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Ancient Indian Kingdoms in 600 BC

Chedi (चेदि) was an ancient Indian kingdom which fell roughly in the Bundelkhand division of Madhya Pradesh regions to the south of river Yamuna along the river Ken. Its capital city was called Suktimati in Sanskrit and Sotthivati-nagara in Pali.[1] In Pali-language Buddhist texts, it is listed as one of the sixteen mahajanapadas ("great realms" of northern and central India).[2]They fought Mahabharata War in Pandava's side


Jat clan Chedi

Chedi (चेदि)/(चेदी) [3] is gotra of Jats. [4] [5] This gotra is said to have started after people of Chedi rulers in Bundelkhand on the banks of Ken River. [6]


Google Scholar Reshma Rai[7] shares that the Chedi territory corresponded roughly to the eastern part of modern Bundelkhand. Pargiter places Chedis along the south bank of the Yamuna from the Chambal on the northwest to as far as Karvi on the south-east.

Its limits southwards may have been the Plateau of Malwa and the hills of Bundelkhand. Its capital was known as Sotthivati- nagar or Shuktimati or Shukti-Sahvaya. Other important towns were Sahajati and Tripuri.

The Chetiya Jataka traces the descent of Chedi kings from Mahasammata and Mandhata. Upachara, a king of the line, had five sons who are said to have founded the cities of Hatthipura (Hastinapura), Assapura (in Anga), Sinhapura (Lala from where Vijaya went to Ceylon), Uttarapanchala (Ahichchhatra) and Daddarapura (in the Himalayan region). Shishupala, the legendary enemy of Krishna, was a Chedi king. However, except these epic lengends nothing authentic is known about the Chedis.

Kalachuri King Jajalladeva (I)'s friendship was sought by the lord of Chedi. He was also honoured with presents of wealth by the kings of Kanyakubja (कान्यकुब्ज) and Jejabhukti (जेजाभुक्ति). He defeated Sômësvara (सोमेश्वर) and imprisoned him together with his ministers and wives, but afterwards released them as desired by his mother. The kings of Kosala (कोसल), Andhra (आंध्र), Khimidi (खिमिडी), Vairagara (वैरागर), Lanjika (लान्जिका), Bhanara (भाणार), Talahari (तलहारी), Dandakapura (दण्डकपुर), Nandavalï (नन्दावली) and Kukkuta (कुक्कुट) paid annual tributes or presents to him. (p.410)[8]

Chedi Rulers of Balangir

The territory comprising the present district of Balangir was in ancient times a part of the South Kosala. According to tradition, the origin of South Kosala dates back to the time of Rama and scholars like Pargiter believe that Rama's long stay in that region gave rise to the name of South Kosala after his original homeland Kosala. According to Padmapurana, the kingdom of Kosala, after Rama, was divided between Lava and Kusa, his two son. Later Kusa founded the city of Kusasthalipura and ruled over the southern half of Kosala (that included modern day Western Odisha and Chhattisgarh State).

During the time of Grammarian Panini (5th Century B.C), a territory named Taitila Janapada flourished to the west of Kalinga and that territory has been associated by historians with the modern town of Titlagarh in Balangir district. Taitala Janapada was famous for trade in some commodities described by the Grammarian as "Kadru" the meaning of which may be either horse or cotton fabrics.[9]

According to Chetiya Jataka, the capital of the Chedi country was Sothivatinagara which is the same as Suktimatipuri of Harivamsa and Suktisahvaya of the Mahabharata (Vana Parva). The epic (Adi Parva) also states that the capital of the Chedis was situated on the bank of river Suktimati which is the Sukhtel river of Balangir district.[10]

Thus the ancestors of famous King of Kalinga Kharavela were from the Balangir district as they were ruling over the territory drained by the Sukhtel river in Balangir, wherefrom they advanced towards the east and became the master of Kalinga by the 1st Century B.C. In the Hathigumpha inscription, Kharavela refers to one Rajashri Vasu as his ancestor, who is probably the same as Vasu, the son of Abhichandra, the founder of Chedi Kingdom. This Vasu may also be identified with Uparichara Vasu of the Mahabharata (Adi Parva) where he is described as the King of the Chedis who were ruling in the modern district of Balangir and Subarnapur.[11]

Balangir region continued to be under the rule of Chedis during the 1st Century AD but in the 2nd century it came under the possession of the Satavahanas, whose king was Gautamiputra Satakarni. He is said to have built a magnificent vihara for his philosopher friend Nagarjuna on the Po Lo Mo Lo Ki Li or Parimalagiri identified with the modern Gandhamadana hills.

Early History: The earliest noted history of Balangir district dates back to the third century BC. The earliest introduction and spread of Aryan religious practice in Dakhin Kosala came with the initial incursion of the Jain religion. According to Bhagavati Sutra and Harivamsha Purana, Mahavir started his earliest preaching of Dharma at Nalanda, Rajgriha, Paniya Bhumi and Siddharthagrama.

According to some scholars, (D. C. Sircar) Punita Bhumi is a synonym of Paniya Bhumi as per Odra-Magadhi language. It is the same as Paniya Bhumi or Nagoloka, the present Nagpur, and it is further identified as Bhogapura, the modern Bastar, region of Chhattisgarh, Koraput, Kalahandi and Balangir district of Odisha.[12]

In some of the insctiptions found in Balangir and Sonepur district, it has been mentioned that this part of the land was known as Attavika during Ashoka’s invasion of Kalinga in 261 B.C.

The Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang visited Po Lo Mo Lo Ki Li monastery at modern Paikmal in the 7th Century AD. It was then having cloisters and lofty halls and those halls were arranged in five tiers each with four courts with temples containing life-size gold images of Buddha. [13]

Utkal University Archaeology Prof. Dr. Sadasiva Pradhan excavated the Gumagad site under Gudvela block near the Tel river valley in Balangir district, where he found that a strategic military hub existed in the 1st century BC.[14] It was set up by a king contemporary to king Kharavela. Four copper plates were also found at Terssingha village which speaks of the Tel valley civilisation. Those plates had information regarding the two capitals – Udayapur and Parbatadwaraka – which were under the rule of Rashtrakutas and local chieftains belonging to different clans. The Udayapur area, the capital of Rashtrakuta kings, who ruled in the valley, still does have standing structures and also the ruins. These are mostly found at Amathgad. Ruins of a medieval fort is also found there.[15]

According to eminent historian and pigraphist Sadananda Agrawal, copper plates were recently found in Kapsila village near Balangir. The found materials were three copper plates tied together by a circular ring and issued by a king named Khadgasimha. It has been dated to the 8th century AD and it informs about new rulers and history of the Tel valley civilization.[16]

Amoda Plates Of Prithvideva I (Kalachuri) Year 831 (=1079 AD)

Amoda Plates Of Prithvideva I (Kalachuri) Year 831 (=1079 AD)[17] mentions in VV.4-6 as under:

(V. 4) The kings born in his family became (known as) Haihayas on the earth. In their family was born that (famous) Kôkkala, the first king of the Chaidyas (the people of the Chedi country)

(V. 5) By that king was erected on the earth a pillar of victory after forcibly dispossessing the kings of Karnata and Vanga, the lord of the Gurjaras, the ruler of Konkana, the lord of Shakambhari, the Turushka and the descendant of Raghu (Probably the contemporary prince of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty) of their treasure, horses and elephants.

(V. 6) He had eighteen, very valiant sons, who destroyed their enemies as lions break open the frontal globes of elephants , the eldest of them, an excellent prince, became the lord of Tripuri and he made his brothers the lords of mandalas by his side.


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[18] ने लेख किया है ...चेदि (AS, p.342) प्राचीनकाल में बुंदेलखंड तथा पार्श्ववर्ती प्रदेश का नाम था. ऋग्वेद में चेदि नरेश कशुचैद्य का उल्लेख है ।[19]

रैपसन के अनुसार कशु या कसु महाभारत में वर्णित चेदिराज वसु है [20] और इन्द्र के कहने से उपरिचर राजा वसु ने रमणीय चेदि देश का राज्य स्वीकार किया था।

महाभारत में चेदि देश की अन्य कई देशों के साथ, कुरु के परिवर्ती देशों में गणना की गई है। [21] कर्णपर्व में चेदि देश के निवासियों की प्रशंसा की गई है । [22] महाभारत के समय [ सभा0 पर्व / 29,11-12] कृष्ण का प्रतिद्वंद्वी शिशुपाल चेदि का शासक था। इसकी राजधानी शुक्तिमती बताई गई है। चेतिय जातक (कावेल सं 422) में चेदि की राजधानी सोत्थीवतीनगर कही गई है जो श्री नं0 ला. डे के मत में शुक्तिमती ही है[23] इस जातक में चेदिनरेश उपचर के पांच पुत्रों द्वारा हत्थिपुर, अस्सपुर, सीहपुर, उत्तर पांचाल और दद्दरपुर नामक नगरों के बसाए जाने का उल्लेख है। महाभारत [आशवमेधिक0 / 83,2 ] में शुक्तिमती को शुक्तिसाह्वय भी कहा गया है।

अंगुत्तरनिकाय में सहजाति नामक नगर की स्थिति चेदि प्रदेश में मानी गई है।[24] सहजाति इलाहाबाद से दस मील पर स्थित भीटा है। चेतियजातक में चेदिनरेश की नामावली है जिनमें से अंतिम उपचर या अपचर, महाभारत आदि0 पर्व 63 में वर्णित वसु जान पड़ता है।

वेदव्य जातक[25] में चेति या चेदि से काशी जाने वाली सड़क पर दस्युओं का उल्लेख है।

विष्णु पुराण में चेदिराज शिशुपाल का उल्लेख है।[26]

मिलिंदपन्हो[27] में चेति या चेदि का चेतनरेशों से संबंध सूचित होता है। सम्भवतः कलिंगराज खारवेल इसी वंश का राजा था। मध्ययुग में चेदि प्रदेश की दक्षिणी सीमा अधिक विस्तृत होकर मेकलसुता या नर्मदा तक जा पहुँची थी जैसा कि कर्पूरमंजरी से सूचित होता [28] कि नदियों में नर्मदा, राजाओं में रणविग्रह और कवियों में सुरानन्द चेदिमंडल के भूषण हैं।

चेदि या चेति महाजनपद

पौराणिक 16 महाजनपदों में से एक था। यह शुक्तिमती नदी के पास का देश था, जिसमें बुंदेलखंड का दक्षिणी भाग और जबलपुर का उत्तरी भाग सम्मिलित था।[29] बौद्ध ग्रंथों में जिन सोलह महाजनपदों का उल्लेख है उनमें यह भी था। कलिचुरि वंश ने भी यहाँ राज्य किया। किसी समय शिशुपाल यहाँ का प्रसिद्ध राजा था। उसका विवाह रुक्मिणी से होने वाला था कि श्रीकृष्ण ने रूक्मणी का हरण कर दिया इसके बाद ही जब युधिष्ठर के राजसूय यज्ञ में श्रीकृष्ण को पहला स्थान दिया तो शिशुपाल ने उनकी घोर निंदा की। इस पर श्रीकृष्ण ने उसका वध कर डाला। मध्य प्रदेश का ग्वालियर क्षेत्र में वर्तमान चंदेरी क़स्बा ही प्राचीन काल के चेदि राज्य की राजधानी बताया जाता है।[30]


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर [31] ने लेख किया है ...1. शुक्तिमती (AS, p.903): महाभारत काल मे चेदि देश (बुंदेलखंड तथा जबलपुर का भूभाग) की राजधानी। इसे शुक्तिसाह्वय भी कहा गया है। (महाभारत, आश्वेमेधिक. 83,2) चेदि देश का राजा शिशुपाल था, जिसका वध श्रीकृष्ण ने युधिष्ठिर के राजसूय यज्ञ मे किया था। 'चेतियजातक' में वर्णित सोत्थिवती नगरी, जिसे 'चेदि' या 'चेतिराज्य' की राजधानी कहा गया है, शुक्तिमती का ही पाली रूप है। ऐसा जान पड़ता है कि शुक्तिमती नदी के नाम पर ही इस नगरी का नाम भी प्रसिद्व हो गया था।

2. शुक्तिमती (AS, p.904) नामक नदी (=केन): महाभारत कालीन चेदि देश की इसी नाम की राजधानी शुक्तिमती के पास बहती थी- 'पुरोपवाहिनीं तस्य नदीं शुक्तिमतीं गिरः'-- महाभारत, आदिपर्व 63,35. इस नदी को चेदिराज उपरिचर की राजधानी के पास बहती हुई बताया गया है। पार्जिटर के अनुसार शुक्तिमती नदी बाँदा, उत्तर प्रदेश के निकट बहने वाली केन नदी है। (जर्नल ऑफ एशियाटिक सोसाइटी, बंगाल,1895,पृ. 255)


शुक्तिसाह्वय (AS, p.904): 'ततः स पुनर आवृत्य हयः कामचरॊ बली आससाद पुरीं रम्यां चेदीनां शुक्तिसाह्वयाम्' महा.आश्वमेधिक 83,2. (दे. शुक्तिमती-1)[32]

जाट इतिहास

चेदि जनपद बुन्देलखण्ड में था। चेदि जाट गोत्र भी है। उस समय वहां पर चन्द्रवंशी शिशुपाल राज्य करता था। ययातिपुत्र यदु के पुत्र करोक्षत्री की परम्परा में शूरसेन राजा हुआ। उसकी पुत्री क्षत्रश्रवा का विवाह चेदिराज दमघोष से हुआ जिनसे शिशुपाल हुआ। नकुल ने चेदि नरेश की पुत्री करेणुमती से विवाह किया। जिनसे पुत्र निरमित्र हुआ। (देखो चन्द्रवंशीय वंशावली)। श्रीकृष्ण जी ने शिशुपाल को मार दिया था। उसका पुत्र चेदिराज धृष्टकेतु पाण्डवों की तरफ होकर महाभारत युद्ध में लड़ा था।[33]

चेदि राज्य - शुक्तिमती (केन) नदी के तट पर यमुना नदी के समीपवर्ती आज के बुन्देलखण्ड पर चेदि राज्य था। चेदि जनपद बड़ा शक्तिशाली था। चेदि जाट गोत्र भी है। महाभारत में राजा शिशुपाल यहीं का शासक था। महाराज युधिष्ठिर के राजसूय यज्ञ के अवसर पर शिशुपाल अपने अपराधों के कारण श्रीकृष्ण जी द्वारा मार दिया गया था। महाभारत युद्ध में शिशुपाल का महाबली पुत्र चेदिराज धृष्टकेतु अपनी एक अक्षौहिणी सेना के साथ पाण्डवों की ओर से होकर लड़ा था। बौद्धकाल तक इस चेदि वंश का शासन जारी था। [34]

In Mahabharata

Chedi (चेदि) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.63.2), (II.26.10),(IV.1.9),(V.72.16),(VI.10.39),(VI.52.13), (VI.112.23), (VI.112.73),(VIII.30.61),(VIII.51.6),


Jammu region

Jammu, samba, Kathua, akhnoor district

Jammu :- sarore camp(Ratnal adda), baje chak, seer,sai trewa, chak majra, kotle, Magowali, mana, Hansa,nanowali.etc many more villages .

Samba:- Rangoor camp, karaila, Ramgarh,kangwala camp, Banglad, Brota, Abtal, Nai Basti, khokhara chak, Dera, Nandpur etc many more villages

External links


  1. Raychaudhuri, Hem Chandra (1923), Political history of ancient India, from the accession of Parikshit to the extinction of the Gupta dynasty, p. 66
  2. Raychaudhuri, Hem Chandra (1923), Political history of ancient India, from the accession of Parikshit to the extinction of the Gupta dynasty, p. 67
  3. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania: Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p.38, sn-770.
  4. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. 18
  5. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, 2010, p.300
  6. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Adhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998,p.242
  7. Brief Notes on the Chedi territory
  8. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1955, p.409-417
  9. Panini's Ashtadyayi VI. 2. 42
  10. D. C. Sircar Ancient Geography of India Pg.55
  11. D. C. Sircar Ancient Geography of India
  12. D. C. Sircar, Inscription of Orissa, Pg. 263
  13. Yuan Chawng 'Journey of the West'
  15. "Riverside kingdom traced in copper plates". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India
  17. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1955, p.401-409
  18. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.342-43
  19. 'तामे अश्विना सनिनां विद्यातं नवानाम्। यथा चिज्जेद्य: कशु: शतुमुष्ट्रानांददत्सहस्त्रा दशगोनाम्। यो में हिरण्य सन्दृशो दशराज्ञो अमंहत। अहस्पदाच्चैद्यस्य कृष्टयश्चर्मम्ना अभितो जना:। माकिरेना पथागाद्येनेमें यन्ति चेदय:। अन्योनेत्सूरिरोहिते भूरिदावत्तरोजन:' ऋग्वेद / 8,5,37-39 ।
  20. 'स चेदिविषयं रम्यं वसु: पौरवनन्दन: इन्द्रोपदेशाज्जग्राह रमणीयं महीपति:' महाभारत आदि पर्व 63,2
  21. 'सन्ति रम्या जनपदा बह्लन्ना: परित: कुरुन् पांचालाश्चेदिमत्स्याश्च शूरसेना: पटच्चरा:' महाभारत विराट0 पर्व / 1,12
  22. 'कौरवा: सहपांचाला: शाल्वा: मत्स्या: सनैमिषा: चैद्यश्च महाभागा धर्म जानन्तिशाश्वत्म' कर्णपर्व / 45,14-16
  23. ज्याग्रेफिकल डिक्शनरी / पृ0 7
  24. आयस्मा महाचुंडो चेतिसुविहरति सहजातियम्'। अंगुत्तरनिकाय 3,355
  25. वेदव्य जातक ( सं0 48 )
  26. पुनश्चेदिराजस्य दमघोषस्यात्मज शिशिशुपालनामाभवत्'। विष्णुपुराण / 4,14,50
  27. राइसडेवीज-पृ0 287
  28. 'नदीनां मेकलसुतान्नृपाणां रणविग्रह:, कवीनांच सुरानंदश्चेदिमंडलमंडनम्' कर्पूरमंजरी स्टेनकोनो पृ0 182
  29. पौराणिक कोश |लेखक: राणा प्रसाद शर्मा |प्रकाशक: ज्ञानमण्डल लिमिटेड, वाराणसी |संकलन: भारत डिस्कवरी पुस्तकालय |पृष्ठ संख्या: 557, परिशिष्ट 'क' |
  30. भारतकोश-चेदि-महाजनपद
  31. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.903
  32. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.904
  33. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, Page 290
  34. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter V (Page 466)

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