrior or soldier." I think, therefore, that the true Greek name may have been Sambagrae, for the Sanskrit Samvagri, that is, the "united warriors," or <greek> which, as they were formed of three allied tribes, would have been an appropriate appellation. In confirmation of this suggestion, I may note the fact that


1 Vita Alex., ix. 8. "Inde Sabracas adiit, Talidam Indiae gentem, qua' populi, non regum, imperio regebatur." 2 Hist., xvii. 10.


[p.247]:

the country of which Bikaner is now the capital was originally called Bagar-des, or the land of the Bagri, or " Warriors," whose leader was Bagri Rao. 1 Bhati also means " warrior or soldier." We thus find three tribes at the present day, all calling themselves " warriors," who form a large proportion of the population in the countries to the east of the Satlej ; namely, Johiyas or Yaudheyas along the river, Bagris in Bikaner, and Bhatis in Jesalmer. All three are of acknowledged Lunar descent ; and if my suggested interpretation of Sambagri be correct, it is possible that the name might have been applied to these three clans, and not to the three tribes of the Yaudheyas. I think, how-ever, that the Yaudheyas have a superior claim, both on account of their position along the banks of the Satlej, and of their undoubted antiquity. To them I would attribute the foundation of the town of Ajudhan, or Ayodhanam, the " battle-field," which is evidently connected with their own name of Yaudheya, or Ajudhiya, the " warriors." The latter form of the name is most probably preserved in the Ossadii of Arrian, a free people, who tendered their allegiance to Alexander at the confluence of the Panjab rivers. The Ossadii of Arrian would therefore correspond with the Sambastae of Diodorus and the Sambracae of Curtius, who made their submission to Alexander at the same place. Now Ossadioi or Assodioi is as close a rendering of Ajudhiya as could be made in Greek characters. We have thus a double correspondence both of name and


1 This information I obtained at the famous fortress of Bhatner in the Bikaner territory. The name is certainly as old as the time of Jahangir, as Chaplain Terry describes ' Bikaneer ' as the chief city of ' Bakar.' See 'A Voyage to East India,' p. 86.


[p.248]: position in favour of my identification of the Sabagrae or Sambracae with the Johiyas of the present day.

In Mahabharata period

The Mahabharata Tribe - Jyoha, (ज्यॊह)[30] who brought tributes to Yudhisthira (II.48.3), may be identified with Jat Gotra - Johiya (जोहिया).

Other sources tell us that they are originated from Yaudheyas. Samrat Yayati's fourth son was Anu. Anu's eighth son was Maharaja Mahamana. Ushinara was son of Mahamana and he was ruler over most of Punjab. Ushinara's son was Nriga and Nriga's son was Yaudheya. The Yaudheya clan has originated from him. Johiya is derived from Yaudheya.


The Yaudhey people inhabited over areas on the banks of Shatadru, the present site of Bahawalpur State. The coins of Yaudhey have been found in areas between Sutlej and Yamuna rivers in Sonipat fort of Rohtak. These coins are marked in Sanskrit Yaudhey Ganasya Jayâ. Yaudhey were there during Mahabharata period also.

As per Puranic version the Yaudhey Jats are considered to be descendants of Maharaja Yudhisthira. One of Maharani of Yudhistar was named Yaudheyee. This shows Yaudhey to be an ancient Jat clan. Inscription of Yaudheys in Bharatpur state shows that they had democratically elected head that was titled Mahasenapati.

During ancient times

The Yaudhey or Johiyas were known for bravery. They struggled with Mauryas , Kushans and Guptas. They had been occupying in ancient times the regions like Marwar, Jodhpur, and Jaisalmer etc.

Rulers in Jangladesh

Before their state was annexed to Rathores in Jangladesh, Johiyas had 600 villages under their rule. Sher Singh was their ruler and Bhuroopal was their capital. Sher Singh was a great warrior. He gave a tough fight to Rathores. Bika aligned Godaras with them. The Godara Jats were the most powerful of six cantons of Jats ruling over Jangladesh. Bika along with Godaras attacked the Johiyas in which Johiyas were defeated. Bika could get the state of Johiyas with great difficulty. Infact Bika could defeat Johiyas only after he conspired and killed Sher Singh. The biggest war between Rathores and Johiya Jats was fought at Dhaka village near Sidhmukh.

Johiyas at present

Johiya Jats are at present settled in Jadiya, Joda pinaula, Dhawalak, Jadiyal, Johal etc villages of Jalundhar region. In Uttar Pradesh they are found in large number in Dhakauli, Patauli, Augat, Sahadpur, Milak, Bhatpur etc. villages of Meerut region.

ठाकुर देशराज लिखते हैं

ठाकुर देशराज लिखते हैं कि जोहिया यौधेय-वंशीय हैं। प्रजातंत्री समुदायों में यौधेय बहुत प्रसिद्ध रहे हैं | जैसलमेर, जांगल और मारवाड़ के बहुत से प्रदेश पर किसी समय इनका राज रहा है। राठौरों से पराजित होने से पहले उनका 600 गांवों पर अधिपत्य था। शेरसिंह इनका राजा था। जैसा नाम था, वैसा ही वह शूरवीर भी था। राठौरों को नाकों चने शेरसिंह ने ही चबाए थे। भूरूपाल में उसकी राजधानी थी।

गोदारों से सन्धि हो जाने के बाद बीका जी ने कुछ समय अपनी व्यवस्था ठीक करने और शक्ति संचय करने में लगाया। जब अवकाश मिला तो गोदारों की ओर अपनी सेनाएं लेकर जोहिया जाटों पर आक्रमण किया। शेरसिंह ने अपनी सेनाएं इकट्ठी करके दोनों शक्तियों का मुकाबला किया। शेरसिंह बड़ा बांका योद्धा था। भय उसके पास तनिक भी न फटकता था। वास्तव में यह निरन्तर लड़ने वाले शूरों मे से था। ‘देशी राज्यों के इतिहास’ में सुखसम्पत्ति राय भंडारी ने लिखा है-

“शेरसिंह ने अपनी समस्त सेना के साथ बीका जी के खिलाफ युद्ध करने की तैयारी कर रखी थी। बीका जी जो कई युद्धों के विजेता थे इस युद्ध में सरलता से विजय प्राप्त न कर सके। शत्रुगण अद्भुत् पराक्रम दिखाकर आपके छक्के छुड़ाने लगे। अन्त में विजय की कोई सूरत न देख, आपने षड़्यन्त्र द्वारा शेरसिंह को मरवा डाला।”[31]


शेरसिंह के मारे जाने के बाद भी जोहिया जाट विद्राही बने रहे। उन्होंने सहज ही में अधीनता स्वीकार नहीं की। उनका प्रत्येक युवक प्राणों की बाजी लगाकर स्वाधीनता की रक्षा करना चाहता था। जब भी उनका कोई दल संगठित हो जाता, विद्रोह खड़ा कर देते। शेरसिंह के बाद उन्हें कोई उतना योग्य नेता नहीं मिला। जोहिया जाट राठौरों को जांगल-प्रदेश से अवश्य ही खदेड़ देते यदि गोदारे उनके साथ न होते। गोदारों की भी शक्ति जोहियों से कम नहीं थी। दो प्रबल शत्रुओं के मुकाबले में आखिर उन्हें विवश होना पड़ा। धीरे-धीरे उनका विद्रोही स्वभाव भी जाता रहा। जाटों से अब राठौर निष्कंटक हो गए। जाट और राठौरों की सबसे बड़ी लड़ाई सीधमुख के पास ढाका गांव में हुई थी।[32]

The branches of Yaudheya or Johiya at present are Kulhari (Kularia),Khichar and Mahil. Some Yaudheya people adopted Islam also.

कसवां जाटों के भाटों तथा उनके पुरोहित दाहिमा ब्रह्मण की बही से ज्ञात होता है की कंसुपाल पड़िहार संघ में सम्मिलित था। वह 5000 फौज के साथ मंडोर छोड़कर पहले तालछापर पर आए, जहाँ मोहिलों का राज था. कंसुपाल ने मोहिलों को हराकर छापर पर अधिकार कर लिया. इसके बाद वह आसोज बदी 4 संवत 1125 मंगलवार (19 अगस्त 1068) को सीधमुख आया. वहां रणजीत जोहिया राज करता था जिसके अधिकार में 125 गाँव थे. लड़ाई हुई जिसमें 125 जोहिया तथा कंसुपाल के 70 लोग मारे गए. इस लड़ाई में कंसुपाल विजयी हुए. सीधमुख पर कंसुपाल का अधिकार हो गया और वहां पर भी अपने थाने स्थापित किए. सीधमुख विजय के बाद कंसुपाल सात्यूं (चुरू से 12 कोस उत्तर-पूर्व) आया, जहाँ चौहानों के सात भाई (सातू, सूरजमल, भोमानी, नरसी, तेजसी, कीरतसी और प्रतापसी) राज करते थे. कंसुपाल ने यहाँ उनसे लड़ाई की जिसमें सातों चौहान भाई मरे गए. चौहान भाइयों की सात स्त्रियाँ- भाटियाणी, नौरंगदे, पंवार तथा हीरू आदि सती हुई. कंसुपाल की संतान कसवां कहलाई. फाल्गुन सुदी 2 शनिवार, संवत 1150, 18 फरवरी, 1094, के दिन कंसुपाल का सात्यूं पर कब्जा हो गया. फ़िर सात्यूं से कसवां लोग समय-समय पर आस-पास के भिन्न-भिन्न स्थानों पर फ़ैल गए और उनके अपने-अपने ठिकाने स्थापित किए. [33] [34]

Distribution in Pakistan

According to James Tod[35] Jakhar, Asiagh, Punia are all denominations of the Jat race, a few of whom preserve under these ancient subdivisions their old customs and religion ; but the greater part are among the converts to Islam, and retain the generic name, pronounced Zjat. Those enumerated are harmless and industrious, and are found both in the desert and valley. There are besides these a few scattered families of ancient tribes , as the Sultana, and Khumra, of whose history we are ignorant, Johyas, Sindhals, and others, whose origin has already been noticed in the Annals of Marusthali.

James Tod[36] writes that Johya clan is found in Sindh.

According to 1911 census the Johiya were the principal Muslim Jat clan in districts:

Notable persons

Further reading

References

  1. B S Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), p.239, s.n.101
  2. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.301
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I,s.n. ज-43.
  4. History of Origin of Some Clans in India/Jat From Jutland,p.7,s.n. 68
  5. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. ज-81
  6. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.301
  7. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I,s.n. ज-81.
  8. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter IX,p.695
  9. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, p.342
  10. Ram Sarup Joon:History of the Jats/ChapterVIII,p.140
  11. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan : H. W. Bellew, p.13-14, 18, 115, 125, 126, 128, 137, 155,159
  12. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races, pp.142
  13. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p.246
  14. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V, p. 108-109
  15. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races,pp.142
  16. Rose, Glossary, ii. 410 ff. ; Malik Muhammad Din, Gazetteer Bahawalpur, i. 23, 133 ff.).
  17. Dilip Singh Ahlawat: Jat viron ka Itihasa
  18. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.225
  19. James Todd Annals/Sketch of the Indian Desert,p.1292
  20. See sketch of the tribes, Vol. I. p. 98
  21. Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book VII (i) (p.293)
  22. Dr Karni Singh (1947): The Relations of House of Bikaner with Central Power, Munsi Ram Manohar Lal Pub. Pvt, 54 Rani Jhansi Road, New Delhi.
  23. Dr Brahmaram Chaudhary, The Jats, Vol. 2, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Originals, Delhi, 2006, ISBN 81-88629-52-9, p. 250
  24. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992, p. 617
  25. Ramratna Charan, Itihas
  26. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Appendices/Appendix I,p.316-17
  27. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/J,p.376
  28. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/J,pp.410-413
  29. The Ancient Geography of India/Multan,pp.244-248
  30. खशा एकाशनाज्यॊहाः परदरा थीर्घवेनवः । पशुपाश च कुणिन्थाश च तङ्गणाः परतङ्गणाः ।।(II.48.3)
  31. वाक-ए राजपूताना में भी यही बात लिखी है।
  32. रामरत्न चरण का इतिहास
  33. गोविन्द अग्रवाल, चुरू मंडल का शोधपूर्ण इतिहास, पेज 115-116
  34. Dr Pema Ram, The Jats Vol. 3, ed. Dr Vir Singh,Originals, Delhi, 2007 p. 203-204
  35. James Todd Annals/Sketch of the Indian Desert, Vol.III,pp.1297
  36. James Todd Annals/Sketch of the Indian Desert, Vol. III,p. 1293
  37. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.204
  38. Ram Sarup Joon:History of the Jats/ChapterVIII,p.140

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