Jhansal

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Location of Bhadra in Hanumangarh district

Jhansal (झांसल) is an ancient village in Bhadra tehsil of Hanumangarh district in Rajasthan. As of 2001 census its population is 5389 out of them 1419 are SC.

Founders

  • विक्रम संवत 1245 (1188=ई.) मिति चैत्र सुदी 2 वार शनिवार को पूनिया गोत्र के आदि पुरुष बाढ़देव ने झांसल में अपने प्रसिद्ध गणराज्य की नींव रखी।

Location

Jat Gotras

Location

It is located in north eastern corner of the district adjoining Haryana border. It is about 20 km in north-east of Bhadra (Hanumangarh) on Bhadra-Hisar road.

कान्हाजी पूनिया का इतिहास

चूरू जनपद के जाट इतिहास पर दौलतराम सारण डालमाण[1] ने अनुसन्धान किया है और लिखा है कि पाउलेट तथा अन्य लेखकों ने इस हाकडा नदी के बेल्ट में निम्नानुसार जाटों के जनपदीय शासन का उल्लेख किया है जो बीकानेर रियासत की स्थापना के समय था।

क्र.सं. जनपद क्षेत्रफल राजधानी मुखिया प्रमुख ठिकाने
7. पूनिया 360 गाँव बड़ी लूदी कान्हाजी पूनिया लूदी, झांसल, मरौडा, अजीतपुर

झांसल में पूनिया गणराज्य की नींव

चौधरी कन्हैयालाल पूनिया[2] ने लिखा है कि... लगभग 900 साल पहले श्री उतगर के दो संतान पैदा हुई जिसमें से एक का नाम बाढ़ तथा दूसरे का नाम मेर था। बाढ़देव का जन्म विक्रम संवत 1154 (1097=ई.) कार्तिक सुदी पूर्णिमा को पुणे महाराष्ट्र में हुआ। बाढ़देव ने विक्रम संवत 1184 (1127=ई.) आषाढ़ सुदी नवमी वार शनिवार को बाड़मेर की स्थापना की। बाढ़ और मेर दोनों भाईयों के नाम पर आज के बाढ़मेर का नामकरण हुआ। कालांतर में दोनों भाईयों के झगड़े का फायदा उठाकर सोढ़ा राजपूतों ने उस पर कब्जा कर लिया। बाढ़देव उत्तर भारत की ओर प्रस्थान कर गए। उनकी संताने पूनिया कहलाई और मेर महाराष्ट्र में मेरठा (मराठा) के नाम से जाने गए।

बाढ़देव बाड़मेर से विक्रम संवत 1235 (1178=ई.) में पुष्कर आए और आगे जीनमाता के स्थान पर हर्ष के पहाड़ पर शिव मंदिर बनवाया। जीनमाता ने बाढ़देव को वरदान स्वरूप एक पत्थर शीला दी और कहा कि यह जहां गिरे वहीं पर नीम की हरी शाखा काटकर डालना वह संजीवनी हो जाएगी तथा वहीं आपका राज्य सदा-सदा के लिए कायम रहेगा। पूनिया गोत्र आज भी उस शीला का आदर करता है। उस पर स्नान नहीं करते।

विक्रम संवत 1245 (1188=ई.) मिति चैत्र सुदी 2 वार शनिवार को पूनिया गोत्र के आदि पुरुष बाढ़देव ने झांसल में अपने प्रसिद्ध गणराज्य की नींव रखी। विक्रम संवत 1245 से 1822 के राठोडों के साथ राजीनामे तक पुनिया आज के हिसार-पिलानी-चुरू-तारानगर एवं भादरा तक काबिज रहे। इस बीच राज्य कायम रखने के समकालीन संघर्षों में पुनियों की राजधानी झांसल से लूदी में तब्दील करनी पड़ी। पडोस के दईया सरदार दीर्घपाल पर विजय, रठौड़ों और गोदारों की संयुक्त सेना के साथ लगातार संघर्ष , जबरिया राठौड़ शासक रायसिंह द्वारा धर्मभाई बनाने का बुलावा देकर धोके से पूनिया सरदारों चेचू और खेता को अपने राजगढ़ वाले किले की नींव में दबाने का बदला राठौड़ रायसिंह के वध से लेने आदि की ऐतिहासिक घटनाएँ हुई। इस कालावधि में कान्हादेव पुनिया गोत्र का इतिहास प्रसिद्ध योद्धा बनकर उभरा जिसने लूदी में अपना स्वतंत्र गढ़ निर्माण किया। लगभग 360 गांवों का यह पूनिया गणराज्य अंतत: जोधपुर शासन के विस्तार हेतु कांधल और बीका तथा जाट गणराज्यों की फूट का शिकार हो गया।

History

According to Thakur Deshraj[3] it was capital of Puniya republic prior to Annexation of it by Rathores in Jangladesh region of Rajasthan. Following is history mentioned by Thakur Deshraj:

"The Puniyas are Naga clans, and Punia is derived from Naga. The Hissar Gazetteer says that they consider themselves to be of the Shiva Gotr (clan) and there is reference to them being descended from Mahadev (Shiva)’s locks. Shivi and Takshak people lived contagiously- side by side. These two evolved into being followers of Shaivism.

Following the invasion by Sikandar(Alexander) some of the Shivi and Takshak clans came down below Punjab. Some out of these established their hold on Jangal Pradesh. The Puniyas too arose of such Jat groups who established their hold on a country and utilized for a very long time. They reached Jangal Pradesh by the time of commencement of the Christian era , current era. They governed this land upto the 15th century CE.

At the time of the arrival of the group of the Rathors under Bika and Kaandal, the Punia Sardars or chieftains had 300 villages under their sway. They had been independent from many generations. In addition they had six other republics of the Jats in Jangal Pradesh.

Ram Ratan Charan in his “History of Rajputana” in Hindi, refers to these six realms as ‘Bhumiyachare” i.e. republics. Reference to these republics is also found in 'Bharat ke Desi Rajya’, 'Tarikh Raajgahn Hind’ , ‘Vakaye Rajputana’, and many other history books. We(Thakur Deshraj) have written our account on the basis of these historical Texts.

At that time, the capital was Jhansal, which is on the boundary of modern Hissar. Ram Ratan Charan calls this capital as Luddi in his book.

Their Raja was Kanhadev at that time. Kanhadev was a great leader and a fearless warrior who could never be defeated. His Punia clan brethren followed his wishes. Republics are defeated by internal dissent. His Puniya society had unity. He did not have a large standing military force, but he had no shortage of young warriors, who lived at home, and who rose to arms as soon as the call came from their leader. Every Puniya citizen considered the whole republic as of his own. They were ready to bear all hardships. They however would not tolerate a person from another community to rule over them. Their mental makeup made them refuse to accept rule by Bika. They kept fighting for their independence as long as they had young men who could come to the force. The Rahtors managed to take control of their homesteads one at a time. In the end the Rahtors constructed forts in the middle of their lands. The Rahtors would make these forts in the day, and in the night the Puniyas would break them down. The folk traditions state that some Puniyas were buried alive in the walls of some of these forts.

After much struggle the Puniyas were defeated. Some of them then migrated towards the United Provinces (modern Uttar Pradesh). The Rahtors had a big army, the Godara Jats also gave them their assistance. That is why the Puniyas lost.

It was , however, a matter of pride, that seeking to protect their Independence, they never showed cowardice. Rivers of blood were flowed by them. In revenge for the ill treatment of the leaders by the enemy, they defeated and took prisoner and killed the Rathor King Rai Singh. Reference to this act of revenge by the Puniyas is found in the book – ‘Bharat ke Desi Rajya’ (Eng- Indigenous Kingdoms of India).

The republic of the Puniyas spread from Jhansal (on the boundary of Modern Hissar, to Marod. Marod is 12 kos south of Rajgarh. The folk legends tell us, that one Sadhu told a Puniya leader, that whatever land he could cover on a mare, that will be governed by the Puniyas. The Mare was let loose and at Sunset , she reached Marod and died. At that time the Puniyas Sardar (chieftain) said:

“The journey from Jhansal ended at Marodh. The mare died but no regret.”

Traces of the old capital of the Puniyas, Jhansal where there was their fort, can still be found. Such traces are also still found in Balsamand.

The Rathor Raja would pay an annual fee to some of the Puniya chieftains to keep them peaceful and quiet. Even until recent times, there was a tradition of receiving clothing and some money from Raja annually by these Puniya leaders as a tribute."

Notable Person

External links

Reference

  1. 'धरती पुत्र : जाट बौधिक एवं प्रतिभा सम्मान समारोह, साहवा, स्मारिका दिनांक 30 दिसंबर 2012', पेज 8-10
  2. Hanumangarh Jila Jat Samaj Smarika-2010,p.16-17
  3. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992, p. 317

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