Jam

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Jam (जाम/जम)[1] [2] Jama (जमा) is a Muslim Jat clan found in Pakistan. Jam/Jamhot Jat clan is found in Afghanistan.[3]

Origin

Jam (Urdu: جام) means Sardar, Nawab or King. It is not a tribe, but the title given to the leading Royal family of a Jamot tribe or state. The title of Jam is the Sindhi equivalent for Chaudhri.[4]

History

History

H. W. Bellew [5] writes that Gadun represent the great Yadu tribe, which, according to Tod ("Annals of Rajasthan"), was the most illustrious of all the tribes of Ind." Their name became the patronymic of the descendants of Budha, progenitor of the Lunar race. Their early seat in these parts was in the Jadu Ka Dang, or "Hills of the Yadu," in the Jelam Salt range ; whence they passed a great colony into Zabulistan, where they founded the city of Gajni (modern Ghazni), and "peopled those countries even to Samarkand." In the Zabul country they adopted the name of Bhatti (whence the Afghan Batani perhaps). Another branch of the Yadu, which settled in Siwistan (modern Sibi) under the name of Jareja, also changed their cognomen, and adopted as their patronymic the title of their illustrious ancestor Hari, or Krishna, who was styled Sama, or Shama, on account of his dark complexion. Since their conversion to Islam this name has been changed to Jam which is the title of the petty Jareja princes of Las Bela in Balochistan.

The Gadun of Mahaban are a branch of the Gadun, or Jadun, of Pakli in Hazarah (Abhisara of Sanskrit) on the opposite side of the Indus, where they are settled along the Dorh river (whence the Dorvabhisara of the Rajataringini) as far as the Urash plain ; perhaps a former seat of the Urash, Wurash, Borish, or Biorisha tribe of Rajput.

Bhim Singh Dahiya [6] mentions that After these successive defeats came the campaigns of Mohd.Bin Kasim who succeeded where others had failed and in his success the share of the local population of Buddhist Jats and Mers was significant. Too much oppression breeds revolt and disloyalty.

However, after the conquerors' first acquisition, we find that the Arabs were also indifferent about retaining the goodwill of their allies. They imposed the same conditions upon the Jats as were imposed by the earlier Brahmana rulers. 51 The result was the same. When these insults also crossed the limits of tolerance, the Sumra or Samra clan of the Jats overthrown the Muslims and re-established their kingdoms. These Samra are still existing and according to Ain-i-Akbari 52 36 kings of Sumra clan ruled for 500 years when they were superseded by another Jat clan, the Sammas. Another authority mentions the period as 550 years.53 At first they were nominal tributaries to the Abbasid Khaliphs and enjoyed full independence in internal affairs. In 1351 A.D. the Sammas obtained power, thus ending the rule of Sumras. But in 1521 A.D. the Sammas were themselves driven out from power. The Sammas used to take the title of Jam and in later period many Sammas as well as Sumras became Muslims and their genealogy was concocted (in the manner of Rajput genealogy), connecting them with Hazrat Mohd. and others from Arabia. But Tarikh-i-Tahiri expressly mentions them as Hindus.


48. ihid.,p.425.

49. See Note III at the end of this section.

50. ibid., Vol. I, p. 432.

51. ibid., p. 435.

H.A. Rose[7] writes that Jam (जाम), a Sindhi title, meaning chief or headman. When borne by the head men of a Punjab tribe it usually points to a Sindhi origin, i. e., to its migration from Sindh or the valley of the Indus. In former times Sindh denoted that river valley as far north as the modern Mianwali.

Distribution in Pakistan

According to 1911 census the Jam were the principal Muslim Jat clan in Bahawalpur State with population of Jam (788) . [8]

Notable persons

References


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