Sanchore

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Location of Sanchore in District Jalor

Sanchore or Sanchor (सांचोर) town and tahsil in Jalor district in Rajasthan. Its ancient name was Satyapura (सत्यपुर).

Location

Located on National Highway No 15, the town is situated 154 km from Jalore.

History

Chauhans of Sanchor

Its ancient name was Satyapura (सत्यपुर). This was a great Shvetambar tirtha sacred to Mahavira. The evidences from Jaina records (Vividhatithakalpa, p.28f) prove that this town existed in pre-Gupta period. Dhanapala who lived between 970 and 1030 AD wrote poems on this famous Mahavira temple of Satyapura. The first Muslim attack on this Jain tirtha by Sultan Mahmud was in V.S. 1081 (1024 AD), According to Jinaprabha, second and third in V.S. 1348 and 1356. These attempts were not successful but the Same authority (p.30) informs us that Ala-ud-din himself came and destroyed it in V.S. 1367. An epigraph of V.S. 1225, discovered from Sanchor, calls it a Mahasthana. Dhanapala was contemporary of Sultan Mahmud.[1]

Sanchore is a historical town and in olden days was known as Satyapur. It was ruled by Jalore Chauhan rulers. Alhan's son Vijay Singh from Nadol branch had established Satyapura (Sanchor) branch of Chauhans.

There is a well-known Jain temple in the town. A cattle fair is held here every year in April and May.

There was found a danapatra of samvat 1051 magh sudi (Saturday , 19 January 995) from village nearby village Balera about Solanki ruler Mula Raja I of Gujarat which mentions Baranuka (बरणुक) village of Satyapura. [2]


James Tod[3] writes that Bhinmal and Sanchor are the two principal subdivisions to the south, and together nearly equal the remainder of the province, each containing eighty villages. These towns are on the high-road to Kutch and Gujarat, which has given them from the most remote times a commercial celebrity. Bhinmal is said to contain fifteen hundred houses, and Sanchor about half the number. Very wealthy Mahajans, or ' merchants,' used to reside here, but insecurity both within and without has much injured these cities, the first of which has its name, Mal , from its wealth as a mart. There is a temple of Baraha (Varaha, the incarnation of the hog), with a great sculptured boar. Sanchor possesses also a distinct celebrity from being the cradle of a class of Brahmans called Sanchora, who are the officiating priests of some of the most celebrated temples in these regions, as that of Dwarka, Mathura, Pushkar, Nagar-Parkar, etc. The name of Sanchor is corrupted from Satipura, Sati, or Suttee's town, said to be very ancient.

Villages in Sanchore tahsil

Location of Sanchor in Jalor District

Achalpur, Agar, Agrawa, Akoli, Akoriya, Amarpura, Amarpura, Amba Ki Goliya, Amli, Ankhol, Arnay, Arwa, Bagli, Bagsari, Balana, Balera, Bali Khera, Bank, Bapunagar, Barsal Ki Beri, Barsam, Bawarla, Bhadoo Ki Dhani, Bhadroon, Bhadroona, Bharkua, Bharwal, Bhatki, Bhatwas, Bhawatra, Bheemgura, Bhootel, Bhuwana, Bichhawari, Bijrol Goliya, Bijrol Khera, Borli, Charneem, Chaura, Chhajara, Chimra, Chitalwana, Dabal, Dadhoora, Dadoosan, Dangra, Danta, Dantiya, Daukiyaon Ki Dhani, Dawal, Dedwa, Deora, Dhamana, Dhaneriya, Dhanta, Dharnawas, Dheengpura, Dhoorwa, Doogri, Doothwa, Dugawa, Galifa, Gangasar, Gardali, Godaron Ki Dhani (Hanumanji Ka Sthan), Golasan, Gomi, Goyton Ki Dhani, Gundau, Gura Hema, Hadecha, Hadetar, Hali Bao, Hanuwantpura, Haripura, Hariyali, Hidwara, Hoti Gaon, Isrol, Itada, Jaisla, Jajoosan, Jakhal, Jalberi, Janvi, Jelatra, Jerol, Jhab, Jhotra, Jodhawas, Joradar, K.R.Bandha Kua, Kachhela, Kailash Nagar, Kalji Ki Beri, Kamalpura, Kantol, Karawari, Karola, Keriya, Kesoori, Khamrai, Khaprol Ki Dhani, Khara, Khasarvi, Khejariyali, Khirodi, Kilawa, Kiloopiya, Kod, Kola Rebariyon Ki Dhani, Kukdeeya, Kundaki, Kura, Lachhiwar, Lachhiwar Ka Goliya, Lachhri, Lalpur, Liyadra, Looniyasar, Madhopura, Mailabas Charnan, Mailawas Gusaiyan, Maliyon Ka Goliya, Malwara, Mandali, Martawa, Marwari Kalbiyon Ka Goliya, Meda Jageer, Medha, Meerpura, Meghawa, Mooli, Nagolri, Nainol, Naldhara, Narayanpura, Nimbaj, Nimbau, Padaradi, Padardi, Paharpura, Paladar, Palri Deoran, Palri Solankiyan, Pamana, Panchla, Parawa, Pathmera, Pawta, Phalna, Phogarwa, Prajapati Nagar, Pratappura, Pur, Rado Ki Dhani, Raghunathpura, Raipuriya, Rajeshwar Pura, Rampura, Rampura, Ranodar, Ratanpura, Rataura, Ridka, Sahu Ki Dhani, Saili, Sanchore (M), Sangarwa, Sankar, Sankariya, Sarnau Jalor, Sarwana, Sayar Ka Koseeta, Sediya, Sensawa, Shivpura, Siddheshwar, Siloo, Siloosan, Siwara, Siyako Ki Dhani, Soonthri, Sunta Koi, Surachand, Surawa, Suthana, Tanpi, Tatra, Teetop, Tembi, Tetrol Rathoran, Tetrol Sunakhera, Umarkot, Vamal, Vandeo, Vapa, Varanpuri, Varanwa, Vasan Chauhan, Vasan Deoran, Veerawa, Veriya, Virol Bari, Virol Chhoti, Vishanpur, Vishnu Nagar, Vodha,

XXI Sanchor Stone Inscription of Samantasimha V.S. 1345 (1288 AD)

The stone on which the insoription was incised was found at Sanchor, the principal town of the district of the same name in the Jodhpur State. It was lying loose in the prison room attached to the kachehri. It contains 16 lines. Though weathered whole of ihc inscription can be read with certainty. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and the record is in prose. As regards orthography, the only points that call for notice are (1) the doubling of a consonant following an r, and (2) the use of the form simarata for samanta. As to lexicography, the following words may be noticed: (1) sthitaka in LL. 5, 7, 9 and 11, and (2) Selahatha or Selahasta together with their abbreviated forms in LL. 10, 12, 13 and 15. The first word seems to have been used in the sense of "a grant in perpetuity," and occurs in other inscriptions also, e.g. the Cintra prasasti of Sarangadeva, verses 53, 60, 61 and 66. The meaning of selahasta is not certain. And I know of only two records, viz. the Bhinmal inscriptions Nos. XII and XV s where the word occurs. In the first of these, line 12 has Srikaranya panchakula-selahatha-Ḍabhinarapalaṁ cha. Here it is worthy of note that selahatha occupies a position between panchakula, i.e. the modern pancha and Dabhinarapala, i.e. a king of the Dabhi race. And it seams tempting, therefore, to suppose that selahasta was an officer of high rank, higher at any rate than the village srikarana, which was held by one of ite panchaknla. Again, the expression selahath-abhavya occurs in both the Bhinmal inscriptions just referred to. It muat be taken to mean "the income collected by a selahatha". Probably he was connected with the revenue department. The inscription commences by specifying the date, wz. Monday, the 14th of the bright half of Karttika in the [Vikrama] year 1345. The Mahrajakula Samvatasimhadeva was the king, and at the holy place (mahasthana) of Satyapura (Sanchor), the pancha, consisting of the mahamta Hira and others appointed by him, was exercising local authority. The epigraph then records a grant in perpetuity of 8 Visala-priya drammas by the Meharas Prabha, Padama and Asapala. All the Meharas are requested to see to the continuance of this grant. According to this endowment, and the selahasta was requested to look after this matter. The selahasta is also desired to supervise personally the yatra festival of the god Vaesvara. Then follow, in token of approval, the sign-manuals of at least four Meharas, of whom three were the donors named above and the fourth was the selahasta Patala.

Reference - Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.57-59


Notes by Wiki editor -

  • Dabhi - Ḍabhinarapalaṁ word seems to be a title for Dabhi race mentioned here is probably related with Jat clan Dahba. Dahba is a Muslim Jat clan found in Pakistan.
  • Selahatha (सेलहाथ)/ Selahastha (सेलहस्थ) - Selahatha or Selahasta together with their abbreviated forms is used in LL. 10, 12, 13 and 15. Sel (सेल) Sail (सैल) Shail (शैल) Selaniya (सेलाणिया) Selania (सेलाणिया) is gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.

XXIII Jalor Stone Inscription of Samantasimhadeva S.V. 1353 (1296 AD)

Sanskrit Text
1. ओं o||[सं]वत् 1351 [वर्षे]
2. वै[शा]खवदि 5 [सोमे] श्री-
3. सुवर्ण्णगिरी अद्येड महा-
4. राजकुलश्रीसामतसिंह-
5. कस्‍याविजयंराज्ये त-
6. त्पादपद्योपजीविनि (||)
7. [रा]जश्रीकान्‍हडदेवरा-
8.ज्‍यधुरा[सु]चहमाने दृहे-
9. व वास्‍तव्‍यसंघपतिगुणध-
10. रठकुरआंषडपुचवकुर-
11. जसपु[त्र]सोनीमहणसीह-
12. भार्यामाल्‍हणिपुत्र (सोनी)रत-
13. न[सि]हणाखोमाल्‍हणगजसीह-
14. तिहुणापुत्र[सो]नीनरपतिज-
15. यताविजयपाल[न]रपतिभा-
16. र्यानायकेदेविपुत्रलखमीध-
17. रभुवणपाल[सु]हडपालद्वि-
18.तीय[भ]ार्याजाल्‍हणदेवि(वी)ई-
19. त्‍यादिकुटंवसहिते[न]भा-
20.र्यानायकदेवि[श्रे]योधे
21. देवश्रीपार्श्‍वनाचैत्‍ये पंच-
22.मीबलिनिमत निश्रा[नि]क्षे
23. प[ह]ट्टमेकं नरपतिना दत्‍त
24.तत् भाटकेन देवश्रीपा[र्श्व]-
25.नाथगोष्टि[कै: प्रतिव]र्ष:
26. आचांद्रार्क पंचमीवलि:
27. कार्या|| [शुभं] भव[तु] || छ [||]
XXIII Jalor Stone Inscription of Samantasimhadeva S.V. 1353 (1296 AD)[4]

The inscription is engraved on a pillar in the topkhana at Jalor in the main or western cloister near the south end. It consists of 27 lines of writing. The characters are Nagari. The sign for sh is used to denote kh. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of the inscription is in prose. As regards orthography, the only points that call for notice are (1) the occasional use of v for b and (2) the doubling of ṇ in conjunction with a preceding r in Suvarnna-girau, L.3. In respect of lexicography, attention maybe drawn to the expression nisra-nikshepa-hatta, in LL. 22-23, the meaning of which is uncertain, and to the word bhataka, in L.24, which seems to have been used in the sense of bhada or rent. The following sense of the phrase nisra-nikshepa-hatta may, however, be suggested as probable. Hatta is, of course, a bazar. Nisra is probably the same as nisar, which, in Marwar at any rate, seems to mean an export in contradistinction with pasar which signifies an import. The expression might, therefore, mean a place in, or a portion of, the bazar for storing goods to be exported.

The record opens with the date, viz. Monday, the 5th of the dark half of Vaisakha of the [Vikrama] year 1353. It then speaks of the Mahardjakula Sama(n)tasimha as reigning at Suvarnagiri and Kanhadadeva as " subsisting on his lotus-like feet and bearing the burden of administration (rajya-dhura)," Suvarnagiri is the same as Kanchanagiri of No. XIX., and is the name of the hill on which the fort of Jalor stands. Kanhadadeva, as we shall see further on, was a son of Samantasimha. The object of the inscription is to state that a certain Narapati made, for the spiritual welfare of his wife Nayakadevi, the grant of a bazar building or ware-house for storing goods to be exported. Out of the rent accruing therefrom was to be offered the pamchami-bali every year in the temple of the god Parsvanatha by the members of the gosthi. Narapati, in making this donation, had been joined by the members of his family and by a certain Gunadhara, who is called a samghapati and was a resident of Suvarnagiri itself. A list of the members of his family is also given, as well an a genealogy of them. Tho father of Narapati was the Soni Mahanasiha, who was a son of the thakura Jasa, who again was a son of thakura Ambada. Mahanasiha had two wives, named Malhani and Tihuna. From the first he had the sons Ratanasiha, Nakhi, Malhana and Gajasiha, who are called Sonis and from the second, Narapati, Jayata and Vijayapala, who are also called Sonis. Narapati had two wives named Nayakadevi and Jalhanadevi His sons from the former only are mentioned, viz. Lakhamidhara, Bhuvanapala, and Suhadapala. This and the mention of the spiritual benefit (Shreyas) of Nayakadevi as object of the record perhaps show that, at the time of the donation, the latter was dead and the second wife had but recently been married and that he had no children from her. Of tho members of his family, Narapati thus thus appears to have been joined, in making the gift, by his second wife and hin sons from tho first wife.

It is worthy of note that Narapti himself, his brothers and his father are called Sonis. Soni cannot possibly mean a goldsnith here, as both the grandfather and the great-grandfather of Narapati are styled thukura. Now, Soni is a well-known clan amongst the three Bania classes of Marwar, viz. Oswal, Saravgi, and Mahesari. The last may be left out of account, because they are not Jainas. Saravgis, though they are Jainas, are, however, not found in the southern parts of Marwar. Narapati and others were consequently, in all likelihood, Osval Sonis. Of the Mahesari Sonis it is stated that their Nakh or original tribe was Sonigara. What is true of the Mahesari Sonis is in all probability, true of other Sonis also. It is a well-known fact that many Rajput tribes, for avoiding Muhammadan oppressions and so forth, became Jainas, and merged themselves into the Bania classes. Sonigara appears to be the name such tribe. It is the name of celebated class of Chohans, and itt is commonly but correctly derived from Songar, i.e. Suvarngiri, tho hill of tho Jalor fort itself. Narapati's inscription was doubtless engaved in some temple on thin fort, though the pillar, on which it is incised seems to have been taken away to serve as material for the construction of the moaque now called topkhana, in the city of Jalor. When Narapati, his father and brothers are called Sonis , what is meant in that they were Oswal Sonis, but that they were perhaps originally Sonigaras and that amongst them Mahanasiha first became a Jaina, as he is called a Soni and his father and grandfather called Thakurs.


Wiki editor note -

  • Soni - Here Soni is mentioned as Thakur. It may be due to many clans and castes joined to form the Chauhan Federation. It is a well-known fact that many Rajput tribes, for avoiding Muhammadan oppressions and so forth, became Jainas, and merged themselves into the Bania classes. Similarly Jats who had joined Chauhan Federation also came back and became again Jats.
  • Samghapati - Inscription states that Narapati, in making this donation, had been joined by the members of his family and by a certain Gunadhara, who is called a samghapati. It again indicates about Chauhan Federation.

XXVI and XXVII Sanchor Stone Inscription of Pratapasimhadeva S.V. 1444 (1387 AD)

Sanskrit Text
XXVI
1. ओं नम: शिवाय|| या सृष्टि: स्रष्‍टुराद्या - -
2. - - विधिहुतं या हविर्या च होत्री वे हे कालं विध-
3. -[:]शुतिविषयगुणा या स्थिता व्‍याप्‍य विश्वं| याम[ा]-
4. हु: सर्वबीजप्रकृतिरिति यया प्राणिन: प्राणवं-
5. त प्रत्‍यद्क्षाभि: प्रसन्‍नस्‍तुनभिरवतु वस्‍ताभिर-
6.ष्‍टाशेश: | [|*] श्रीनीलकंठोSवतु चाहमानप्रता-
7. पसिंह रिपुदंतिसिंहं| गिरींद्रपुत्री सुभटस्‍य पु=
8. त्री कामल्लदेवीं सभुतां [पु]नातु | [|*] [2][[Nadol|नडूल]भूमीप-
9.तिचाहामानशिखामणेर्ल[क्ष्‍म]णसिंहनाम्न:|| (1)
10. धनेकधाविस्‍तृ[त]वंश[वृक्षे:] कुले बभौ सोभित-
11. सूनुसाल्‍ह: |[|*] 3 यो जात[वांत]द्दिवसावदाने (|)
12. दाना[ह]सूलां यशसो - - - तुरष्‍कबंदीक्क-
13. तवि[श्व]लोकान् श्रीमाल[त]ी मोचयति स्‍म धीर:
14. ||4 - - [त्‍मजो] विक्रमसिंह असीन्नाम श्रु[तिं]-
15. - - - - - भोगी| य: श्रीयशोविक्रम[रागभो]-
16. गैरस्‍मारय [द्भूपतिवि]क्रमार्क | [|*] 5 तदंग[ज: शूरवरो]-
17. तिदानि भी[मा]ग्रजन्‍मा कुल[कैरवेन्‍दु:] |
18. संग्रामसिंहोS[भव]दुग्रवैरि[सं]ग्राम नेराजकु-
19. [लै]कनेता |[|*]6 [त]न्नंदनो नंदति सुप्रता[प]:
20. प्रतापसिंह[: प]चक्रमर्द्दी | यस्मिन्नृपे सत्‍यपुरी-
21. [य]लोका लोकाय न स्‍व: स्‍पृहयंत्‍यशोका: | [8]
22. कर्पूरधाराधरवीरसीह] (|)सुनुस्‍तुरंगोष्‍ट्रकहे-
23. [म]वर्षो आसीन्नृपो माकडनामधेयस्‍तन्नंद-
24. नोSभुद्भवि वैरिशल्‍य: |[|] तस्‍यात्‍म[ज:] सुहड-
25. शल्‍य इति प्रसिद्ध: शुद्ध: समर्द्धितजनोSधिक-
26. देशभोक्‍त| देवद्दिजातिबहुभक्तिपर: परो-
27. पतापी मृधे नृपतिनीतिविचक्षणोSस्ति||2
28. स्‍यात्‍मजा सच्‍चरिता प्रतापसिंहप्रिया कामल-
29. देविनान्नी प्रसादमेनं विधिव[त्‍स्व]लिंगं वाए-
30. श्वरं जीर्ण्णकमुसुद्दधार ||3

XXVII

31. || प्रासादकूपसरसां यत्‍फलं भवनिर्मि-
32. तौ | ततोष्‍टगुणमाप्नोति जीर्ण्णोधारे पुन:
33. कृते |[|*]4 स्‍वस्ति संवत् 1444 [व]र्षे य्येष्‍टवदि-
34. भृगौ चाहूआणकूलतिलकराजश्रीपाता-
XXVI and XXVII Sanchor Stone Inscription of Pratapasimhadeva S.V. 1444 (1387 AD) [5]

These inscriptions are engraved on two pillars, which now form part of the stables attached with kacheri at Sanchor. The first record contains 30 lines and second 17 lines. The two together really form one record. Characters are Nagari and Language Sanskrit. As regards orthography a consonant is but twice doubled in conjunction with a preceding r and that y is substituted for j once in Y yeshta(tha), L.33. In respect of lexicography, the following words may be noted : (1) grasa (L.10) and (2) paila (L.11). Grasa here seems to be in the sense of gift not in usual sense.

The inscription opens with obeisance to the god Shiva and then cited a verse which forms the well known benedictory stanza of Kalidas's Shakuntala. Then verse 2 invokes protection of the Nilakantha for the then reigning Chahamana prince Pratapasimha, and of Parvati for his queen Kamalladevi, daughter of Subhata. In the next verse we are told that in the family of Lakshmanasiha, the best of Chahamanas and king of Nadula, which had many branches, there was one Salha, son of Sobhita. Verse 4 informs us that he liberated the people of Shrimala (Bhinmal) from the Turushkas (Muhammadans). The verse following states that his son was Vikramasimha. The eldest son of the later was Samgramasimha, who had at least one elder brother, viz. Bhima (v. 6), The son of Samgramasimha was Pratapasimha, reigning at Satyapura (Sanchor). We are then introduced to a different family, the family to which Pratapasimha's queen belonged. And the verses descriptive of her family are separately numbered. Of these, verse-1 says that there wan one Virasiha of Karpuradhara, that his son was a king named Makada (माकड़), and that the son of the latter was Vairisalya. The son of Vairisalya was Suhadasalya and his daughter was Kamaladevi, who was tho wife of Pratapasimha; and it was she who renovated the temple of Vaesvara together with the linga a inside (vv. 2-3). The second part begins with a verse, which says that the fruit accruing from restoring is eight-fold that of merely building a temple, well or tank. This in followed by the date, viz. Friday, the 8th of the dark fortnight of Jyaishtha of tho [Vikrarna] year 1444. On this date we are again told in prose that, Bai Kamaladevi, the crowned qween of Pata (i.e., Pratapasiha), the ornament of the Chahamana dynasty, and daughter of Suhadasala (Subhatu or Suhadasalya), the ornament of tho Umata family, rebuilt the dilapidated temple of the god Vayesvara. We are further informed that, for the daily offering to the god, a gift was made of (1 ) a field, and (ii) two pailas on every maund of each commodity from the custom house. The grant was approved of by Sal (?) (i.e. Salahasta) Vadaraita (?), a Paramara Mam Charada and Se Samala Pratihara. The acharya in this connection was Rama a vyasa of Satyapura jnati. The composer of the prasasti was Narayanadeva. The person who Wrote it out was vya Kanhaka, and the person who engraved it was the sutradhara Mudhava.

It is worthy of note that Suhadasalya, father of Kumaradevi, is called an ornament of the Umata family. Umat is still the name of Shakha or the subdivision of the Paramaras. We have still two tracts of land named after them, one is Umatawara in Malwa and the other Umatati round about Bhinmal. As Bhinmal is not far from Sanchor where Pratapasiha was reigning, it is more reasonable that his father-in-law was a chief of Umtati than of Umatawada. Karpuradhara, which had been held by the great-grandfather of Suhadasalya, must be located somewhere this Umtati. Next Samala, one of the persons who approved of the grant to the god Vayeshvara, is in the inscription called a Pratihara, Pratihara must here be taken, I think, to be not a Padihar but a Padihariya, as only Padihariyas are found in the southern most parts of Marwar i.e. round about Bhinmal and Sanchor. Satyapura jnati, to which the acharya Rama belonged, is obviously what is now known as Sanchora, a caste of Brahmanas, who abound in the districts of Malani and Sanchor.


Notes by Wiki editor

  • Makada (माकड़) - Lines:22-24 say that there was one Virasiha of Karpuradhara, that his son was a king named Makada, and that the son of the latter was Vairisalya. Makad is a Jat clan.
  • Karpuradhara (कर्पूरधारा) - Location ? In Nepal Kathmandu we find name of a Road as Karpuradhara Marg.

Notable persons

Jat gotras

External links

References

  1. Encyclopaedia of Jainism, Volume-1 By Indo-European Jain Research Foundation p.5540
  2. Dr. Raghavendra Singh Manohar:Rajasthan Ke Prachin Nagar Aur Kasbe, 2010,p. 187
  3. James Todd Annals/Sketch of the Indian Desert, Vol. III,p. 1269
  4. Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.60-62
  5. Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.64-66

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