Dakshina Kosala

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Map of Chhattisgarh Districts
Map of Orissa Districts

Dakshina Kosala (दक्षिण कौशल) or Southern Kosala was a colony of Kosala kings identified to be the Chhattisgarh state and western Orissa region of India. Raghava Rama's mother " Kausalya " was from this kingdom.

Variants

History

Map of Bilaspur district

Rama's son Kusha got south Kosala as his share. He established his new capital, “Kushasthalipura,” on the river “Kushavratee” near the “Vindhya” mountain range, which divides north and south India. This “Kushasthalipura” is identified near “Malhar” in the present-day Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh state. South Kosal was spread across present day’s Chhattisgarh state and Western Orissa region. In the course of time, Dakshin (south) Kosal developed as a mighty empire and for various reasons, mainly because of the rise of the kingdoms of Magadha and Kashi, North Kosal became weaker and lost its existence.

Tej Ram Sharma, [1] writes that Kosala (कोसल) has been mentioned in Allahabad Stone Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta (=A.D. 335-76) (No. I, L. 19). It is spelt both ways with the dental as well as with the palatal sibilant. It is included in the list of the Daksinapatha kingdoms whose kings were conquered but reinstated by Samudragupta. At that time Mahendra was its ruler. It has been identified with South Kosala corresponding to modern district of Raipur, Sambalpur and Bilaspur of M.P. and Orissa. Its old capital was Sripura (modern Sirpur), 40 miles north-east of Raipur.

कुशावती

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[2] ने लेख किया है ...1. कुशावती (AS, p.213): वाल्मीकि रामायण, उत्तरकाण्ड 108,4 से विदित होता है कि स्वर्गारोहण के पूर्व रामचंद्र जी ने अपने ज्येष्ठ पुत्र को कुशावती नगरी का राजा बनाया था-- 'कुशस्य नगरी रम्या विंध्यपर्वत रोधसि, कुशावतीति नाम्ना साकृता रामेण धीमता'. उत्तरकांड 107, 17 से यह भी सूचित होता है कि, 'कोसलेषु कुशं वीरमुत्तरेषु तथा लवम्' अर्थात रामचंद्र जी ने दक्षिण कौशल में कुश और उत्तर कौशल में लव का राज्याभिषेक किया था. कुशावती विंध्यपर्वत के अंचल में बसी हुई थी और दक्षिण कोसल या वर्तमान रायपुर (बिलासपुर क्षेत्र छत्तीसगढ़) में स्थित होगी. जैसा की उपयुक्त उत्तर कांड 108,4 सेवा से सूचित होता है

स्वयं रामचंद्र जी ने यह नगरी कुश के लिए बनाई थी. कालिदास ने भी रघुवंश 15,97 में कुश का, कुशावती का राजा बनाए जाने का उल्लेख किया है--'स निवेश कुशावत्यां रिपुनागांकुशं कुशम्'. रघुवंश सर्ग 16 से ज्ञात होता है कि कुश ने कुशावती में कुछ समय पर्यंत राज करने के पश्चात अयोध्या की इष्ट देवी के स्वप्न में आदेश देने के फलस्वरूप उजाड़ अयोध्या को पुनः बसाकर वहां अपनी राजधानी बनाई थी. कुशावती से ससैन्य अयोध्या आते समय कुश को विंध्याचल पार करना पड़ा था-- 'व्यलंङघयद्विन्ध्यमुपायनानि पश्यन्पुलिंदैरूपपादितानि' रघुवंश 16,32. विंध्य के पश्चात कुश की सेना ने गंगा को भी हाथियों के सेतु द्वारा पार किया था, 'तीर्थे तदीये गजसेतुबंधात्प्रतीपगामुत्तर-तोअस्य गंगाम, अयत्नबालव्यजनीबभूवुर्हंसानभोलंघनलोलपक्षा:...' रघुवंश 16,33 अर्थात जिस समय कुश, पश्चिम वाहिनी गंगा को गज सेतु द्वारा पार कर रहे थे, आकाश में उड़ते हुए चंचल पक्षों वाले हंसों की श्रेणियां उन (कुश) के [p.214]: ऊपर डोलती हुई चंवर के समान जान पड़ती थीं. यह स्थान जहां कुश ने गंगा को पार किया था चुनार (जिला मिर्जापुर उत्तर प्रदेश) के निकट हो सकता है क्योंकि इस स्थान पर वास्तव में गंगा एकाएक उत्तर पश्चिम की ओर मुड़ कर बहती है और काशी में पहुंचकर फिर से सीधी बहने लगती है.

In Ramayana and Mahabharata

In the “Puranas”, Kosal, Mekhal and Utkal are described as “Vindhyaprustha nivasinaha”, which means these places were located near the Vindhya mountain range. In the epic Vana Parva, Mahabharata, Kosal is described as a mighty kingdom. Rissava, Kala and Badrika were the famous religious places. They are presently located in the new state of Chhattisgarh. Now also, many ashrams are found in "Gunja" hills. A rock inscription written in Brahmi Lipi, in Gunja parbat, describes the Rissava Khetra.

It is believed that in 1500 BC, wars took place between Ram and Ravan; and in 950 BC, between the Kaurava and Pandava. So, about 3500 years ago Kusha would have formed the state of South Kosal. According to the Puranas, chronologically Aatithhi, Nissadha, Nala, Nabha, Pandurika, Sudhanba, Devarika and Aahinaru have ruled over Dakhin Kosal. In “Harivamsha purana” and “Bhagavata Purana”, there are twenty five kings’ names given chronologically. Considering the names and based on many other incidences, historian Parzitor has described Shrutayu as the king of Dakshin kosal during the era of the Mahabharata war. He was also known as Vrihadbala, 36th in descent from Lord Ramchandra. This king was the contemporary of Dirghajagyan, the Ikshvaku king of Ayodhya. It is mentioned in Mahabharata that Bhima defeated these two kings and forced them to accept the dominion of Yudhisthira and to attain the Rajasuyan yajna of king Yudhisthira.

Sahadeva's military campaigns

Sahadeva targeted the kingdoms in the regions south to the Gangetic Plain. Vanquishing the invincible Bhismaka, Sahadeva then defeated in battle the king of Kosala and the ruler of the territories lying on the banks of the Venwa, as well as the "Kantarakas" and the kings of the eastern Kosalas.

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See also

References