|Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क|
Bharhut (भरहुत) or Barhut (बरहुत), is a location in Madhya Pradesh, Central India, known for its famous Buddhist stupa. Bharhut stupa is one of the earliest extant Buddhist structures and due to the presence of dedicatory inscriptions, it was patronized by almost exclusively by monks, nuns and the non-elite laity. The Bharhut stupa may have been established by the Maurya king Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE, but many works of art were apparently added during the Sunga period, with many friezes from the 2nd century BCE. An epigraph on the gateway mention its erection "during the supremacy of the Sungas" by Vatsiputra Dhanabhuti.
Bharhut is located at the head of the narrow Mahiyar valley in central India, 200 miles northwest of Sanchi, where the ancient trade route from the western coastal regions to the eastern metropolis of Pataliputra joined the road to northern Sravasti. The Bharhut developed during second century AD which was the last phase of Mauryan dynasty. Bharhut is the name of hill seen behind the stupa site. Besides Bharhut hill is situated the Nairo hill, which has a flat top (plateau) having traces of an ancient fort. The constructions of Bharhut consist of red stones obtained from Nairo hill and Bharhut hill. 
The place gets name Bharhut after its rulers of clan Bhar or Rajbhar. It became Bharhut over a period of time. Bharhut was located on route from Kosambi, the capital of Vatsa Janapada to Vidisha, the capital of Dasharna janapada. On this very route is situated another important ancient Buddhist stupa of Deur Kothar discovered very recently, which is 140 kms away from Bharhut in northeast direction in Rewa district. The origin of the word 'Bharhut' would have been from 'Bhar-Bhukti', which means 'the country of Bhars'. Bharbhukti later changed to Bharhut. 
Bhar is the Jat clan found in Districtt Hisar (villages-Singhwa Khas) in Haryana. They are also in Punjab who were originally from Rajasthan. In Rajasthan they are found in Tonk distrct (villages-Raghunathpura Parli). Similarly Bharshiv, derived from Bhar, is also a Jat gotra originated from Nagavansh Bhar clan Jats are found in Multan area in Pakistan. ,
T.W. Rhys Davids writes that Bharhat and Bharhut both names are correct but Bharhat is more correct. He has mentioned both the names in his book.  He writes that plate 13 of Bharhut stupa depicts Raja Prasenjita 600 BCE on a chariot with 24 spiked Dhamma Chakra of Buddha.  This shows that Raja Prasenjit was not only the follower of Buddhism but had also adopted Buddha's Dhamma Chakra as state symbol. 
The ancient name of Bharhut was Vardavati. Ptolemy in his 'Geography' has mentioned a city named 'Bardaotis' situated on the route from Ujjain to Pataliputra, which according to Alexander Cunningham is related with Bharhut. According to Tibetan 'Dhulva' a Shakya monk named Samyak was expelled from Kapilavastu and came to Bagud and built a stupa here. Cunningham tells us that Bagud is Bharhut. It has been mentioned to be within the Ātavī province of the ancient literature. Samudragupta has mentioned Atavi in the list of places won by him. Jayaswal has identified Atavi with Bundelkhand and eastern Baghelkhand. 
Vardavati was a very prosperous town in ancient times and it was one of important centres of trade. The Koshambi ruler, Prasenjit's purohit has mentioned in the book 'Bavri', about this city as 'Balsevati'. A. Cunningham also supports this view. In samvat 197 (140 AD) the Bharshiv people became ruler of this region and renamed it as 'Bharbhukti' after them. The 'Bardadeeh' village , situated 2 miles north of Satna city, gets the name from Bardavati. Deeh means the abondoned place. 
As per Balmiki Ramayana this region was under the influence of Sutikshana Muni. The region was known as Dandakaranya and mentioned later in Koshala Kingdom. During Mahabharata period Kārūpā tribe ruled here. According to Pali literature this region was part of Majjhima Province. Tibetan literature 'Dhulva' tells us that when Buddha visited Kapilvastu he gave his hair and nails to one Shakya named Samyak and sent him to 'Bagud' province. At that time this region was part of Vatsa Janapada. Shakya Samyak came and stayed at place called Vardavati Nagar. This ancient city was near 'Naro Pahar' and 'Bharhut Parvat'. The region was ruled by Mauryas, Shungas, Nagas, Bharashivas, Vakatakas, Guptas, Kalachuris, and Chandelas.
In the last phase of Mauryan rule there were many janapada states in India. In Madhya Pradesh there were seven cities namely - Tripuri, Eran, Mahishmati, Bhagil, Vidisha, Ujjayani and Padmavati which were important centres of Mauryan rulers and Buddhists.  There are large number of archaeological sources scattered around in these areas about these sites.
The Naga dynasty had its hold in the present Gwalior - Bhopal divisions of Madhya Pradesh from about beginning of third to the middle of fourth century AD. Their centres were at Padmavati (Pawaiya near Gwalior) and Kantipuri (Kutwār district Morena ). Several thousand copper coins have been discovered at these sites and other sites. The successors of Satvahanas in the Tripuri region were Bodhis. Names of five Bodhi rulers are known from the recent excavations at Tripuri.  Eran can be called to be the oldest historical town of Sagar district in Madhya Pradesh. In earlier coins and inscriptions its name appears as Airikiṇa. From an early inscription at Sanchi we know that the residents of Eran had made some gifts to the famous Stupa situated there. The word erakā probably refers to a kind of grass which grows at Eran in abundance. 
Cunningham writes that it seems probable, however, from the long inscription on the East Gateway of the Bharhut Stupa that the Stupa itself was situated "in the kingdom of Sugana " (Sugana raje). At a later date we know that it must have belonged to the wide dominions of the Gupta dynasty, whose inscriptions have been found at Garhwa, Eran, and Udayagiri. During the rule of that powerful family, the country around Bharhut would seem to have fallen into the hands of petty chiefs, as a number of copper-plate inscriptions have been found within 12 miles of the Stupa referring to two different families who were content with the simple title of Maharaja. These inscriptions range in date from 156 to 214 of the era of the Guptas, or from A.D. 350 to 408.
Somewhat more than two centuries ater Bharhut was under Harsha Vardhana of Kanoj as lord paramount, but it is almost certain that the district had also a petty chief of its own. After the death of Harsha the Baghels and Chandels rose to power, the former ruling in Bandhogarh, the latter in Khajuraho, Mahoba, and Kalinjjar. 
Probable age of the Stupa of Bharhut
The probable age of the Stupa which Cunningham has assigned to the Asoka period or somewhere between 250 and 200 B.C. Bharhut was on the high road between Ujjain and Bhilsa in the south, and Kosambi and Sravasti in the north, as well as Pataliputra in the east. On this line at a place called Rupnath, only 60 miles from Bharhut, there is a rock inscription of Asoka himself. As he was governor of Ujjain during his father's lifetime Asoka must often have passed along this road, on which it seems only natural to find the Stupas of Bhilsa, the rock inscription of Rupnath, the Stupa of Bharhut, and the Pillar of Prayaga or Allahabad ; of which two are actual records of his own, while the inscriptions on the Railings of the Stupas show that they also must belong to his age.
The inscription of Raja Dhanabhuti, the munificent donor of the East Gateway of the Stupa — and most probably of the other three Gateways also. In his inscription he calls himself the Raja of Sugana, which is most likely intended for Sughna or Srughna, an extensive kingdom on the upper Jumna. I have identified the capital of Srughna, with the modem village of Sugh which is situated in a bend of the old bed of the Jumna, close to the large town of Buriya. Old coins are found on this site in considerable numbers. In this inscription on the East Gateway at Bharhut Raja Dhanabhuti calls himself the son of Aga Raja and the grandson of Viswa Deva, and in one of the Rail-bar inscriptions we find that Dhanabhuti's son was named Vādha Pala. Now the name of Dhanabhuti occurs in one of the early Mathura inscriptions which has been removed to Aligarh. The stone was originally a corner pillar of an enclosure with, sockets for rails on two adjacent faces, and sculptures on the other two faces. The sculpture on the uninjured face represents Prince Siddhartha leaving Kapilavastu on his horse Kanthapa, whose feet are upheld by four Yakshas to prevent the clatter of their hoofs from awakening the guards. On the adjacent side is the inscription placed above a Buddhist Railing. At some subsequent period the Pillar was pierced with larger holes to receive a set of Rail-bars on the inscription face. One of these holes has been cut through the three upper lines of the inscription, but as a few letters still remain on each side of the hole it seems possible to restore some of the missing letters. We read the inscription as follows :
1. Kapa (Dhana)
2. Bhutisa * * * Vatsi
3. Putrasa (Vadha Pa) lasa
4. Dhanabhutisa dānam Vedika
5. Torana cha Ratnagraha sa —
6. -va Buddha pujāye sahā māta pi-
7. -tā ki sahā* chatuha parishāhi.
There can be little doubt that this inscription refers to the family of Dhanabhuti of Bharhut, as the name of Vātsi putra of the Mathura pillar is the Sanskrit form of the Vāchhi putra of the Bharhut Pillar. This identification is further confirmed by the restoration of the name of Vādha Pāla, which exactly fits the vacant space in the third line. From this record, therefore, we obtain another name of the same royal family in Dhanabhuti II., the son of Vadha Pala, and . grandson of Dhanabhuti I. Now in this inscription all the letters have got the matras, or heads, which are found in the legends of the silver coins of Amoghabhuti, Dara Grhosha, and Varmmika. The inscription cannot, therefore, so far as we at present know, be dated earlier than B.C. 150. Allowing 30 years to a generation, the following will be the approximate dates of the royal family of Srughna :
- B.C. 300. Viswa Deva.
- B.C. 270, Aga Raja.
- B.C. 240. Dhanabhuti I.
- B.C. 210. Vadha Pala.
- B.C. 180. Dhanabhuti II.
- B.C.150. -------------
Now we learn from Vadha Pala's inscription, Plate LVI., No. 54, that he was only a Prince (Kumara) the son of the Baja Dhanabhuti, when the Railing of the Bharhut Stupa was set up. We thus arrive at the same date of 240 to 210 B.C. as that previously obtained for the erection of the magnificent Gateways and Railing of the Bharhut Stupa. To a later member of this family I would ascribe the well-known coins of Raja Amogha-bhuti, King of the Kunindas, which are found most plentifully along the upper Jumma, in the actual country of Srughna. His date, as I have already shown, must be about B.C. 150, and he will therefore follow immediately after Dhana-bhuti II. I possess also two coins of Raja Bala-bhuti, who was most probably a later member of the same dynasty. But besides these I have lately obtained two copper pieces of Aga Raja, the father of Dhana-bhuti I. One of these was found at Sugh, the old capital of Srughna, and the other at the famous city of Kosambi, about 100 miles to the north of Bharhut.
I may mention here that my reading of the name of the Kunindas on the coins of Amogha-bhuti was made more than ten years ago in London, where I fortunately obtained a very fine specimen of his silver mintage. This reading was published in the "Academy," 21st November 1874. I have since identified the Kunindas, or Kulindas, as the name is also written, with the people of Kulindrime, a district which Ptolemy places between the upper courses of the Bipasis and Ganges. They are now represented by the Kunets, who form nearly two-thirds of the population of the hill tracts between the Bias and Tons Rivers. The name of Kunawar is derived from them ; but there can be little doubt that Kunawar must once have included the whole of Ptolemy's Kulindrine as the Kunets now number nearly 400,000 persons, or rather more than sixty per cent, of the whole population between the Bias and Tons Rivers. They form 58 per cent, in Kullu ; 67 per cent, in the states round about Simla, and 62 per cent, in Kunawar. They are very numerous in Sirmor and Bisahar, and there are still considerable numbers of them below the hills, in the districts of Ambala, Karnal, and Ludiana, with a sprinkling in Delhi and Hushiarpur.
Note - This section is from The stūpa of Bharhut: a Buddhist monument ornamented with numerous sculptures by Alexander Cunningham 1879, pp.14-17
The Bharhut stupa (now dismantled and reassembled at Kolkata Museum) contains numerous birth stories of the Buddha's previous lives, or Jataka tales. Many of them are in the shape of large, round medallions. In conformity with the early aniconic phase of Buddhist art, the Buddha is only represented through symbols, such as the Dharmachakra, the Bodhi tree, an empty seat, footprints, or the triratana symbol. The style is generally flat (no sculptures in the round), and all characters are depicted wearing the Indian dhoti, except for one foreigner, thought to be an Indo-Greek soldier, with Buddhist symbolism.
An unusual feature of Bharhut panels is inclusion of text in the narrative panels, often identifying the individuals.
All the archaeological objects from the stupa have been moved to the Calcutta's Indian Museum. No antiquities exist at Bharhut now. Some antiquities were sent to Allahabad museum and some are preserved at Ramavana museum in Satna district.
General Cunningham had visited this area in 1873 on way to Nagpur. He was fascinated to find such a heritage site but at the same time pained at its ignorance by the people and the government. He left some guards behind to look after the site and came back in February 1874. He collected the scattered pieces of sculptures and records and tried to understand its design and lay out. He came third time in November 1874 with some legal rights. He carried some of the sculptures to Kolkata and started a Bharhut gallery in the National Museum. After a detailed study of Buddhist literature and the sculptures from the site, he published in 1876 a book titled "The Stupa of Bharhut", which is still an authentic book about the Bhahut stupa.
The famous 8 Buddhist stupas have been built on the relics of Buddha in his honour. Bharhut is not in that list. It is still not clear about on whose relics this stupa is built. General Cunningham had found in 1874 excavations a small box carrying the "Rakh Phool (ashes)" , which could not be identified but he handed it over to the Raja of Nagaud for safe custody. 
The Barhut stupa is an example of people's contribution in building the stupa. The construction of this stupa was a slow process. It took decades to come to the final shape. It was started by the Mauryan ruler Ashoka, later it was completed by the contributions from the followers of Buddhism, who visited this place and their names are inscribed as donors. The construction continued from first century B C to first century A D. 
In the days of Mauryan Emperor Asoka (c. 272-234 BC) a brick stupa measuring about 68 feet in diameter and covered with plaster was constructed at Bharhut. During the reign of the Sungas, who were in power in the second century BC and reigned until the year 72 BC, a richly decorated stone railing, 88 feet in diameter, was added to enclose the mound. Nothing is now visible of the celebrated stupa at this Buddhist site other than a shallow depression in the ground. Bricks and sandstone fragments are strewn all around. The remains of the sandstone railing pillar and gateways that surrounded the stupa have all been removed. They are mostly displayed in the Bharhut gallery at the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
Bharhut is famous for the ruins of a Buddhist stupa (shrine) discovered there by Major General Alexander Cunningham in 1873. The stupa's sculptural remains are now mainly preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, and in the Municipal Museum of Allahabad. The stupa was probably begun in the time of Asoka (c. 250 BC). It was originally built of brick, and it was enlarged during the 2nd century BC, when a surrounding stone railing with entrances on the four cardinal points was constructed. This railing bears a wealth of fine relief carving on its inner face. Around the beginning of the 1st century BC four stone gateways (toranas), each elaborately carved, were added to the entrances. An inscription on these gateways assigns the work to King Dhanabhuti in the rule of the Sungas (i.e., before 72 BC). The sculptures adorning the shrine are among the earliest and finest examples of the developing style of Buddhist art in India. 
Decline of Bharhut
Following the Mauryans, the first Brahmin king was Pusyamitra Sunga, who is frequently linked in tradition with the persecution of Buddhists and a resurgence of Brahmanism that forced Buddhism outwards to Kashmir, Gandhara and Bactria. According to the 2nd century Ashokavadana:
- "Then King Pusyamitra equipped a fourfold army, and intending to destroy the Buddhist religion, he went to the Kukkutarama. (...) Pusyamitra therefore destroyed the sangharama, killed the monks there, and departed. After some time, he arrived in Sakala, and proclaimed that he would give a hundred dinara reward to whomever brought him the head of a Buddhist monk" 
Later Sunga kings were seen as amenable to Buddhism and as having contributed to the building of the stupa at Bharhut. Brahmanism competed in political and spiritual realm with Buddhism in the gangetic plains. Buddhism flourished in the realms of the Bactrian kings. 
With the decline of Buddhism in India, the number of visitors to Bharhut came down and so was the funding for its maintenance. With the changed situations the opposition to Buddhism increased and people forgot its importance. People used the decayed material from the stupa for the construction of temples of their deities. The glory of the stupa was lost. When Nagaud state was founded about 700 years back, the local people collected material from stupa to establish new villages and used in construction of wells, bawdis and fortresses. Some material of stupa was collected from the fortress of Bhatnawra about 40 years back.  With the decline of Buddhism, it started the decline of Bharhut stupa also. The stupa was completely destroyed over a period of about one thousand years. There were attempts to transform the stupa to a Hindu place of worship. It was converted in to a Shiva temple after assembling the ruins and reconstruction. The name of Bharhut village also changed to Bhairopur in 10th century. During 12 century some local ruler named Ballaldeva put his inscription. Later during Mugal rule and the British rule the villagers took away the stone pillars to construct wells, houses etc. These were used by the contractors in the construction of Maihar-Satna Railway line bridges and in the Satna-Maihar road construction.
Vehicles at Bharhut
Alexander Cunningham found at Bharhut that the only vehicles which were observed amongst all the varied scenes of Bharhut Sculptures are the Boats, the horse chariots, and the bullock cart. Of the boat there are two examples, but unfortunately they are both in the same bas-relief, and that still lies buried under the walls of the palace at Uchhahara in Satna district. Of the horse chariots there are also two examples. One is the royal chariot of Raja Prasenjit, having two-wheels, holds four people including Raja Prasenjit and is drawn by horses. The other chariot occurs in the Mygapaka Jataka. It is empty but is exactly the same with the last, with the same four horses. Of the bullock cart there are likewise two specimens. One in the bas-relief of the Jetavana monastry and the other filling the whole of the medallion of the rail-bars.
The sculptures at Bahrhut
Alexander Cunningham has compiled information about Sculptures found at Bharhut and published in his book - "The Stupa of Bhahut". Some of the figures could not be interpreted by him. Some which have been understood are as under:
The Yakshas at Bharhut
The Yakshas - The most striking of all the representations of the demigods are the almost life-size figures of no less than six Yakshas and Yakshmis, which stand out boldly from the faces of the corner pillars at the different entrances to the Courtyard of the Stupa. According to the Buddhist cosmogony the palace of Dhritarashtra and the Gandharvas occupies the East side of the Yugandhara rocks, that of Virudha and the Kumbhandas the South, that of Virupaksha and the Nagas the West, and that of Vaisravan and his Yakshas the North. Two of these guardian demigods I have been able to identify with two of the Yakshas figured on the entrance pillars'of the Bharhut Stupa. The Pali name Waisrawana, in Sanskrit Vaisravana, is a patronymic of Kuvera, the king of all the Yakshas, whose father was Visravas. To him was assigned the guardianship of the Northern quarter; and accordingly I find that one of the figures sculptured on the comer pillar of the Northern Gate at Bharhut is duly inscribed Kupiro Yakho, or Kuvera Yaksha. To Virudhaka was entrusted the guardianship of the South quarter, and accordingly the image of Virudako Yakho is duly sculptured on the corner pillar of the South Gate. With Kupiro on the North are associated Ajakalako Yakho and Chada Yakhi, or Chanda Yakshini; and with Virudaka on the South are associated Gangito Yakho and Chakavako Naga Raja. The West side was assigned to Virupaksha; but here I find only Suchiloma Yakho and Sirima Devata on one pillar, and on a second the figure of Supāvaso Yakho. Dhritarashtra was the guardian of the East side ; but unfortunately the two corner pillars of this Gate have disappeared. There is, however, in a field to the west of the Stupa a corner pillar bearing the figure of the Yakshini Sudasava, which could only have belonged to the Eastern Gate. We have thus still left no less than six figures of Yakshas and two of Yakshinis, which are most probably only about one-half of the number which originally decorated the Bharhut Railing. I may note here that the corner pillar of the Buddhist Railing which once surrounded the Great Temple at Bauddha Gaya bears a tall figure of a Yakshini on one of the outward faces as at Bharhut.
The Yakshas were the subjects of Kuvera, the guardian of the North quarter of Mount Meru, and the God of Riches. They had superhuman power, and were universally feared, as they were generally believed to be fond of devouriiag human beings. This must certainly have been the belief of the early Buddhists, as the legend of the Apannaka Jataka is founded on the escape of Buddha, who was then a wise merchant, from the snares of a treacherous Yaksha, while another merchant who had preceded him in the same route had been devoured with all his followers, men and oxen, by the Yakshas, who left " nothing but their bones." I suspect that this belief must have originated simply in the derivation of their name Yaksha, " to eat", for there is nothing ferocious or even severe in the aspects of the Yakshas of the Bharhut sculptures. These must, however, have been considered as friendly Yakshas, to whom was entrusted the guardianship of the Four Gates of the Stupa. The ancient dread of their power has survived to the present day, as the people of Ceylon still try " to overcome their malignity by Chaunts and Charms. I think it probable also that the Jak Deo of Kunawar and Simla may derive its name from the ancient Yaksha or Jakh.
Of Kuvera, the king of the Yakshas, there is frequent mention in the Buddhist books under his patronymic of Wessawano or Vaisravana, as on attendant an Buddha along with the guardian chiefs of the other three quarters.
Regarding the general appearance of the Yakshas we are told that they resembled mortal men and women. That this was the popular belief is clearly shown by the wellknown story of Sakya Sinha's first appearance at Rajagriha as an ascetic. The people wondered who he could be. Some took him for Brahma, some for Indra, and some for Vaisravana. This is confirmed by the figures of the Yakshas and Yakshinis in the Bharhut Sculptures, which in no way differ from human beings either in appearance or in dress. In the Lalita Vistara also Vaisravana is enumerated as one of the chiefs of the Kāmāvachara Devaloka, of which all the inhabitants were subject to sensual enjoyments.
Note - This section is from The stūpa of Bharhut: a Buddhist monument ornamented with numerous sculptures by Alexander Cunningham 1879, pp.19-20
The sculptures of following named Yakshas have been found at Bharhut:
- Vaisravana i.e. Kuvera, the king of Yakshas - On the northern gateway at Bharhut Stupa. The character of Vaiśravaṇa is founded upon the Hindu deity Kubera. Vaiśravaṇa (Sanskrit वैश्रवण) or Vessavaṇa (Pāli वेस्सवण,Sinhala වෛශ්රවණ) also known as Jambhala, is the name of the chief of the Four Heavenly Kings and an important figure in Buddhist mythology. Vaiśravaṇa is the guardian of the northern direction, and his home is in the northern quadrant of the topmost tier of the lower half of Mount Sumeru. He is the leader of all the yakṣas who dwell on the Sumeru's slopes. Bhedaghat is a place of tourist importance near Jabalpur city in Madhya Pradesh on the banks of River Narmada. The banks of river Narmada is described as the birth place of Yaksha king Kuvera (Vaisravana), where his father Visravas, who was a sage, lived (MBh 3,89). King Vaisravana or Kubera was the ruler of Lanka Kingdom which was guarded by hosts of Rakshasas.
- Virudhaka - Who was son of Raja Prasenjit and king of Kashi. This king is probably related with Burdak gotra of Jats.
- Ajakalako - The word Ajakalako cosists of Aja+Kalaka. Ajmedia (अजमेदिया) jat gotra gets its name from Raja Aja (अज). Kalaka is a name of Asura mentioned with Pannagas in Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 170 verse 2 like this: थरुमै रत्नमयैश चैत्रैर भास्वरैश च पतत्रिभिः, पौलॊमैः कालकेयैश च नित्यहृष्टैर अधिष्ठितम. Ajakalako (Ajakalaka or Ajakalāpaka) can be associated with a specific shrine. In particular, Ajakalāpaka is mentioned in Udana as being a resident of town Pātali.
- Suchiloma Yakho - It is believed, the Buddha met and conversed with evil spirit, Suchiloma. Reference regarding Suchiloma can be found in Sutta Nipata, discourse No 5. Suchiloma, the demon thug was won over to learn teaching is very remarkable instance. It reasserts how the Buddha used his knowledge of psychology as a supreme teaching. Once the Buddha was staying in Gaya in the residence of demon Suchiloma. The demon saw the Buddha and made his way near him. Having come closer, Suchiloma pressed his body against the Buddha and He bent his body away. Then Suchiloma asked the Buddha, “Monk, do you fear me?” The Buddha replied, “No, sir, I fear you not, though your touch be unpleasant.” This unusual encounter eventually gave rise to a remarkable conversation on the nature human emotions and their origins. (Sn. Suchiloma Sutta).
- Purnaka Yaksha - The Yaksha named Pūrṇaka is the same name as that of Yaksha depicted in narrative reliefs is listed in the Mahamayupuri as being associated with the town Malaya.  Malaya (मलया) Malya (मलया) is ancient gotra of Jats who live in Tonk district (in villages Bagadi and Ganeshpura) in Rajasthan.
- Dhritarashtra - Dhritarashtra (धृतराष्ट्र) was a Nagavanshi ruler. Dhetarwal (धेतरवाल) gotra of Jats are descendant of this mahapurusha Dhritarashtra (धृतराष्ट्र) of Nagavansh.
- The Yakshinis
- Chanda Yakshini - At northern gateway
- Sudasava Yakshini -
- Sudarsana Yakshini - Who is shown as riding Makara. This pillar was donated by Kanaka (कनक).  The Sudasana on Bharhut pillar inscription is most likely the same as Sudarshana mentioned in the Mahāmāyūpuri as being the tutelery deity of the town Champa. 
The Jat historian Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria) writes that Jakhar is derived from Yaksha. This tribe Jakhar claim Jakha or Jakhu, known as Yaksha or Yakshu in Sanskrit, to be their most ancient eponymous progenitor.  The Jakha and Jakhaudiya gotra are also derived from Yaksha.
The Devas at Bharhut
- The Devas
- Sirima Devta (Bhumata) - The mother goddess
- Chulakoko Devta - Chulakoko Devta on southern gateway is shown standing on elephant catching a branch of tree with one hand. The name of donar inscribed is Dharma Gupta.  It is probably connected with Chalka gotra of Jats. There are two such inscription in Hathigumpha inscriptions
The Nagas at Bharhut
In the history of Buddhism the Nagas play even a more important part than the Yakshas. One of their chiefs named Virupaksha was the guardian of the Western quarter. Like the Yakshas the Nagas occupied a world of their own, called Nagaloka, which was placed amidst the waters of this world, immediately beneath the three-peaked hill of Trikuta, which supported Mount Meru. The word Naga means either a " snake " or an " elephant," and is said to be derived from Naga, which means both a " mountain " and a " tree." In the Puranas the Nagas are made the offspring of Kasyapa by Kadru. In Manu and in the Mahabharata they form one of the creations of the seven great Rishis, who are the progenitors of all the semi-divine beings such as Yakshas, Devas, Nagas, and Apsarases, as well as of the human race. The capital of the Nagas, which was beneath the waters, was named Bhogawati, or the " city of enjoyment." Water was the element of the Nagas, as Earth was that of the Yakshas ; and the lake-covered land of Kashmir was their especial province. Every spring, every pool, and every lake had its own Naga, and even now nearly every spring or river source bears the name of some Naga, as Vir Nag, Anant Nag, etc., the word being used as equivalent to a " spring or fount of water."
Even a bath, was sufficient for a N&ga as we learn from the story of the birth of Durlabha the founder of the Karkotaka, or Naga dynasty of Kashmir Rajas in A.D. 625.
In Buddhist history the Naga chiefs who are brought into frequent contact with Buddha himself, are generally connected with water. Thus Apalāla was the Naga of the lake at the source of the Subhavastu, and Elāpatra was the Naga of the well-known springs at the present Hasan Abdāl, while Muchalinda was the Naga of a tank on the south side of the Bodhi tree at Uruvilwa, the present Bauddha Graya. At Ahichhatra also there was a Nāga Raja who dwelt in a tank outside the town, which is still called Ahi-Sāgar or the " serpent's tank," as well as Adi-Sāgar, or " king Adi's tank." The connection of the Nagas with water is further shown by their supposed power of producing rain, which was possessed both by Elapatra and by the Naga of Sankisa, and more especially by the great Nāga Raja of the Ocean, named Sagara, who had full power over the rains of heaven. In the Vedas also the foes of Indra, or watery clouds, which obscure the face of the sky, are named Ahi and Vritra, both of which names are also terms for a snake. The connection of the Nagas with water would therefore seem to be certain, whatever may be the origin of their name.
In the Bharhut sculptures there are several Naga subjects, all very curious and interesting, of which the principal are the Trikutaha Chakra, and the conversion of Elapatra Naga.
Note - This section is from The stūpa of Bharhut: a Buddhist monument ornamented with numerous sculptures by Alexander Cunningham 1879, pp.23-25
- The Nagas
- Chakavako Nagaraja - Chakavako or Chakavaka Nagaraja Under trikuta (Meru Parvat), Bhogawati capital
- Apalana Naga
- Elapatra Naga - Naga Erapatra is described in both Mahavastu and Dhammapada commentaries as being a resident of a lake in Takshashila. 
- Muchlinda Naga (Blind)
- Kalika Nagaraja - Kalika is progenitor of Jat clan khatkal. 'Kata Kalika' became 'Katkal' or Khatkal.
- Nandopananda Naga king - Shalya Parva, Mahabharata/Book IX Chapter 44 mentions about this king. पुत्र मेषः परवाहश च तदा नन्दॊपनन्दकौ, धूम्रः शवेतः कलिङ्गश च सिद्धार्दॊ वरदस तदा (Mahabharata:IX.44.59)
- The Apsaras - The following apsaras have been shown dancing with their names inscribed:
- The human beings - Royal personage
- Janaka Raja
- Sivala Devi
- Raja Prasenjit
- Royal Princes Maya Devi
- Vipachitta Asura - There is no battle scene but a single figure of a soldier is available. His costume is tunic with long sleeves, cords, dhoti, boots, swords, belt, weared Omega (Tri-rtna). The warrior is having a grape climber in right hand. According to 'Sanyukta nikaya' Buddhist grantha this figure is of Vipachitta Asura. Barua considers it Surya devta. 
- Shalabhanjika - This sculpture of Shalabhanjika from Bahrhut, of the period c.100 BC, is at Indian Museum Kolkata. Here Shalabhanjika is grasping the tree in time honoured pose, one of several from Bharhut. The Yakshi who grasps, kicks, or twines herself around a tree is a symbol of fruitfulness, like the dryads of ancient Greek mythology, and a similar pose is often used in scenes of Maya giving birth to the Buddha, who emerges from her side.
Both male and female wear small cloth below the waste. The males wear cloth utariya on upper part of the body but females wear only ornaments. Females put a light muslin wrapper on the face but face is visible. The female dresses and ornaments include necklaces, collars, gridles (Mekhala), dhoti, veils, keep hair parted in middle, scarf, laltika (bindi of eight types), earrings (kundals), jhumka, tri-ratna, i.e. Buddhist triads (Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha), armlets (bracelets), anklets, thumb rings, finger rings mostly wear female and male both. The Royal and lay costume include dhoti, veils, (chaddar), muslin worked with gold and precious stones, flowered robes, (all white). 
Of the lay costume I can speak with more certainty, as there are several good examples of it, both male and female. The main portion of the male dress is the dhoti, or sheet passed round the waist and then gathered in front, and the gathers passed between the legs, and tucked in behind. This simple arrangement forms a very efficient protection to the loins, and according to the breadth of the sheet it covers the mid thigh, or the knees, or reaches down to the ankles. In the Bharhut Sculptures the dhoti uniformly reaches below the knee, and sometimes down to the mid leg. As there is no appearance of any ornamentation, either of flowers or stripes, it is most probable that then, as now, the dhoti was a plain sheet of cotton cloth. That it was of cotton we learn from the classical writers who drew their information from the companions of Alexander, Thus Arrian says, " The Indians wear cotton garments, the substance whereof they are made " growing upon trees. . . . They wear shirts of the same, which reach down to the " middle of their legs, and veils which cover their head, and a great part of their " shoulders." Here the word rendered shirt by the translator is clearly intended for the well-known Indian dhoti, and the veil must be the equally well-known Chaddar, or sheet of cotton cloth, which the Hindus wrap round their bodies, and also round their heads when they have no separate head-dress. Similarly Q. Curtius states that " the land is prolific of cotton, of which most of their garments are made," and he afterwards adds that " they clothe their bodies down to the feet in cotton cloth (carbaso)." To these extracts I may add the testimony of Strabo, who states that " the Indians wear white garments, white linen, and muslin." But though the cotton dress was white, it was not always plain, as Strabo mentions in another place that " they wear dresses worked with gold and precious stones, and flowered (or variegated) robes." These flowered robes must have been the figured muslins for which India has always been famous.
Above the waist the body is usually represented as quite naked, excepting only a light scarf or sheet, which is generally thrown over the shoulders, with the ends hanging down outside the thighs. In some cases it appears to be passed round the body, and the end thrown over the left shoulder,
The head-dress is by far the most remarkable part of the costume, as it is both lofty and richly ornamented. I have already quoted the description of Prince Siddhartha's hair as braided and plaited, and gathered into a knot on the right side of the head. This description seems to apply almost exactly to the head-dresses in the Bharhut sculptures. But judging from some difierences of detail in various parts, and remembering how the Burmese laymen still wear their hair interwoven with bands and rolls of muslin, I think that of the two terms braided and plaited, one must refer to the hair only, and the other to some bands of cloth intertwisted with the hair. The most complete specimen of the male head-dresses is that of the royal busts on two of the bosses of the rails. The head is about the size of life, and tlie details are all well preserved. In this sculpture, and in the companion medallion of a queen, I observe the bow of a diadem or ribbon, which I take to be a sure sign of royalty. A head-dress of a similar kind is worn by all the Naga Rajas, and in the case of the larger figure of the Naga king Chakavaka I think that I can distinguish the plaited hair from the bands of interwreathed cloth. The two bands which cross exactly above the middle of the forehead appear to be cloth, while all the rest is hair, excepting perhaps a portion of the great knot on the top. Similar cross bands or rolls of cloth may be seen in the head-dresses of the soldiers and standard bearer in Plate XXXII. figs 2, 3, 4, and 5. This interwreathing of muslin with the hair is also described by Q. Curtius, who says that " they wind rolls of muslin round their heads." The plaiting of hair, which I have described above from the Lalita Vistara, was likewise noticed by the Greeks, as Strabo records that " all of them plait their hair and bind it with a fillet." These quotations seem to describe very accurately the peculiar style of head-dresses worn by all men of rank in the Bharhut Sculptures ; and as the chief classical authority for such details was Megasthenes, who resided for many years at Palibothra, their close agreement with the sculptured remains of the same age offers a strong testimony to his general veracity. The only exception that I have observed to the use of this rich head-dress is in that of Kupiro Yakhoo, or Kuvera the King of the Yakshas, who wears an embroidered scarf like that of the females as a head covering.
The ornaments worn by the men will be described along with the female ornaments, as several of them are exactly the same.
The Historical Scenes
Besides the Jatakas, there are large number of other curious scenes, several of them are labelled. Amongst them are some of the greatest historical interest, as they refer directly to events, either true or supposed, in the actual career of sakya muni himself. Of these, six are there with names inscribed over them, and seventh is recognized by its subject. These are as follows:-
- Tikutiko Chakamo
- Maya Devi's dream
- The Jetvana Monastry
- Indra Sala-guha
- Visit of Ajatasatru to Buddha
- Visit of Prasenjit to Buddha
- The Sankika Ladder
There are hundreds of inscriptions found at Bharhut. The Buddhist stupa site of bharhut has yielded some 225 inscriptions, of which 141 are donative in nature while the remaining 84 are labels describing the accompanying sculptural representations of Jatakas, avadanas etc. Bharhut pillar inscription (C I I:2.2,11-12) recording the donation of gateway (torana) provides the only epigraphic attestation of dynastic name Sunga. 
Some of them of historical importance are as under:
Inscription of Narsinghadeva 1158 AD
1.(सिद्धि) स्वस्तिश्री परमभट्टारकमहाराजधिराज परमेस्वर श्री
2.वामदेवपादानुष्यात् परमभट्टारकमहाराजधिराज पर
3. मेस्वर परम माहेस्वर त्रिकलिंगाधिपति निज भुलोपा (जिर्ज) तअ
4. स्वपतिगजपतिनरपतिराज त्रयोधिपति श्री मन्नर
5. सिंहदेवचरणा: 11 वद्यवाग्रामकस्य महारा
6. जपुत्र श्रीकवयादित्य पुत्रवल्लालदेवकस्य वह:
7. संवत । 909 स्रावणसुदि 5 बुद्धे । (श्री)
8. राउत श्री वल्लालदेव ।।
|Inscription of Narsinghadeva 1158 AD |
This inscription was put in the memory of digging a canal by the ruler Raut Ballaladeva son of of Maharaja Kavayaditya of village Badhwa. This bears Kalachuri samvat 909 i.e. 1158 AD. This reads as given in the table. :
Inscription of Jayasingh
This inscription is about ruler Jaisingh of Tripuri. The inscription translated to Hindi language reads as under:
- "यश रूपी अमृत से युक्त वह राजा का पुरुष तब तक कुशलता पूर्वक रहे,जब तक सरोवरों के कमलों पर भ्रमर मंगल गान करतेहैं।" 
Inscription of Ajatashatru
Ajātashatru (Sanskrit अजातशत्रु; ruled 491-461 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire that ruled north India. There is not a great deal known about Ajatashatru. What is known is that he became a King of Magadha and the adjoining areas by murdering his father, Bimbisara. Also, he was a contemporary of Buddha, was a patron of the then-new religion of Buddhism, and he let the Sangha function in his Kingdom.
One of Inscription at Bharhut tells us that Ajatshatru visited this place and paid respect to Buddha. There is one scene about Raja Ajatashatru in which he is shown riding an elephant and moving with a procession to visit chaitya with Buddha's foot prints. The inscription reads as under:
- अजातशत्रु भगवतो वन्दते :
Translation - Ajatashatru vows to Buddha.
Inscription of Nagaraja Airawata
- एरापतो नागराज भगवतो वन्दते
Inscription of Prasenjit
Prasenjit was king of Kosala in 600 BCE and son of Bimbisara. He was notable for being a prominent lay follower of Gautama Buddha, building many Buddhist monasteries. Soon after usurping the prosperous kingdom built up by his father Bimbisara, the parricide Ajatashatru went to war with his aged uncle Prasenjit, and gained complete control of Kashi. Just after this Prasenjit, like Bimbisara, was deposed by his son, Virudhaka and died. The new king, Virūḍhaka (in Pali Viḍūḍabha), then attacked and virtually annihilated the little autonomous tribe of Shakyas, in Himalyan foothills, and we hear no more of the people which produced the greatest of Indians, the Buddha.  In an another scene Raja Prasenjit is shown on a chariot with four horses paying respect to Buddhist Dhamma Chakra. The inscription reads:
- भगवतो धम चक्रम
Translation - The Dharma Chakra of Buddha
Sculpture of Virudhaka
Soon after usurping the prosperous kingdom built up by his father Bimbisara, the parricide Ajatashatru went to war with his aged uncle Prasenjit, and gained complete control of Kashi. Just after this Prasenjit, like Bimbisara, was deposed by his son, and died. The new king, Virūḍhaka (in Pali Viḍūḍabha), then attacked and virtually annihilated the little autonomous tribe of Shakyas, in Himalayan foothills, and we hear no more of the people which produced the greatest of Indians, the Buddha. 
Probably Virudhaka (विरूढक), like Ajatashatru of Magadha, had ambitions of empire, and wished to embark on a career of conquest after bringing the outlying peoples, who had paid loose homage to his father, more directly under the control of the centre; but his intentions were unfulfilled, for we hear no more of him except an unreliable legend that he was destroyed by a miracle soon after his massacre of Shakyas. A little later his kingdom was incorporated in Magadha. 
Following inscriptions were discovered by Alexander Cunningham and compiled in his book.
- Jatila Sabha - This sculpture is unfortunately broken, which is the more to be regretted as the scene would have been one of the most interesting subjects of the whole series. The only portions now remaining are a tree with rocks, and half of the head and upper part of the body of a man. But there can be little doubt that the original scene represented the " Assembly of the Jatilians," Jatila sabha, who were the followers of Uruvilva Kasyapa. The Mahawanso states that he had 1,000 disciples, but Spence Hardy gives him only 500 followers. This Kasyapa and his two brothers were fire-worshippers, and as such they are represented both in the Sanchi and in the Gandhara Sculptures. It is, therefore, very unfortunate that this still earlier representation of the Assembly of the Jatilian fire-worsliippers should have been so seriously mutilated. The name is said to have been derived from jatan assa attithi, "he who has " a top-knot of matted hair." This seems to be the peculiar headdress of the fireworshippers in all these sculptures. It is curious, and perhaps not accidental, that the present peculiar cap of the Parsis has precisely the same shape and backward slope as the matted hair of these fire-worshippers of ancient India. 
- Raja Janaka and Sivala Devi - Janak (जनक) is mentioned as gotra of Jats originated from Maharaja Janak. . There is a need to find more details about Raja Janaka and Sivala Devi.
- Cunningham gives following details:In this scene there are three figures, each with a label overhead giving the name. The chief figure is of a royal personage seated to the left, and before him stand two others, a male and a female. The name of the seated figure on the left is lost, but the first letter would appear to have been U, or perhaps B. The name in the middle is Janako Raja, and that to the right Sivala Devi.
- In Burma this story of Janaka is included amongst the Jatakas, but it does not occur, under this name at least, in the list of Ceylonese Jatakas furnished to me by Subhuti. This legend is given by Bishop Bigandet, from which I have taken the following brief outline. When Arita Janaka, Raja of Alithita, was slain in battle, his queen, who was with child, took refuge in Champa, where she gave birth to a beautiful child resembling a statue of gold, to whom was given the name of Janaka. When grown up Janaka devoted himself to trade, that he might obtain the means of returning to his native country. When at sea on his way to Kamawatara his ship was wrecked, but he was saved by a daughter of the Devas, who taking him in her arms carried him to Mithila and placed him on the table stone of his ancestors. Here he fell asleep. On that very day his uncle the Raja of Mithila had died, leaving an only daughter named Sivali. Before his death the Raja had charged his inisters to select for the husband of his daughter " a man remarkable for beauty and strength, as well as for ability." He was to be able to bend and unbend an enormous bow, a feat which one thousand could scarcely achieve. On the seventh day after the Raja's death the ministers resolved to leave the selection of a husband to chance. So " they sent out a charmed chariot " believing that its inherent virtue would point out the fortunate man who was to be the husband of the princess. Accordingly the chariot proceeded straight towards the stone on which Janaka was sleeping. As the Brahmans perceived on the hands and feet of the stranger unmistakable signs foreshowing his elevation to the royal dignity, Janaka was awoke and taken to the palace in the charmed chariot. Here he performed the required feats of bending and unbending the great bow, and was "duly united to the beautiful and youthful Sivali."
- The Bharhut bas-relief apparently represents this last scene. 
- Dighatapasisise anusasati - According to A. Cunningham this inscription seems to refer to the well known Tirthika apponent of Buddha and Dirgha - tapasa or "long penace". The search of Jat history tells that Deeg is an ancient town in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan state in India . It finds mention in Skanda Purana as "Dirgha" or "Dirghapur". Deeg was the first capital of the newly carved out Jat state of Bharatpur, when Badan Singh was proclaimed its ruler in 1722.
- Migasamadika Chetiya - This scene occupies one of the small panels of the coping. In the middle of the bas-reliefs there is a tree, which must be the Chaitya mentioned in the label. Seated around are two Lions and six Deer living most amicably together. This is the subject which I suppose to be alluded to in the inscription, where I take Samadika to mean the "eating together " of the Lions and Deer under the tree, which was accordingly named the " Chaitya under which Lions and Deer ate together." 
- Ambode Chetiyam - This is another small bas-relief from the coping. In the centre stands a tree to which three Elephants are paying reverence. The tree is the Amb, or mango, and must therefore be the Ambode Chetiya, or " Chaitya mango tree" mentioned in the label. 
- Dadani-kamo-chakamo - In this very curious scene an altar or throne occupies the middle place, behind which are four Lions with gaping mouths, and to the right five men standing in front of a sixth, who sits on the ground to the left in a contemplative attitude, with his head leaning on his left hand. In front are two gigantic human heads, with a human hand between them, and towards the throne or altar a bundle of faggots burning. I conjecture that this scene represents one of the 16 Buddhist hells, or places of punishment. This seems to be borne out by the inscription, which I would render as the place (chakamo or chakra) of punishing (dadani or dandani) works (kamo or karma) that is the division of the kosmos in which works (karma) received their reward, or in other words " hell." 
- Chitu-pāda-sila - As the chief feature in this scene is a " Split rock," I think that Chitu may be intended for Chhitu, " splitting," of the rock (sila) ; but I am unable to explain pāda. The scene represented in the sculpture shows two parties of two men each seated on a broad-topped rock, and playing at some game like draughts. A square space on the surface of the rock is divided into 36 small squares, and beside the square are several small square pieces, with marks on the top, which have evidently been used in playing the game. They are exactly the same as the coins used for paving the Jetavana. But lo ! the rock has suddenly split between the two parties, and the two men on the right side are sinking downwards with the smaller half of the rock, which is already in a very slanting position. I have not succeded in discovering this legend but there is a story of a Raja named Chetiya, who is saddled with the ill repute of having told the first lie ever spoken in the world, which illustrates the chief point in this scene, and which may possibly be a different version of the same legend. " When "Chetiya, the son of Upachara, began to reign, he appointed as his principal minister " Korakatamba, with whom lie had been brought up, like two students attending the same schools, saying that he was senior to Kapila his elder brother. This was the first untruth ever uttered amongst men, and when the citizens were informed that the king had told a lie, they inquired what colour it was, whether it was white, or black,or blue. Notwithstanding the entreaties of Kapila, the king persisted in the untruth, and in consequence his person lost its glorious appearance, the earth opened, and he went to hell, the city in which he resided being destroyed. The version here given appears to belong to the Chetiya Jataka.
- In the Bharhut Sculpture perhaps the point of the story may have been the first occurrence of cheating, and the consequent punishment of the offender. The two figures, who are apparently descending into hell along with the sinking rock, would be the party guilty of cheating, while the principal figure of the opposite party, who still remains seated on the main rock looking on with wonder and amazement, would be Buddha himself in a previous existence. 
Inscriptions could not be understood
The following inscriptions at Bharhut could not be understood by A. Cunningham, which need further research to reach at conclusion.
- Vadukokatha dohati nadode pavate - This long label inscription shows a curious scene but could not be made out by historians. This curious scene has a long label inscribed above it which I cannot make out. To the right are some large rocks, and to the left is an ornamented bag or skin suspended from two pegs. In the middle is a man seated in front of the bag, the ends of which he holds as if he was in the act of milking. This action seems to be alluded to in this label, where I read dohati as " milks." Pavate is perhaps the Sanskrit pravritti, a " continuous "flow or stream."
- We can speculate from the word Vaduko, which has been probably used for Burdak in prakrit language. Similarly a Vadukha prince has also been mentioned in Hathigumpha inscription also which historians were unable to understand. Hathigumpha inscription at Udayagiri and Khandagiri consists of one line. The text in Devanagari script is as under: कुमारो वडुखस लेणं (kumāro vadukhas lenam). This means - [This is] "the cave of Prince Vaḍukha". Thus this character is common at both Bharhut and Kalinga.
- Jabu nadode pavate - It is again about nadode hill as above but could not be interpreted by historians. In this sculpture we have a companion scene to the last. Here a man is receiving both meat and drink from two hands which project from the trunk of a tree. In one hand is a bowl filled with solid food, and in the other a water vessel with handle and spout like a teakettle. I take Jambu as the equivalent of the Jambu tree, which here perhaps stands for the fabulous Kalpa drum, or "wishing tree " of Indra's heaven, that produced whatever was desired. I have since discovered a large sculpture of the kalpa drum, which forms the apex of the capital of one of Asoka's pillars in the ruins of Besnagar, at the junction of the Bes and Betwanti Rivers.
- Asadāvadhususāne Sigālanyeti - In the foreground a man is lying down apparently either dead or asleep, and quite unnoticed by three Jackals who are watching a female sitting in a tree, to which she is clinging with both hands. As the inscription appears to allude to the young girl (Vadhu), and the jackals (sigāla) in a cemetery (Susāna), the man lying on the ground is probably a corpse. This long label inscription shows a curious scene but could not be made out by historians. The letters seem plain enough. There is a need to search this inscription and find out about whom it is.
Text of Inscriptions from Bharhut
Note - This section is from The stūpa of Bharhut: a Buddhist monument ornamented with numerous sculptures by Alexander Cunningham 1879, pp. 127-140
The inscriptions on the Railing of the Bharhut Stupa are of the same character as those of the great Sanchi Stupa near Bhilsa. They record the names of the donors of different parts of the Railing, as of a Pillar, a BRail-bar, or a piece of Coping. Some of them also give the calling or occupation of the donors, and several add the name of their native city, or place of residence. The Sanchi inscriptions are generally limited to these announcements. But at Bharhut we have a considerable number of inscriptions which are labels, or titles, of the sculptured scenes above which they are placed. Thus we have the visit of Raja Ajatasatru to Buddha inscribed with the words —
"Ajatasatru worships [the feet] of Buddha;" and also a large tree inscribed with —
or, the " Bodhi Tree of Buddha Sakya Muni." These short records are quite invaluable, as they enable us to identify the different scenes to which they are attached with absolute certainty. We thus obtain the means of distinguishing one class of people from another with confidence, and of ascertaining what legends were current and most popular at the early period when this Stupa was erected.
There is also another prominent difference between the Bharhut and Bhilsa Railings, which adds greatly to the value of the former. This is the representation of Yakshas and and Yakshinis, and of Naga Rajas and Devatas with their names duly attached to them, from which we learn that the old Indian cosmogony, as represented in Buddhist as well as Brahmanical books, with its Nāga-loka, and its Guardian Rajas of the four quarters of the universe, was all fully elaborated as early as the time of Asoka. These inscriptions also teach us that the curiously shaped gateways of the well known Sanchi Stupa were called by the name of Torana, and that the Rail-bars were named Suchi, or " needles," no doubt because they seemed to thread all the pillars together.
The alphabetical characters of the inscriptions are precisely the same as those of Asoka's time on the Sanchi Stupa, and of the other undoubted records of Asoka on rocks and pillars. None of the letters have any heads, as in the coin legends of Amogha-bhuti, Dara-Grhosha, and Vamika, and in the still later Mathura inscriptions of Sudasa, Kanishka Huvishka, and Vasu Deva. These Bharhut records also preserve the simple style of dānam, which was used in the Asoka period, and which certainly belongs to an earlier age than the more elaborate phraseology of Deya-dharmma, which is the prevailing form of the Indo-Scythian inscriptions. The Bharhut records also are distinguished by the persistent use of the letter r, instead of changing it into l, as in lāja for rāja, of most of the Asoka edicts. That this was the actual pronunciations of the people of this part of the country is proved by the same use of r in the genuine Asoka edict engraved on the neighbouring rock of Rupnath.
128 The stūpa of Bharhut
Inscriptions on Gateways
1. Suganam, raje rājno Gāgi-putasa VISA-DEVASA
2. pauteṇa, Gotiputasa AGA-RAJASA puteṇa
3. Vāchhi-putena DHANA-BHUTINA kāritam toranam
4. Sila kammata cha upanna.
Sagnam Raja . .
Aga Rajna . .
toraṇam . .
. . hena
. . toranamcha
. . kata.
Nos. 2 and 3 must be portions of different inscriptions, and from different Grateways, as the word Torana is mentioned in each of them. This is important, as it proves that there were three separate Toran Gateways ; and if there were three we know that there must have been four, as the comer pillars of the Rail-way found at the four cardinal points show that there were four openings.
For the following translation I am indebted to the kindness of Babu Rajendra Lal, who suggests that the word upanna, is most probably upāna, a "plinth," but this could hardly be applied to the pillars of the Gateway, which are baseless, and spring direct from the ground.
- "In the kingdom of Sugana (Srughna) this Toran, with its ornamented stonework and plinth, was caused to be made by king Dhana-bhuti, son of Vāchhi and Aga Raja son of Goti, and grandson of Visa Deva son of Gāgi."
Here it will be observed that there are three other names in addition to those of the three Rajas, namely Gāgi or Gārgeya, Goti or Kautseya, and Vāchhi or Vātseya, which Babu Rajendra Lal considered "to be feminine names or the names of the mothers of the different "persons they refer to." Now it so happens that these are also the names of three distinguished spiritual teachers, Darga, Kautsa, and Vatsa, who gave their names to the three schools of the Gārggi-putriyas, Kautsi-puttriyas, and Vātsi-puttriyas, which led me to suppose that possibly the three Rajas might have belonged to these three different schools. I therefore referred the inscription with my conjectures to Dr. Buhler, whose great acquirements as a Sanskrit scholar are only equalled by his willingness to impart his knowledge to others, and from him I received another translation of the inscription, with the following clear and satisfactory explanation of the feminine names, " I agree with " Rajendra about the meaning of Gāgi (i.e. Gargeyi) putra, &c. Philologically any other "interpretation is impossible. If the kings wanted to characterise themselves as adherents
The stūpa of Bharhut 129
of the schools of Gārgiputra, &c, they expressed themselves incorrectly. The usage of "calling sons after their mothers was caused, not by polyandria, as some Sanskritists "have suggested, but by the prevalence of polygamy, and it survives among the Rajputs to the present day. In private conversation I have often heard a Kuwar called the son of the Solankani, or of the Gohilani, &c. Here you will observe the Rani is called according to her family name, not according to her proper name; and you will know, from intercourse with the Rajputs, that the Ranis are always mentioned in that manner.1
Now all the metronymica of the ancient kings and teachers, both Buddhistic and Brahmanical, are formed by a female family name with the word putra. Thus we have Vasisthhiputra, or Vasithiputra, Sātakarni, &c., and these names ought to be translated, 'son of the (wife) of the āasishtha family,' &c. The name was just intended to distinguish the king or teacher from the other sons of his father by naming his mother according to her family name.
There is another point connected with these metronymica which deserves attention ; viz. that the family names are all those of Brahmanical gotras. The explanation of this fact is that in accordance with the precepts of the Smriti, the Rajas were considered members of the gotras of their purohitas, and called themselves after the latter.
My last suggestion refers to the fourth line,
- sila kammatā cha upana,
which I translate into Sanskrit,
- Sila karmatā cha utpannā
and into English literally, 'And the state of one who performs] works of piety [has been] produced ; 'or more freely, ' And thereby spiritual merit has been gained.'
Upanā is uppannā, as these inscriptions do not note double letters, and uppannā is the regular Prakrit for utpannā. My translation of the whole is therefore —
- "This ornamental gateway has been erected by the king of Srughna, Dhanabhuti, born of [the queen of] the Vatsa family, [and] son of Aga-rāja, born of [the queen of] the Gota family, [and] grandson of king [Visa Deva], born of [the queen of] the Gāgeya race, and spiritual merit has been gained [thereby]."
The genealogy of the Royal family of Srughna, according to this inscription, is as follows : —
Father unknown X Mother of the Gārgeya family.
1. Viswa-Deva X Queen of the Kautsa family.
2. Agni-Raja X Queen of the Vatsa family.
The Mathura inscription of the same family continues the genealogy for two more
1. This is invariably the custom with the Rajputs; and I remember a Sati memorial stone in the fort of Bhatner recording the burning of six wives of Dalpat Sinh of the Bikaner family, each of whom was designated by her own family name, written beneath her sculptured figure, as Bhattiyāni, &c. But a similar custom was also adopted by the Muhamadans, as in the names of the Akbarābādi Masjid and Fatehpuri Masjid at Delhi which were built respectively by Akbarābādi Mahal the Begam of Shah Jahan, and by Fatehpuri Begam his daughter.
130 The stūpa of Bharhut
generations, of which the first is also named in one of the short Bharhut records, as the donor of a Rail-bar.1 I read the Mathura inscription as follows : —
1. kala . . . [Dhana]
2. bhutisa . . . āātsi
3. putrasa [Vādha-Pā] lasa
4. Dhanabhutisa dāmam Vedikā
5. Toranānaām cha Ratnagriha sa —
6. va Buddha pujāya sahā Mātu-pi —
7. ta haisāhara chata . . pariahi.
The missing letters in the third line are exactly three, which I have supplied to complete the name of Vādha Pāla, the son of Dhanabhuti. I have also supplied the former half of Dhanabhuti's name in the first line. These restorations are fully justified by the occurrence of the names of Vatsi-putra and Dhanabhuti in the second and fourth lines, which show that the record must belong to the royal family of Srughna. Now the letters of this Mathura inscription have already got small mātras, or heads, an innovation which places this record of Danabhuti II. about B.C. 180 to 160, or contemporary with Agnimitra and Apollodotus. His grandfather Dhanabhuti I., must therefore have reigned from about B.C. 240 to 220, or during the lifetime of Asoka.
On Coping Stones
1. Aya Nāgadevasa dānam = "Gift of the reverend Naga Deva."
2. Magha Deviya Jātakam. = " The Magha Deva Birth."2
3. Digha-tapasisise anusasati. = [Dirgha-tapas instructs his female disciples.]
4. Abode Chetiya. = " The Mango-tree Chaitya." (?)
5. Sujāto-gahuto Jātaka. = "Birth (of Buddha) as Sujāta the Bull-inviter."3 (?)
6. Biḍāla Jatara4 Kukutta Jātaka. = "The Cat Birth." "The Cock Birth."
7. Dadani komo chakamo. = "Punishment of Works Region " (?) ; that is, the place of punishment, or Hell.
8. Asadāvadhususane Sigāla ñati. = [Story unknown — Sigāla means a Jackal.]
1 See Plate LIII. No. 4, for the Mathura Inscription, and Plate LVI. No. 54, for the Bharhut record of Prince Vādha Pā1a, son of Dhanabhuti.
2 See Plate XLVIIT. fig. 2. 3 See Plate XLVII. fig. 3.
3. The cross stroke of the letter k has been omitted by the sculptor, which leaves only the upright stroke or r, as given above. See Plate XLVII. fig. 5.
The stūpa of Bharhut 131
10. Miga Samādaka chetiya. = " Deer and Lions eating together Chetiya." (?)
11. Hansa Jātakam. = " The Goose Birth."2
12. Kinara Jātakam. = " The Kinnara Birth."3
14. Uda Jātaka4 = [Story unknown.] The Uda Birth.
15. Sechha Jātaka5. = [Story unknown.] The Seeha Birth.
16. Karahakaṭa Nigamasa dāmam. = " Gift of Nigama of Karahakaṭa."
17. Bhisaharaniya Jātaka. " The Lotus-offering Birth." (?)6
18. Vaḍukokatha dohati naḍode pavate. = [Story unknown.]
19. Jabu naḍode pavate. = I suppose that the tree in the bas-relief is intended for the Jambu.7
20. Janako Rāja Sivalā Devi. = "Janako Rāja (and) Sivalā, Devi." 8
21. Chitupāda Sila. = The inscription seems to refer to the split (Ghiim) in the rock (sila).
22. Dusito-giri dadati. = [Story unknown.]
1 See Plate XLIII. fig. 1.
2 See Plate XXVII. fig. 11.
3 See Plate XXVII. fig. 12.
4 See Plate XL VI. fig. 2.
5 See Plate XLVI. fig. 8.
6 See Plate XL VIII. fig. 7.
7 See Plate XLVIIL fig. 11.
8 See Plate XLJV. fig. 2.
9 See Plate XLV. fig. 9.
132 The stūpa of Bharhut
1. Vedisā Chāpa Devāyā Revati Mita bhariyāya pathama thabho dānam. =
- " The first Pillar-gift of Chāpa Devā, wife of Revati Mitra of Vedisa."
- Vedisa is the old name of Besnagar, a ruined city situated in the fork of the Bes or Vedisa River and the Betwa within two miles of Bhilsa. The inscription is engraved on the first Pillar of the Railing next to the Gateway.1
2. Bhadantasa Aya Bhuta Rakhitasa Khujati-dakhiyasa dānam. =
- " Grift of the lay brother (Bhadanta) the reverend Bhuta-rakshita of Khujati-dakhiya."
3. Bhagavato-Vesabhuno-Bodhisālo. =
- " The Sala Bodhi Tree of the Buddha Viswabhu." The Bodhi Tree of this Buddha was a Sāla or Shorea-robusta.2
4. Aya Gorakhitasa dānam. = " Grift of the reverend Gorakshita."
5. Aya-Panthakasa thabho dānam. = " Pillar-gift of the reverend Panthaka."
7. Dabhinikāya Mahāmukhisa Dhita-badhikaya Bhichuniya dānam. = " Gift of the Nun Dhritabadhika, the Mahāmukhi (?) of Dabhinika."
9. Samanāyā Bhikhuniyā Chudathilikāyā dānam. = " Gift of the Nun Samana of Chudathilika."
10. Bahaḍagajaṭiranatane Isā Rakhitaputasa Anandasa thabho (dānam). = " Gift of Ananda, son of Isi Rakshita, the . . (title unknown).
11. Bhagavato Konigamenasa Bodhi. = " Bodhi Tree of the Buddha Kanaka Muni."
1 See Plate XII. This Pillar has the Standard Bearer and Relic Bearer sculptured on its inward faces.
2 See Plate XXIX. fig. 2,
3 See Plate XXIII. fig. 3.
4 See Plate XXIX. fif. 4.
The stūpa of Bharhut 133
13. Naga Jātaka. = "The Elephant Birth"1
14. Bibikāna Dikiṭa Budhino Gahapatino dānam. = "Gift of Dikshita Budhi, the householder of Bibikāna."
15. Supāvaso Yakho. = "The Yaksha Supravasu."
17. Bībikāna Dikaṭi Suladhasa Asavārikasa dānam. = "Gift of Dikshita Suladha, the Asavarika." The term Asawārika is most probably intended for an Aswār, Sawār, or "horseman."
18. Pusasa thabho dānam. = " Pillar-gift of Pushya."
19. Miga Jātakam. = "The Deer Birth." 2
20. Jetavana Anādhapeḍiko deti koṭi santhatena keṭā. = " Anāthapiṇḍika presents Jetavana, (having become) its purchaser for a layer of Koṭis." 3 Mr. Childers' remarks on this inscription will be found in the "Academy" for 5th December 1874.
21. Kosambi Kuṭi. = " The Kosambi Temple."
22. Gandha Kuti. = " The Gandha Temple."
- These two inscriptions are attached to the buildings in the famous Jetavana garden which is described in No. 20.
23. Dhama Rakhitasa dānam. = "Gift of Dharma Rakshita."
24. Chakavāko Nāga Raja. = "Chakavāka, King of the Nagas." 4
1 See Plate XXV. fig. 2.
2 See Plate XXV. fig. 1.
3 See Plate XXVIII. fig. 3.
4 See Plate XXI. fig. 1.
134 The stūpa of Bharhut
26. Gangito Yakho. = " The Yaksha Gangita.1
27. Aya Isadinasa Bhānakasa dānam. = " Gift of the reverend Isadina of Bhanaka."
28. Bhagavato Sāka Munnino Bodhi. = "The Bodhi Tree of the Buddha Sakya Muni."
29. Purathimapusasudha Vasa Deva. = [Unknown,]
30. Utaram disatuni savatanisisa. = [Unknown.]
31. Dakhini disa chhaki mavam cha rasahāsani. = [Unknown.]
32. Sādika Sammadan turam devānam. =
- This inscription is placed immediately below a bas-relief representing the dance and
song of the Apsarases, to which it directly refers in the words Sadika devānam, praises of the gods.
33. Misakosa Achharā.
34. Subhada Achharā.
35. Padumāvati Achharā.
36. Ahmbusa Achharā.
- These four inscriptions are separately engraved, one of them being placed behind each of the four dancers in the bas-relief of the dance of the Apsarases. The names are easily recognised as those of four of the most famous of the heavenly courtesans, namely, Misrakesi, Subhadrā, Padmāvati, and Alambusha. The last was the mother of Raja Visala, the founder of Vaisāli.
- Here we see that the Sanskrit ps was changed to chh in Pali, which was also the representative of ts.2
37. Kadariki. = This is inscribed between two standing figures, male and female, on Prasenajit's Pillar.3
38. Vajapi Vijadharo. = [Unknown.]
39. Bhagawato dharma chakam. = "The Dharma Chakra of Buddha."
40. Rāja Pasenaji Kosalo. = "The Raja Prasenajit of Kosala."4
41. Erapato Nāja Raja. = "Erapata, king of the Nagas."
1 See Plate XXI. fig. 2.
2 See Plate XV. fig. 1.
3 See Plate XIV. fig. 2.
4 See Plate XIII. fig. 1.
The stūpa of Bharhut 135
42. Erapato Nāga Rāja Bhagavato vandate.
- "Erāpata, king of the Nagas, -worships [the invisible figure] of Bhagavat."
- Here the king of the Nagas is kneeling before a flowering tree, beneath -which is a throne.1 The tree here represented is a Sirisa, or Acacia, beneath which Buddha is said to have received the salutation of the Naga king. The story is told in the commentary on V. 182 of the Dhammapada [see Academy, 5 April 1875], and also by the Chinese Pilgrim Hwen Thsang. The six Sirisa trees of the legend are all given in the sculpture.
43. Bahu hathiko.
44. Bahu hathiko Nigodha naḍode.
- The first of these short labels means simply "the herd of elephants," to which the second adds the name of the tree Nigodha (or Nyagrodha), the Banian, before which they are bowing down. I am ignorant of the exact meaning of naḍode. The shorter label is on the railing beneath the scene ; the longer one on the throne beneath the Banian Tree.2
45. Susupālo kodāyo vetiko Arāmako.
- This inscription is engraved in the field of the Elephant bas-relief above mentioned — just behind the heads of two human figures, who must be the Susupāla and Kodra of the label. The third word may also be read as Veduko.2
46. Yasika....= [Imperfect.]
47. Sonāya dānam thabho. = " Pillar-gift of Sonā."
48. Chakulanam Sangha mitasa thabho dānam. = "Pillar-gift of Sangha-mitra of Chakulana."
50. Nāgaye bhichhunye dānam. = "Gift of the Nun Naga."
52. Karahakaṭa chayahhutakasa thabho dānam. = "Pillar-gift of Chayabhutaka of Karahakata."
53. Kosambeyekaya bhikhuniya Venuvagāmiyāya Dhama Rakhita.
- " Grift of the Nun Dharmma Rakshita of Venuwagrāma in Kosambi."
- When I visited Kosam, the ancient Kosambi, after leaving Bharhut, I made inquiries about the village of Venuwagrāma, or "Bambu town." There is a Ben purwa still existing to the north-east of Kosam, where I found that some ancient brick foundations were being dug up by the zamindar.
54. Tikotiko chakamo. = " The region of Trikuta."4
- This name has been discussed in my account of the Nagas, where I have suggested that the bas-relief to which this inscription is attached may be a representation of the
1 See Plate XIV. fig. 3.
2 See Plate XV. fig. 3.
3 See Plate XXX. fig. 1.
4 See Plate XXVII. fig. 1.
136 The stūpa of Bharhut
- Naga Loka region of Snakes and Elephants (both called Naga), which was situated under the Trikuta rocks which supported Mount Meru.
55. Bhadanta Mahilasa thabho dānam. = "Pillar-gift of the lay brother Mahila."
56. Karahakaṭa Samikasa dānam thabho.
- " Pillar-gift of Samika of Karahakaṭa."
- The name of this place occurs also in No. 52. It may be read as Karhakata, and might possibly be the original form of the name Karha, near Manikpur on the Ganges.
57. Bhādanta Samakasa thabho dānam. = " Pillar-gift of the lay brother Samaka." '
58. Yava-Majhakiyam Jātakam. = "The Yava-Majhakiya Birth."1
- I have given the story of this bas-relief in my account of the Jātakas, but it has not yet been identified with any of the published names of the Ceylonese Jatakas.
59. Sirimā Devata. = " The godess Sri-ma."2
- The title of Srimā was given to Maya Devi, the mother of Sakya Muni. I presume that it is an abbreviation of Sri-māta, or the " fortunate mother" ; although it may also be a contraction of Sri Maya. The inscription is attached to a large female statue on one of the pillars of the South-west quadrant. It seems not impossible, however, that the statue may be that of Sirima, the beautiful sister of the physician Jivaka.
60. Suchiloma-Yakho. = "The Yaksha Suchiloma."3
- This Yaksha has given his name to a discourse in the Sutta Nipāta.
61. . . . ratā bhikhuniya thabho dānam. = " Pillar-gift of the Nun . . , ratna.
62. Bhadantasa Aya Isipālitasa Bhānakasa Navakamikasa dānam.
- " Gift of the lay brother, the reverend Isipalita of Bhanaka" (Nava-kamika must be his title).
63. Ajātasata Bhagavato vandate.
- " Ajatasatru worships (the feet) of Buddha."
- The footprints of Buddha are carved on the step of the throne.4
64. Sudhamma Deva sabhā Bhagavato Chuḍa Maha.
- " The grand head-dress (relic) of Buddha, in the Assembly Hall of the Devas." '
- I take Chuḍa, which means a " crest, or topknot of hair," to be the name of the object which occupies the place of worship on the throne or altar. This object is beyond all doubt intended for Buddha's hair and head-dress, which were carried to the Trayas-trinshas Heavens by the Devas. When I first saw the small photograph of this bas-relief I read the words at the end of the first line as Reva Sabha ; but when I saw the pillar itself I found that the true reading was Deva Sabhā, or the " Assembly of Devas." This correction I communicated to Mr. Childers on the 18th April 1875. The same correction
1. See Plate XXV. fig. 3, 2. See plate XXIII. fig. 1, 3. See Plate XXII, fig. 2, 4. See Plate XVI. fig. 3, 5. See Plate XVI. fig. 1.
The stūpa of Bharhut 137
- was published by him in the " Academy " for 1st May 1875, about ten days before the receipt of my letter.
65. Vijayanto Pāsāde. = " The Yijayanta Palace."
- As this was the name of the Palace of the Gods in the Trayastrinshas Heavens, my identification of the object of worship in the Deva Sabhā is confirmed.
66. Mahāsāmāyikayam Arhaguto Devaputo dhakato Bhagavato sisani paṭisandhi.
- The scene to which this label is attached represents the worship of Buddha's foot-prints.1
67. Moragirihma Nāgilāyā bhikhuniya dānam thabho.
- " Pillar-gift of the Nun Nagila of Moragiri."
68. Bhagavato Vipasino Bodhi. = " The Bodhi Tree of the Buddha Vipaswin."2
69. Vedisa Phagu Devasa dānam. " Gift of Phalgu Deva of Vedisa (Besnagar)."
70. Dodapāpechena chharo. = [Unknown.]
71- Purikāya Dayakana dānam. = "Gift of Dayakana of Purika."
72. Bhagavato Kakusadhasa Bodhi. = " The Bodhi Tree of the Buddha Krakusandha.3 (Kakushtha?)
73. Vedisa Anurādhaya dānam. = "Gift of Anuradha of Vedisa (Besnagar)."
74. Chadantiya Jātakam. = " Birth (of Buddha) as a Chhadanta Elephant."4
75. Vitura Punakiya Jātakam. = " The Vidhura (and) Punnaka Birth."5
76. Brahma Devomānavako. = [Unknown.]
77. Bhadanta Kanadasa Bhānakasa thabho dānam Chikulaniyasa. =
- " Pillar-gift of the lay brother Kanada Bhanaka of Chikulaniya."
78. Yakhini Sudasana. = " The Yakshini Sudarsana."
79. . naḍoda pāde chena chhako... = [Unknown.]
1. See Plate XVI. fig. 2,
2. See Plate XXIX. fig. 1,
3. See Plate XXIX. fig. 3,
4. See Plate XXVI. fig. 2.
5. See Plate XVIII, fig. 2.
138 The stūpa of Bharhut
80. Bhadanta Budha Rakhitasa Saṭupadanasa dānam thabo.
- " Pillar-gift of the lay brother Budha Rakshita of Saṭupadana." (?)
81. Chada Yakhi. = " The Yakshini Chandra."1
- I read as above because I suppose that if the name Chaṇḍa were intended it would have been spelt with the cerebral ḍ.
82. Kupiro Yakho. = " The Yaksha Kuvera."2
83. Ajakālako Yakho. = " The Yaksha Ajakālaka."
84. Moragirihma Pusāyā dānam thabho. = " Pillar-gift of Pushya of Moragiri."
85. Aya Chulasa Sutantikasa Bhoga vadhaniyasa dānam.
- " Grift of the reverend Chula Sautrantika, the increaser of enjoyment." (?)
86. Moragirihma Thupadāsasa dāmam thabho.
- " Gift of Thupadisa of Moragiri."
- Thupadāsa, in Sanskrit Stupadāsa, or " servant of the Stupa," is in the inscription an actual name, and not a mere title.
87. Nāsika Gorakhitaya thabho dānam Vasukasa bhāriyāya.
88. Maharasa Atevāsino Aya Sāmakasa thabho dānam.
- " Pillar-gift of Mahara, the pupil of the reverend Sāmika."
89. Bhagavato Rukdanti. = " Buddha as Rukdanti."'
- This inscription has been discussed in my account of the bas-relief of Maya Devis' dream, where I have suggested that ruk may mean "sounding or trumpeting," from ru, to sound or make a particular sort of sound, which it is recorded the Chhadanta Elephant emitted as he approached the couch of Maya Devi.
90. Sakāya thabho dānam. = " Pillar-gift of Saka."
91. Nandagirino Bhānakasa Selapuraka thabho dānam.
- " Pillar-gift of Bhanaka Selapuraka of Nandagiri (? Nander)."
92. Ida Sāla guha. = " The Cave Hall of Indra."
93. Pusadataye Nagarikaye Bhichiniye. = " [Gift] of the Nun Pushyadatta of Nagarika."
94. Mugaphakasa Jātaka. = " The Mugaphaka Birth."
1 See Plate XXII. fig. 3.
2 See Plate XXII. fig. 1.
3 See Plate XXVIII. fig. 2.
The stūpa of Bharhut 139
96. Karahakaṭa Utara gidhikasa thabho dānam.= " Pillar-gift of Uttaragidhika of Karahakata."
97. Yambumano avayesi Jātakam.
- This scene is called the Andhabhuta Jātaka, or the " Blindman Birth " in Ceylon.
98. Mahakoka Devatā. = " The goddess Mahākoka," or "Great Koka."
99. Chuladhakasa Purikāya Bhatudesakasa dānam. = " Grift of Chuladhaka Purika of Bhatudesaka."
100. Vedisa Aya Māyā dānam. = " Gift of the reverend Maya of Vedisa."
Inscriptions on Rails
Inscriptions on Rails— S. W. Quadrant.
3. Kākandiya Somāya bhikuniya dānam. = " Gift of the Nun Soma of Kakandi."
4. Pātaliputa Mahidasenasa dānam. = " Gift of Mahendra Sena of Pataliputra."
5. Chudathilikāyā Nāga Devāyā bhikhuniya. = " (Gift) of the Nun Naga Deva of Chudathilika."
6. Chudathilikāyā Kujarāyā dānam. = "Gift of Kunjara of Chudathilika."
8. Yajhikiyā dānam. = "Gift of Yajhiki."
9. Dhama Rakhitaya dānam Suchi. = " Rail-gift of Dharmma Rakshita."
- This is the first occurrence of the term Suchi, which I have translated by Rail (or bar), as it is found only in the Rail-bar inscriptions, where it takes the place of thabho or pillar, in the Pillar inscriptions. Its literal meaning is "needle," and its application to the Rail-bars was no doubt due to its needle-like function of threading all the pillars together.
10. Ati Mutasa dānam. = " Gift of Atrimuta."
11. Laṭuwā Jātakam. = "The Latuwa (bird) Birth."
12. Nadutaraya dānam Suchi. = " Rail-gift of Nadutara." --- 1 See Plate XXVI. fig. 1.
140 The stūpa of Bharhut
13. Mudasa dānam. = " Gift of Mudra."
14. Isānasa dānam. = " Gift of Isāna."
15. Isidatasa dānam. = " Gift of Isidata (or Rishi datta)."
16. Aya Punāvasuno Suchi dānam. = " Rail-gift of the reverend Punarvasu."
17. Gāga-mitasa Suchi dānam. = " Rail-gift of Ganga Mitra (or Garga Mitra)."
18. Kanhilasa Bhānakasa dānam. = "Gift of Kanhila of Bhānaka."
19. Deva Rahshitasa dānam. = " Gift of Deva Rakshita."
20. Vedisā Tabhuta Rakhitasa dānam. = " Gift of Tabhuta Rakshita of āedisa."
21. Golāyā Pārikiniyā dānam. = " Gift of Parikini of Gola."
22. Purikayā Ida Devāyā dānam. = " Gift of Indra Deva of Purika."
23. Purikāyā Setaka matu dānam. = " Gift of Setaka's mother of Purika."
24. Purikāyā Sāmāya dānam. = " Gift of Sama of Purika."
25. Budha Rakhitaye dānam bhichhuniya. = " Gift of Buddha Rakshita the Nun."
26. Bhutaye bhichhuniye dānam. = " Gift of Bhuta the Nun."
27. Aya Apikinakasa dānam. = " Gift of the reverend Apikinaka."
28. Sanghilasa dānam Suchi. = " Rail-gift of Sanghila."
29. Sangha Rakhitasa Māta pituna athaye dānam. = " Gift of Sangha Rakshita on account of his father and mother.'
30. Dhutasa Suchi dānam. = " Rail-gift of Dhuta."
31. Yakhilasa Suchi dānam. = " Rail-gift of Yakhila."
32. Sihasa Suchi dānam. = " Rail-gift of Siha."
The stūpa of Bharhut 141
33. Isi Rahhitusa dāmam. = " Gift of Isi Rakshita."
34. Sirimasa dānam. = " Gift of Sirima."
35. Bhadanta Deva Senasa dānam. = " Gift of the lay brother Deva Sena."
36. . . . kaya bhichhuniya dānam. = " Gift of the Nun . . . ka."
37. Nadinagarikāyā Ida Devaya dānam. = " Gift of Indra Deva of Nandinagara (Nander)."
38. Gopālasa mata (?) Gosālasa dānam.
- " Gift of Gosāla (or Gopala . . ."
- This inscription is engraved twice on the same rail; first in thin and somewhat cursive letters, and second in thicker letters, as if the first record had been faulty, or disapproved. It might, however, be read as the " gift of Gosala the mother of Gopala."
39. Kachulasa .... bhāriyāya dānam. = " Gift of .... s' wife of Kachula."
40. Jeta bharasa dānam. = " Gift of Jeta Bhara."
- " Rail-gift of the reverend Jāta Sepeṭaki."
- The term Sepatiko occurs in the Arian Pali inscription of Taxila, where, according to Professor Dowson, it is the name of some " building or establishment." It is probable, therefore, that Sepetakino is the title of the reverend Jata, as keeper or guardian of the Sepaṭiko.
42. Buddha Rakhitasa Rupakārakasa dānam.
- " Gift of Buddha Rakshita, the sculptor."
- Here we have the name of one of the sculptors of the Bharhut bas-reliefs. I believe that it will be possible to recognise other specimens of his chisel by some slight peculiarities which I noticed in the shapes of some of the letters of this inscription.
43. Bhādantasa Mikasatha Rākutiyasa dānam.
" Gift of the lay brother Mikasatha of Rakutiya." (?)
44. Sirisapada Isi Rakhitāya dānam.
- " Gift of Isi Rakshita of Sirisapada."
- The name of this place, Sirisapada, was probably derived from the Sirisa tree or Acacia, as in the case of Sirsa, and of Siris Ghat on the Betwa between Jhansi and Lalitpur.
45. Moragirimā Ghāṭila Māta dānam. = " Gift of Ghatila's mother of Moragiri."
46. Atanakhatasa Bhojakatakasa Suchi dānam.
- " Rail-gift of Bhojakataka of Atangkhata," or, " of Atangkhata of Bhoja-kataka."
47. Samidatāya dānam. = " Gift of Samidatta."
48. Chulanasa dānam. = " Gift of Chulana."
142 The stūpa of Bharhut
49. Avisanasa, dānam. = " Gift of Avisana."
50. (A duplicate of the last.)
51. Sangha Mitasa Bodhichakasa dānam. =
- " Gift of Sangha Mitra of Bodhi Chakra."
- Perhaps there may have been a Bodhi Chakra as well as a Dhannma Chakra.
52. Bodhi Rakhitasa Panchanekāyākasa dānam. = " Gift of Bodhi Rakhitasa of Panchanekāyāka."
53. Isi Rakhitasa Suchi dānam. = " Rail-gift of Isi Rakshita."
54. Dhanabhutisa rājano putasa Kumārasa Vādha Pālasa (dānam).
- " (Gift) of Raja Dhanabhuti's son the Prince Vādha Pāla."
- Raja Dhanabhuti was the donor of the Eastern Gateway :— See his inscription, No. 1, The present inscription proves that the Railing and the Gateways were of the same age.
55. Phagu Devāya bhichhuniya dānan. = " Gift of Phagu Deva, the Nun."
56. Kadāya Yakhiya dānam. = " Gift of Kada Yakshi."
57. Ghosāye dānam. = " Gift of Ghosa."
58. Yamidasa sa . . . = " [Gift] of Yamida . . .
59. Siriya-putasa Bhārini Devasa dānam. = " Gift of Siri's son Bharini Deva."
60. Mita Devāye dānam. = " Gift of Mita Deva."
61. Padelakasa Pusahasa Suchi dānam. = " Gift of Pushyaka of Pandelaka."
62. Asitamasāya Vala Mitasa dānam.
- " Gift of Vala Mita of Asitamasā."
- Perhaps the place here mentioned may have been on the bank of the Tamasā, or Tons River, which flows within two miles of Bharhut. Ptolemy has a town named Tamasis. But Asita was also a proper name, and the town may have been called Asita-masa, and not Asitamasa.
63. (Pa) rakaṭikaya Sirimāya dānan. = " Gift of Sirima of Parakaṭika."
64. Vijitakasa Suchi dānam. = " Rail-gift of Vijita."
65. . . . sa dānam Atenā. ...Charata . . .
66. Tiramnuti Migila Kuchimha Vasu Guto Machito Mahadevammi.
- This is inscribed on the Rail which bears the bas-relief of the great fish swallowing two boats and their crews. Machito therefore may have reference to the fish.1
1 See Plate XXXTV. fig. 2.
The stūpa of Bharhut 143
3. Araha Guta Reva puta (sa damam). = " Gift of Arahata Gupta, son of Reva."
5. Mahada .
7. Satika . . .
8. . . rakatayāya . . .
9. . . yu, rajine adhi rājaka . . yata.
10. . . . tarasa .
11. . . yasini sayāni . .
12. (san) gha mi (tasa) . .
13. . . . sakusu . ,
14. . . . niya Jātaka,
15. (Na) n-dagerino dā (nam). = "Gift of Nandagiri."
16. . . yāyā dānam.
17. . . pancha sana.
18. . dusito-giri datina.
19. (Ba) hu hathikasa āsana.
- (Bhaga) vato Maha Devasa.
By supplying the initial letters of both, lines I make out that this inscription refers to the scene under which it is engraved. This represents a throne (āsana) with a number of human hands (bahu hathika) carved on the front. Perhaps the hands are intended as symbols of worshippers.
Some of the terms in Bharhut inscriptions could not be identified by A. Cunningham. Here we are providing list which could be identified from other sources. Some terms are still unknown. These are put ? after them.
- Bhānaka = Title of Buddhist reciter (Cunningham has treated it as a place name)
- Moragiri - Two towns of this name are: 1.Morgiri, Raigarh, Maharashtra 2. Morgiri, Satara, Maharashtra
- Khujati-dakhiya = Place name ? (Dakhiya = Dahiya ?)
- Chudathilika= Place name ?
- Bahaḍagajaṭiranatane = ?
- Bibikāna = Place name ?
- Kadariki = ?
- Naḍode = ?
- Chakulana = Place name ?
- Karahakata = Modern Karâḍ, in the Sâtâra District, about forty miles north of Kôlhâpur. karahâṭa denotes the thorny shrub Vangueria Spinosa. 
- Chuḍa = Kuḍâ,which occurs in the Ratnâgiri District (Cave-Temple Inscriptions, p. 16 No. 20), to at least as early a period as the times of Ptolemy and the auther of the Periplus.
- Purika = Purika City (Japanese: プリカシティ Purika City) is a Hoenn location exclusive to the anime. It is located in between Mossdeep City and Sootopolis City, and on Izabe Island. 
- Punnaka = A Yakkha chief, nephew of Vessavana (J.vi.255). The story of how he won the Nāga maiden Irandatī is related in the Vidhurapandita Jātaka. In his previous birth he had been a young man named Kaccāyana in the Anga country. J.vi.273f.; he is also called Kātiyāna (Kaccāna). He is also referred to as Punnakaraja (J.iv.182).
- Chikulana -
- Nandagiri = "hill of pleasure". It is the name of several places in India. It may refer to a village in Andhra Pradesh, a suburb of Hyderabad or a hill fortress in Karnataka.
- Bhatudesaka - ? The country of Bhatus
- Chudathilika - ?
- Yajhiki = ?
- Kanhila = Place name. See at http://wikimapia.org/7355693/kn/kanhila
- Parikini = ?
- Setaka = (瀬高町, Setaka-machi?) was a town located in Yamato District, Fukuoka, Japan. See at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Setaka,_Fukuoka
- Apikinaka = ?
- Nandinagara = ?
- Rakutiya = A village in Midnapur West.
- Atanakhata = ?
- Panchanekāyāka = ?
- Asitamasā = ?
- Parakaṭika = ?
- Machito = ?
- Nagarika = ?
The Jat clans in Bharhut inscriptions
The inscriptions at Buddhist Stupa at Bharhut record the names of the donors. Some of them also give the calling or occupation of the donors, and several add the name of their native city, or place of residence. We have provided links to the names which appear in inscriptions. We find that some of the links connect to the Jat clans without any spelling variations in these records. In others there is a slight variation with spellings of Jat clans. The spelling variations in inscriptions are recorded here in brackets of probable Jat clan. We find a large number of Nagavanshi Jat clans recorded in the inscriptions. There is a need to further research and establish proper historical relations. The probable list scanned from Bharhut inscriptions is as under:
Achra (Achharā), Aga, Ahlawat (Airawata), Ajmedia (Aja), Asi (Isi), Asit, Atri, Atwal, Bala, Bhar, Bhari (Bharini) Bharshiv, Bhatu, Bhoja, Bhoot, Bodhi, Budhwar, Burdak (Vaduko or Virudaka), Buriya, Chalka, Chandel, Chula, Dhama, Dhetarwal, Dhoot Gandha, Ghatela (Ghatila), Ghosalia (Ghosa), Gola, Gora, Guptas, Jakhar (Jakha, Yakha, Yaksha), Jakhaudiya (Jakha), Janak, Jat (Jāta, Jatila, Jatilian), Kachela (Kachula), Kak, Kadiyan (Kada, Kodiyāniya), Kadu (Kada), Kanka (Kanaka), Karad, Kasyapa, Khatkal (Kalika), Kok, Kot (Goti or Kaut), Kudi (Kodi), Kuninda, Kunjara, Lat (Latuwa), Malaya, Mahar, Mahil, Mahiya, Makara, Maurya, Mitya (Mita), Nagas, Nagil, Nanda, Nehra, Pandel (Pandelaka), Phageria (Phagu), Punya (Punā), Saka, Sepat, Singala (Sanghila), Vala, Varika, Vasati (Vāsitha), Vats, Veniwal (Venuwa), Visala,
- Alexander Cunningham, The Stupas of Bharhut, 1876
- Benimadhav Barua, BARHUT (PART 1,2,3), 1926
- S C Kala: Bharhut Vedika
- T.W. Rhys Davids, The Buddhist India, 1971
- Bharhut Stoopa Gatha (Hindi), Ed. Ramnarayan Singh Rana, Satna, 2007
- Full text of The stūpa of Bharhut: a Buddhist monument ornamented with numerous sculptures by Alexander Cunningham 1879
- Full text of "CORPUS INSCRIPTIONS INDICARUM VOL II PART II"
- Haunting the Buddha:Indian popular religions and the formation of Buddhism, By Robert DeCaroli, Edition: illustrated, revised Published by Oxford University Press US, 2004, ISBN 0195168380, 9780195168389
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