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Ancestry of Nipa as per Bhagavata Purana

Nepa (नेपा) is Gotra of Jats found in Ratlam district in Madhya Pradesh.


The Mahabharata Tribe - Nipa (नीप) may be identified as Nepa (नेपा) Jat clan.

Mention by Panini

Nipa (नीप) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [1]


Sandhya Jain[2] writes.... Nipa (नीप), The Mahabharata Tribe, An historical people whose king Janamejaya caused the ruin of his own tribe (V.72.13); were bondsmen in Yudhisthira's palace (II.46.21).

Ancient History

The earliest people of the Aryan stock, who settled in this region were probably the Krivis, a Rigvedic tribe. They originally resided on the banks of the Sindhu and the Chenab and seem to have moved from there to the east,across the Yamuna, to the area which after wards came to be known as the Panchala, lying within the bounds of Madhyadesha, a stronghold of Vedic culture and civilisation. Their domination roughly extended to the present districts of Bareilly, Badaun and Farrukhabad and the adjoining parts of Uttar Pradesh including portions of this district. Extending from the Ganga in the west to the Saryu in the east, it had two divisions -the northern, with its capital at Ahichhatra and the southern, with its capital at Kampilya, now in the Farrukhabad district.

According to Pauranic tradition, Brihadvasu, son of Ajamidha, a Bharata king of Turvasu family, was the founder of the kingdom which later came to be known as South Panchala with Kampilya and Makandi as its capitals. It stretched from the south of the river Ganga as the river Charmanvati (Chambal), obviously including this district. the Panchalas are said to have been so named after the five sons of Bhrimyasva, the fifth in line from Brihadvasu. They were nicknamed "the five capable ones", Panchalas, their territory, also being designated Panchalas as it represented the kingdom for the maintenance of which five capable persons were enough. According to some scholars, the Panchalas were a composite people made up of five Rigvedic tribes, or they represented a confederation of five such tribes. The Panchalas were closely associated with the Kurus. The Kuru- Panchalas together were regarded as pre-eminent, par-excellence among the people living in Madhyadesa. Their territory was the home of Brahmanism, they were noted for their orthodoxy, they spoke the best Sanskrit and possessed a learned academy, the Panchala Parishat, which had its centres in their cities. They were examples of good manners and pure speech.

After the death of Bhrimyasva, the kingdom was divided among his five sons, each receiving a small principality. But Divodasa, an important king of this dynasty extended the kingdom considerably and probably integrated all the five units under him. During the reign of Sudasa, probably fifth in descent from Divodasa the kingdom rose to great eminence. He was the chief participant in the celebrated "Battle of ten kings " and defeated the confederate tribes. It is not known if he attempted any consolidation of his conquests. His successors were weak but in due course the kingdom of South Panchala was revived by its ruler, Nipa, with whom another dynastic change occurred and his descendants were called Nipas. Brahmadatta known as pitrvartin, was a prominent king of this dynasty . He is said to have made a yogatantra on the instructions received from his preceptor, Jaigisavya. Tradition has it that he revised and rearranged Vedic and exegetical texts. He is credited with having fixed the Kramapatha of the Rigveda and of the Atharuaxeda, while his minister, Kandarika, that of Sambveda. The other kings of this dynasty were Visvaksena, Udaksena and Bhallata. Ugrayudha of the Dvimidha dynasty, forced Prishta, a prince of north Panchala to seek shelter at Kampilya, by killing his grandfather and annexing his realm. He also overthrew Nipas and killed Janamejaya, their king, whose death brought an end to the dynasty. The celebrated Paurava prince, Bhishma, killed Ugrayudha and restored to Prishta his ancestral kingdom . It seems that South Panchala also came under his sway. Prishta was succeeded by his son Drupada, who a class-mate of Drona, son of Bharadvaja a great sage. The two received instruction in military science from Bharadvaja and in other disciplines from another sage, Agnivesha. Prince Drupada had assured Drona to favour and help him on becoming king, but after as ascending the throne he and showed discourtesy to his friend, who felt offended and decided to take revenge. He asked the royal princes sons of Pandu and Dhritarashtra to march against Drupada, who was defeated and captured and his country was overrun. An agreement was made between the victors and the vanquished according to which the conquered realm, south of the river Ganga, known as south Panchala, reverted to Drupada and the North Panchala was retained by Dronacharya.

In Mahabharata

Nipa (नीप) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.46.21),(V.72.13),

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 46 describes game at dice and kings who were present in that assembly. Nipa (नीप) mentioned in Mahabharata verse (II.46.21).[3]... The Nipas, the Chitrakas, the Kukkuras, the Karaskaras, and the Lauha-janghas are living in the palace of Yudhishthira like bondsmen.

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 47 mentions the Kings who brought tributes to Yudhishthira: Nipas (नीप) are mentioned in Mahabharata verse (II.47.19). [4] .... I also saw numberless Chinas and Sakas and Udras and many barbarous tribes living in the woods, and many Vrishnis and Harahunas, and dusky tribes of the Himavat, and many Nipas and people residing in regions on the sea-coast, waiting at the gate being refused permission to enter.

Udyoga Parva/Mahabharata Book V Chapter 72 shloka 13 writes about birth of Janamejaya among the Nepas. Nipa (नीप) mentioned in Mahabharata verse (V.72.13). [5]...."Alas, by Duryodhana's wrath, O slayer of Madhu, the Bharatas will all be consumed, even like forests by fire at the end of the dewy seasons, and, O slayer of Madhu, well-known are those eighteen kings that annihilated their kinsmen, friends, and relatives. Even as, when Dharma became extinct, Kali was born in the race of Asuras flourishing with prosperity and blazing with energy, so was born Udavarta among the Haihayas. Janamejaya among the Nepas, Vahula among the Talajanghas, proud Vasu among the Krimis,etc."

Distribution in Madhya Pradesh

Villages in Ratlam district

Villages in Ratlam district with population of this gotra are:

Namli 1,


Notable persons

External links


  1. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p. 213, 425
  2. Sandhya Jain: Adi Deo Arya Devata - A Panoramic View of Tribal-Hindu Cultural Interface, Rupa & Co, 7/16, Ansari Road Daryaganj, New Delhi, 2004
  3. आवर्जिता इवाभान्ति निघ्नाश चैत्रकि कौकुराः, कारः करा लॊहजङ्घा युधिष्ठिर निवेशने (II.46.21)
  4. चीनान हूनाञ शकान ओडून पर्वतान्तरवासिनः, वार्ष्णेयान हारहूणांश च कृष्णान हैमवतांस तदा (II.47.19)
  5. हैहयानाम उथावर्तॊ नीपानां जनमेजयः, बहुलस तालजङ्घानां कृमीणाम उथ्धतॊ वसुः Mahabharata (V.72.13)

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