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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Wairagarh (वैरागढ़) is a country mentioned in No. 4 Kuruspal Stone Inscription of Somesvaradeva as Vajra.[1]


Jat Gotras Namesake


No. 4 Kuruspal Stone Inscription of Somesvaradeva[3] mentions certain contemporary kings, Most of these kings are mentioned here by the names of their countries or capitals, those quite clear being Uḍra, Lanji, Ratnapura, Lemṇa, Vengi, Bhadrapattana and Vajra.....

Vajra or Vayiragaram is mentioned in Tamil literature and inscriptions. [4] The earliest reference to Vajra is perhaps in the Tamil poem Shilappadigāram[5] which is believed to have between 110 and 140 A.D. It is stated in this poem that the Chola king Karikāla

[p.27]: was on terms of friendship with the kings of Vajra, Magadha, and Avanti. How Vajra fared in later times there are no materials at present to elicit, but during the 10th and llth centuries it was apparently not so important or strong as in the early ages. A noteworthy fact is that in Tamil inscriptions it is always mentioned in conjunction with Chakrakota or Ṡakkarakkoṭṭṭam (शक्करकोट्टम), and since I have localised the latter in Bastar, it will now be easy to see why Vayiragaram must be Wairagarh (वैरागढ़) which adjoins the Bastar State and is situated not very far away from the place where the old Chakrakuta lay. This inscription itself confirms the identification of Chakrakuta with Bastar, as it calls Someshvaradeva the lord of Chakrakuta, and the happy quibble which the composer of our inscription has introduced in regard to the name Vajra 1 referring to diamonds and its conqueror as a ' diamond piercer,' to my mind definitely settles the question of the identification which does not appear to have been suggested or attempted before. Wairagarh was a well known diamond mine in olden days and it continued to be famous even in the times of Akbar to which the following quotation from the Ain-i-Aknari2 testifies : 'Kallam 3 is an ancient city of considerable importance ; it is noted for its buffaloes. In the vicinity is a zamindar named Babjeo of the Gond tribe, more generally known as Chanda ; a force of 1,000 horse and 40,000 foot is under his command. Biragarh (बीरागढ़) which, has a diamond mine and where figured cloths and other stuffs are woven, is under his authority. It is but a short time since that, he wrested it from another chief. Wild elephants abound.' The final note of Abul Fazl about wild elephants incidentally enables us to see how it was that Rajendra-Chola (Kulottunga I.) carried off many herds of elephants from Vayiragaram mentioned in the Tiruvorriyur inscription. 4 This is a further confirmation of the identity of the place. Should additional evidence be required as to Wairagarh having been a capital of ruling kings, it is furnished by its ancient remains 5 and the strong local tradition 6 according to which a line of Mānā kings held sway for some time. Mana or Mani is a semi-aboriginal caste, whose origin is obscure. They say that they came from Manikgarh in the Nizam's Dominions and my belief is that they were a branch of the Nagavamsi kings who worshipped Durga under the name of Manikyadevi. 7

1. Above Vol.I,p.33. Note that the spelling of the name is Vairāgara and not Wairagarh. 2. Ind. Ant. 1908,p.208, footnote-19

Kalachuri King Jajalladeva (I)'s friendship was sought by the lord of Chedi. He was also honoured with presents of wealth by the kings of Kanyakubja (कान्यकुब्ज) and Jejabhukti (जेजाभुक्ति). He defeated Sômësvara (सोमेश्वर) and imprisoned him together with his ministers and wives, but afterwards released them as desired by his mother. The kings of Kosala (कोसल), Andhra (आंध्र), Khimidi (खिमिडी), Vairagara (वैरागर), Lanjika (लान्जिका), Bhanara (भाणार), Talahari (तलहारी), Dandakapura (दण्डकपुर), Nandavalï (नन्दावली) and Kukkuta (कुक्कुट) paid annual tributes or presents to him. (p.410)[6]

Koni Stone Inscription Of Prithvideva II - (Kalachuri) Year 900 (=1148 AD)

Koni Stone Inscription Of Prithvideva II - (Kalachuri) Year 900 (=1148 AD) mentions ....Verse 26 mentions the exploits of Purushôttama. He conquered the Khimmindi mandala, made the Talahâri mandala attractive, punished Dandapura, subjugated Khijjinga, killed Haravôhu and threatened the ruler of Dandabhukti. It may be noted that some of these countries are also mentioned in a fragmentary verse eulogising the Kalachuri king Jajalladeva I, which occurs in his Ratanpur stone inscription, dated K 8663 Jajalladeva is said to have received annual tributes from the rulers of Dakshina Kosala, Andhra, Khimidi, Vairagara, Lanjikâ, Bhanara, Talahari, Dandakapura, Nandavali and Kukkuta. It will be noticed that Khimidi, Talahari and Dandapura (दण्डपुर) are common to the two lists of countries. It may therefore be conjectured that Purushôttama took a prominent part in the expeditions of Jajalladeva I against the rulers of these three countries. (p.465). [7]

The present inscription no doubt states that Purushôttama was made Sarvâdhikàrin by Ratnadëva II but that does not necessarily imply that he first came into prominence during that king's reign. He may have held the office of a minister under Jajalladeva I also, and may have distinguished himself during that king's wars. Of these three countries, Talahari mandala was probably the name of the southern portion of the Bilaspur tahsil and the adjoining portion of the Jânjgir tahsil. Jajalladeva's conquest of Talahari is mentioned in some other records of the period4 Khimmindi or Khimidi may be the former Kimedi Zamindari in the Ganjam District. Jajalladeva I's expedition against this country, which probably owned the suzerainty of the Eastern Gangas, may have provoked Anantavarman-Chôdaganga into launching his invasion of the Kalachuri kingdom during the reign of Jâjalladeva's son and successor Ratnadeva II. Nothing is known about the expedition against Dandapura. This town may have been the capital of Dandabhukti. (p.465) . [8]