Samra

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Samra (समरा)[1] Samara (सामरा) Samra Sumra (समरा) is a gotra of Jats in Punjab, India and Pakistan. Samra clan is found in Afghanistan.[2]

Origin

Jat historians have listed Samra gotra in the Nagavanshi Jat clans. [3][4][5]

History

B S Dahiya[6] writes: This clan was settled at one time in the lower Indus. They are mentioned by Farishta, who says on ancient authority, that the Samras had a kingdom in Sindh and were in fact one of the two main Zamindars (landlords) of Sindh, up to 782. A.H. (1380 A.D.) when many of them embraced Islam [7] The remaining Samras are now followers of Sikhism.

Rajatarangini mentions Samara as brother of the king of KashmirAvantivarmma, who set up images of Rama and his brothers as well as one of Samarasvami. (Book V, p.107).

Samarasvami (समरस्वामी): temple, god setup by Samara, Book V (p.107,115), Book VII (p.252),

Megasthenes tells them to be the Samarabriae (Samra), along with, Sambruceni, Bisambritae, Osii (Asii), Antixeni (Antal), and the Taxillae (Taxak) with a famous city, If we cross to the other side of the Indus and follow its course downward we meet them (see - Jat clans as described by Megasthenes)

H.A Rose([8]), who made a comprehensive glossary of the Tribes of Punjab and North West Frontier, mentions Sumra as one of the Jat Tribes of the Western plains and quotes from other writers like E.O’Brein and describes the Sumra as originally Rajputs. “In A.D.750 they expelled the first Arab invaders from Sindh and Multan, and furnished the country with a dynasty which ruled in Multan from 1445 to 1526 A.D., when it was expelled by the Samma”. Punjab District Gazetteer – District Muzzafarpur, published in 1929 by the Punjab Government records that “The first Arab conquerors held Sindh and Multan from A.D.711 to A.D. 750, when they were expelled by a Rajput tribe called Sumra, whose representatives are still found in the district. In A.D.1351, the Sumras were expelled by the Summas, another Rajput tribe…”. The rise of this clan is well recorded, however, the exact period of the rise of this clan and it’s decline, as mentioned by various historians, differs in various publications. According to Ain-i-Akbari, the Samra clan of the Jats established their kingdoms in 1054 and 36 kings of Sumra clan ruled for 500 years when they were superseded by another Jat clan, the Sammas. One of their famous Samra kings was Dalu Rai or Deva Rai. It has been recorded that according to the Muntakhib Tawáríkh it was in 1053 AD, that in the reign of Abdurrashíd son of Sultán Mahmúd of Ghazní, who was a weak prince, that the Súmrahs secured their independence and elected Súmrah as their chief. He was succeeded by a line of chiefs that are given below:—

1. Súmrah died 1054 AD 2. Bhúngar bin Súmrah died 1068 (After a reign of 15 years) 3. Dódá bin Bhúngar died 1092 (24 years.) 4. Sanghár died 1106 (15 years.) 5. Khafíf died 1141 (36 years.) 6. Umar died 1180 (40 years.) 7. Dódá died 1193 (14 years.) 8. Punhún died 1226 (33 years.) 9. Khinrah died 1241 (16 years.) 10. Muhammad Túr died 1256 (15 years.) 11. Khinrah died 1259 (4 years.) 12. Táí died 1283 (24 years.) 13. Chanesar died 1300 (18 years.) 14. Bhúngar died 1315 (15 years.) 15. Khafíf died 1332 (18 years.) 16. Dódá died 1356 (25 years.) 17. Umar died 1390 (35 years.) 18. Bhúngar died 1400 (10 years.) 19. Hamír (dethroned by Sammahs.)

Edward Green Balfour, says that “Sumra claim to be descendants of Sam’ra ; their sections are Kumirpota, Mitopota, Budipota, and Norungpota. ‘ Samra ‘ has been corrupted into ‘ Sumra'”…

Distribution in Punjab

'Samra' is a common surname of Jat Sikhs from the Indian Punjab. There are entire villages of Samra clan in the Jalandhar district and in Ludhiana district of Indian Punjab. Pohir Village in the Ludhiana district is almost entirely inhabited by the Samras. Villages with significant population of Samra clan are listed as below:

Distribution in District Amritsar

Akalgadh, Nona, Dinewal, Pakhoke, Fatahpur, Bharariwal, Thande, Kotla Sultan Singh, Maari

Distribution in District Gurdaspur

Samra, Chakawali (Near Dera Baba Nanak)

Distribution in District Jalandhar

Bhatija, Samrai

Distribition in District Ludhiana

Pohir, Gorsian Makhan, Akhara

Distribution in District Moga

Lohgarh, Daulat Pura Ucha, Jalalabad,

Distribution in District Bathinda

Rampura Phul

Distribution in Pakistan

Samra - The Samra claim Chandravanshi Rajput ancestry. The Muslim Samra were found in Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Jalandhar and Firozpur districts. They are now found in Sialkot, Narowal, Lahore, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura and Faisalabad districts.

According to 1911 census the Samras were the principal Muslim Jat clan in districts:

Notable persons

See also

References

  1. B S Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), p.242, s.n.202
  2. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.138
  3. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998
  4. Mansukh Ranwa:Kshatriya Shiromani Vir Tejaji, Page 9
  5. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, Their Origins and History (The History of the Indigenous people of India Vol. 2), Published by Originals (an imprint of Low Price Publications), Delhi, 2002, ISBN 81-7536-287-1
  6. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Jat Clan in India,p. 267
  7. Briggs' Edition, Vol. IV, p. 422
  8. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II

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