Divodasa

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Divodasa (दिवोदास) was a king of Kashi. Vijayendra Kumar Mathur writes with reference to Mahabharata Anusasana Parva that Varanasi was founded by Raja Divodasa, King of Kashi. [1] Divodasa is also the name of a king of Kashi surnamed Dhanvantari as per the hymn (RV 10.179.2), The founder of the Indian school of medicine called Ayurveda.

Variants

Ancestry of Divodasa

Divodasa Ancestry as per Bhagavata Purana

PururavaAyuKshatra VriddhaSuhotraKasyaKasiRashtraDirghatamaDhanvantariKetumatBhimarathaDivodasaDyumat (Also called Pratardana Satrujit and Ritadgvaja) → Alarka + Others

History

Alexander Cunningham[2] writes.... The earliest name of the city Kashi, which is still in common use, either alone or joined with the later name, as Kasi-Banaras. It is, perhaps, the Kassida or Kassidia, of Ptolemy. The name is referred to Kasi-raja, who was one of the early progenitors of the Lunar race. He was succeeded by twenty descendants, all Rajas of Kasi, amongst whom was the celebrated Divodasa.


Divodasa meaning "heaven's servant", mentioned as a tribal king in the Rigveda, who is celebrated for his liberality and protected by Indra and the Ashvins in the Rigveda [3], the son of Vadhryashva [4]. He is the father of the famous Sudas [5] (of the Battle of the Ten Kings).


Harivamsa, containing layers that goes back to the 1st or 2nd centuries BCE., mentions in Harivaṃśa parva (Chapter-29) about The race of Kshatravriddha and the legend of Divodasa.


From the History of Chamba, Himachal Pradesh we find that the Rig Veda mentions the rivers which flow through Himachal Pradesh. The text also talks about Shambara, the powerful king of these hills before the advent of the Aryans, and his 99 strong forts in the region between the Beas and the Yamuna rivers. His war with the Aryan chief, Divodasa, lasted 12 long years, wherein the latter emerged victorious.

Mythology

  • Pijavana is the other name of Divodasa according to Rigveda.[6] His son, Pratardana, is mentioned in the Kaushitaki Upanishad. He was invited in the Ashwamedha Sacrifice performed by King Dasharatha of Ayodhya. He was the younger brother of Queen Sumitra and was a Brother-in-law of Dasharatha. He was also the son of King Bhimaratha and was a grandson of Lord Dhanvantari. It is also the name of a king of Kashi surnamed Dhanvantari as per the hymn (RV 10.179.2), the founder of the Indian school of medicine called Ayurveda.[7]
  • Divodāsa (दिवोदास):—Son of Bhimaratha (son of Ketumān, who was a son of Dhanvantari). He had a son called Dyumān. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.17.4).[8]
  • Divodāsa (दिवोदास):—The male counterpart of the twin children of Mudgala (one of the five sons of Bharmyāśva), while the female was called Ahalyā. He had a son called Mitrāyu. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.21.34, 9.22.1) [9][10]
  • Divodāsa (दिवोदास).—(atithigva) A king of Kāśī. Genealogy. From Viṣṇu descended in the following order:—Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Āyus-Anenas-Pratikṣatra-Sṛñjaya-Jaya-Vijaya-Kṛti-Haryaśva-Sahadeva-Nadina-Jayatsena-Saṃkṛti-Kṣatradharmā-Śuhotra-Śala-Ārṣṭiṣeṇa-Kāśa-Dīrghatapas-Dhanvantari-Ketumān-Bhīmaratha-Divodāsa. ([11][12][13]
  • Galava: It is related in the Mahabharata that at the conclusion of his studies he (Galava) importuned his master to say what present he should make him. Viswamitra was annoyed, and told him to bring 800 white horses, each having one black ear. In his perplexity Galava applied to Garuda, who took him to King Yayati at Pratishthana. The king was unable to provide the horses, but he gave to Galava his daughter Madhavi. Galava gave her in marriage successively to Haryaswa, king of Ayodhya, Divodasa, king of Kasi, and Usinara, king of Bhoja, receiving from each of them 200 of the horses he was in quest of, upon the birth of a son to each from Madhavi. Notwithstanding her triple marriage and maternity, Madhavi, by a special boon, remained a virgin. Galava presented her and the horses to Viswamitra. The sage accepted them, and had a son by Madhavi, who was named Ashtaka. When Viswamitra retired to the woods, he resigned his hermitage and his horses to Ashtaka, and Galava having taken Madhavi back to her father, himself retired to the forest as his preceptor had done. The horses were first obtained by the Brahman Richaka from the god Varuna. They were originally 1000 in number, but his descendants sold 600 of them, and gave the rest away to Brahmans. [14]

Divodasa as King of Kashi

Anusasana Parva/Book XIII Chapter 31 mentions that Divodas defeated Vitahavya and ruled Kashi, Vitahavya acquired Brahmana status. .... While the high-souled Manu in days of yore was employed in righteously ruling his subjects, he obtained a son of righteous soul who became celebrated under the name of Saryati. In Saryati's, two kings took their birth, viz., Haihaya and Talajangha. Both of them were sons of Vatsa. Haihaya had ten wives.

Genealogy
HaryashvaSudevaDivodasaPratarddana
[15]

In Kashi there was a king who was the grandfather of Divodasa. The foremost of victorious men, he was known by the name of Haryashva. The sons of king Haihaya, O chief of men (who was otherwise known by the name of Vitahavya), invaded the kingdom of Kasi and advancing to the country that lies between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna, fought a battle with king Haryashva and also slew him in it. Having slain king Haryyaswa in this way, the sons of Haihaya, those great car-warriors, fearlessly went back to their own delightful city in the country of the Vatsas (Vatsapuri).

Meanwhile Haryashva's son Sudeva was installed on the throne of Kashi as its ruler.

The delighter of Kasi, that righteous-souled prince ruled his kingdom for sometime, when the hundred sons of Vitahavya once more invaded his dominions and defeated him in battle. Having vanquished king Sudeva thus, the victors returned to their own city.

After that Divodasa, the son of Sudeva, became installed on the throne of Kashi as its ruler. Realising the prowess of those high-souled princes, viz., the sons of Vitahavya, king Divodasa rebuilt and fortified the city of Baranasi at the command of Indra.

The territories of Divodasa were full of Brahmanas and Kshatriyas, and abounded with Vaishyas and Sudras. And they teemed with articles and provisions of every kind, and were adorned with shops and marts swelling with prosperity. Those territories stretched northwards from the banks of Ganga to the southern banks of Gomati, and resembled a second Amravati (the city of Indra).

The Haihayas once again attacked Kashi. The mighty king Divodasa endued with great splendour, issuing out of his capital, gave them battle. The engagement between the two parties proved so fierce as to resemble the encounter in days of old between the deities (Devas) and the Asuras. King Divodasa fought the enemy for a thousand days at the end of which, having lost a number of followers and animals, he became exceedingly distressed. King Divodasa having lost his army and seeing his treasury exhausted, left his capital and fled away.

Repairing to the delightful retreat of Bhardwaja, joining his hands in reverence, sought the Rishi's protection. Beholding King Divodasa before him, the eldest son of Vrihaspati, viz., Bharadwaja, who was the monarch's priest, said unto him, What is the reason of thy coming here? Tell me everything, O king. I shall do that which is agreeable to thee, without any scruple.'

"The king said, 'O holy one, the sons of Vitahavya have slain all the children and men of my house. I only have escaped with life, totally discomfited by the foe. I seek thy protection. It behoveth thee, O holy one, to protect me with such affection as thou hast for a disciple. Those princes of sinful deeds have slaughtered my whole race, leaving myself only alive.'

Bharadwaja of great energy said, Do not fear! Do not fear! O son of Sudeva, let thy fears be dispelled. I shall perform a sacrifice, O monarch, in order that thou mayst have a son through whom thou shalt be able to smite thousands upon thousands of Vitahavya's party.

After this, the Rishi performed a sacrifice with the object of bestowing a son on Divodasa. As the result thereof, unto Divodasa was born a son named Pratarddana. Immediately on his birth he grew up like a boy of full three and ten years and quickly mastered the entire Vedas and the whole of arms. Aided by his Yoga powers, Bharadwaja of great intelligence had entered into the prince. Indeed, collecting all the energy that occurs in the object of the universe, Bharadwaja put them together in the body of prince Pratarddana. Put on shining mail on his person and armed with the bow, Pratarddana, his praises sung by bards and the celestial Rishis, shone resplendent like the risen star of day. Mounted on his car and with the scimitar tied to his belt, he shone like a blazing fire. With scimitar and shield and whirling his shield as he went, he proceeded to the presence of his sire.

Beholding the prince, the son of Sudeva, viz., king Divodasa, became filled with joy. Indeed, the old king thought the sons of his enemy Vitahavya as already slain. Divodasa then installed his son Pratarddana as Yuvaraja, and regarding himself crowned with success became exceedingly happy. After this, the old king commanded the prince Pratarddana to march against the sons of Vitahavya and slay them in battle. Endued with great powers. Pratarddana, that subjugator of hostile cities speedily crossed Ganga on his car and proceeded against the city of the Vitahavyas. Hearing the clatter produced by the wheels of his car, the sons of Vitahavya, riding on their own cars that looked like fortified citadels and that were capable of destroying hostile vehicles, issued out of their city. Issuing out of their capital, the sons of Vitahavya, who were all skilful warriors cased in mail, rushed with uplifted weapons towards Pratarddana, covering him with showers of arrows. Encompassing him with innumerable cars, the Vitahavyas poured upon Pratarddana showers of weapons of various kinds like clouds pouring torrents of rain on the breast of Himavat. Baffling their weapons with his own, prince Pratarddana endued with mighty energy slew them all with his shafts that resembled the lighting fire of Indra. Their heads struck off with hundreds and thousands of broad-headed arrows, the warriors of Vitahavya fell down with blood-dyed bodies like Kinsuka trees felled by woodmen with their axes on every side.

After all his warriors and sons had fallen in battle, king Vitahavya fled away from his capital to the retreat of Bhrigu. Indeed, arrived there, the royal fugitive sought the protection of Bhrigu. The Rishi Bhrigu assured the defeated king of his protection. Pratarddana followed in the footsteps of Vitahavya. Arrived at the Rishi's retreat, the son of Divodasa said in a loud voice.--Ho, listen ye disciples of the high souled Bhrigu that may happen to be present, I wish to see the sage. Go and inform him of this. Recognising that it was Pratarddana who had come, the Rishi Bhrigu himself came out of his retreat and worshipped that best of kings according to due rites. Addressing him then, the Rishi said,--Tell me, O king, what is thy business. The king, at this, informed the Rishi of the reason of his presence.'

"The king said, 'King Vitahavya has come here, O Brahmana. Do thou give him up. His sons, O Brahmana, had destroyed my race. They had laid waste the territories and the wealth of the kingdom of Kashi. Hundred sons, however, of this king proud of his might, have all been slain by me. By slaying that king himself I shall today pay off the debt I owe to my father. Unto him that foremost of righteous men, viz., the Rishi Bhrigu, penetrated with compassion, replied by saying,--There is no Kshatriya in this retreat. They that are here are all Brahmanas. Hearing these words of Bhrigu that must accord he thought with truth, Pratarddana touched the Rishi's feet slowly and, filled with delight, said,--By this, O holy one, I am without doubt, crowned with success, since this king becomes abandoned by the very order of his birth in consequence of my prowess. Give me thy permission, O Brahmana, to leave thee, and let me solicit thee to pray for my welfare. This king, O founder of the race that goes by the name, has been compelled to leave of the very community of his birth, in consequence of my might.

Dismissed by the Rishi Bhrigu, king Pratarddana then departed from that retreat, having even as a snake vomits forth its real poison and repaired to the place he had come from.

Jat History

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[16] mentions about Westward migrations of the Indo-Aryans....Several eminent leaders headed their eponymous aboriginal Aryan tribes. They were Sambaran24, a Paurava king, Sushna, and Vritra, generally associated with the Panis, a commercial tribe of the Dahae Massagetae (Sakas); Pipru, Dhuni and Chumuri (Kimmerians or Cimmeri) also a Saka people; Namuchi, Arbuda (Abu) and Vala (Bala), associated with the Panis as the watchmen of their cows; Vriichivans and Varasikas (Asika-Sakas) of Hariyupia, identified with harappa. All of them were also denigrated as Asuras of the Sapta Sindhu. They confederated under the leadership of Visvamitra and Sambaran to fight against their contemporary, Divodasa Atithigava25, i.e. slayer of kine, (otherwise "aghnya" in R.V., VIII. 101. 15f), who led the forces of the Deva-worshippers (Bharatas) on the Ravi River. A joint front was put up under king Bheda to fight Sudas, "the defender of Faith" on the Jamuna. It consisted of the five descendent tribes, i.e. the Yadavas, Turvasus, Druhyus, Anavas and Pauravas, respectively from Yadu, Turvasu, Druhyu, Anu and Puru, (all said to be sons of Yayati); the Pakthas, Bhallanas, Vishanins, Alinas and Sivas, the Aryan tribes of western frontier; and the Ajas, Sigrus, Yakshus and Matsyas, (who, too, were stigmatised as Asuras in the Rig Veda).


24. Ibid . pp. 85-9

25. Camb.His.Ind .. vol.I. pp. 74,91. R.V., V. 29.8; VI. 17.ll;IX. 33.1. Mbht.Chaps. 146-47,205. Buffalo wasdoll1estic animal in ancient Sapta Sindhu and Rigvedic Aryans were fond of buffalo meat. Cf. Stuart Piggot, Prehistoric Ind., p. 260. Cow was already aghnya (RV. VIII. 101,15-16) and killing of buffalo lasso (X.57.6) was practised.

In list of Manda Kings

Bhim Singh Dahiya[17] mentions Divodasa in the list of Manda Kings.

Story of King Divodasa and Shiva

The legend of Kashi states that Lord Shiva himself lived here. This is his winter place. He lived as an ascetic in the upper regions of the Himalayas, but when he got married to a princess, compromises had to be made. And being a graceful man, he decided he would move to the plains, as Kashi was the most fabulously built city at the time.

There is a beautiful story: Once Shiva left Kashi because of some reasons. The gods were afraid that Kashi would lose its reverberence if it was not properly managed, so they called for help of Lord Brahma.

Lord Brahma, the creator of universe, was concerned. After a long search for a solution, he found a sage of royal blood performing hard tapa in the jungle near the city of Banaras. Lord Brahma made his decision. Ripunjay was deeply submerged in tapa when he heard a voice inside his head, “Open your eyes, my child.”Ripunjay opened his eye to find the four headed God emerging from his fire. Devoted prince bowed to Lord Brahma. Brahma looked at Ripunjay kindly and said, “O man of high soul! Time has come when you should bear the crown. Take the world under your throne and save the humanity from fall. By my aid, thou shall reign over the world and reform the dharma.

Ripunjaya listened calmly and fathomed the offer made by the Lord. Being strongly independent minded, Ripunjaya made some decisions of his own and then spoke, “My lord, I shall happily do what you command. But on one condition, I wish to rule in peace without intervention, so I could reform the dharma without any disturbance. I wish all Gods and Godly entities to not set feet upon my land and remain in the heaven only.”

“So be it” said Brahma.Therefore, on the command of Brahma, all Gods left to the heaven.

Brahmaji also kept a condition that King should be an excellent administrator and that every person staying in his kingdom or visiting his kingdom should be treated well with proper religious pursuits. King agreed.

Ripunjaya was then renamed to King Divodasa. He took the throne and worked vigorously to bring order in the decaying world. With the favours obtained from Lord Brahma, he established a rule so flawless that was never seen before. Under his reign, his subjects prospered and justice flourished.

As time passed, Lord Shiva desired to again come back to his own city. But due to Brahma’s boon to Divodasa, he was unable to set feet in Kashi. Soon Lord Shiva came to know that other gods too are unable to stay in his city. Not happy with this kind of attitude of the Divodasa, Lord Shiva decided first to cast some dents into the flawlessness of Divodasa’s rule in order to reduce his powers and to end his reign.

So he first sent messengers. They came and they just loved the city so much, they didn’t go back. He summoned sixty yoginis on the advice of his wife Goddess Parvati. He commanded the band to go to Kashi and disrupt the perfectness of Divodasa’s rule. He said, “Somehow corrupt the king. Once we find some fault in him, we can send him packing and I’ll come back.” When the yoginis arrived at Kashi, they were overwhelmed after seeing the perfectness. They abandoned the thought of causing any harm to it. Instead, they decided to never leave the city.

When they did not return, Lord Shiva sent Surya, the God of Sun, to Kashi. But once he saw the city, Surya walked on the same path as the band of Yoginis. Surya Deva was so ashamed and scared that he could not fulfill Shiva’s mission because his love for the city was greater than his commitment to the mission, so he turned south and tilted to one side and settled down.

Then Shiva sent Brahma. He persuaded him to undo what he had done. Lord Brahma admitted that even he could not remove Divodasa from the throne. But he assured Shiva to do something. He took the guise of a sadhu (a holy man) and entered Kashi. Soon he had the king under his influence. And then he recommended Divodasa to arrange an Ashwamedh Yagya with ten horses. An Ashwamedh Yagya is a ritual practised by mighty kings, in which a horse is made to roam freely through all lands. Army of the king follows the horse. The land through which the horse walks through, comes into the supremacy of the yagya performing king. If someone refuses to accept the supremacy of the king, then they have to battle against the army following the horse.

Brahma suggested the mighty king to practice the yagya with ten horses, in order to make it more difficult. In this way Divodasa’s army was divided into ten parts to follow each horse. Ten armies of the king followed the ten horses in ten directions. But yet no enemy could capture any of the ten horses. To Brahma’s dismay, horses came back safely with their armies. Lord Brahma was much ashamed of the failure of his trickery and abandoned the thought of any other attempt.

Brahma himself came and loved it, and he did not go back.

Then Shiva said, “I cannot trust any of these people” and he sent two of his most trusted ganas. Both of them came, but they loved the place so much and thought, “This is the only place Shiva should live, not Mount Mandara.” So they stayed there and became dwarapalakas of this city.

Lord Shiva saw few more attempts going in vain; and his desire to return to his beloved city was ever increasing. At last, he approached Lord Vishnu. Vishnu is the one who often rescues the Gods in such crisis. A strong scheme was laid out by him.

In accordance to the plan, Ganesha, son of Shiva arrived at Kashi in the disguise of an astrologer. Having a long term scheme, he established his residence near the city and began serving the citizens as astrologer. Fame of the astrologer spread in the kingdom. Touched by wind of the fame, the queen also sought his service, and was impressed by the astrologer. Once the queen was impressed, astrologer did not need very long time to reach the royal court of the king.

In the royal court, he pretended to study the palm of king attentively. Finally lord Ganesha succeeded to convince the king that having everything in Kashi still king had no mental peace. At the end, he declared that a holy and wise sadhu would come to see the king on the eighteenth day. Council of the wise man would bring wealth of enlightenment.

So Lord Vishnu went to Varanasi and first arrived at the confluence of the Varuna and Ganges Rivers where He bathed. Now there is the Adi Keshava (“original Keshava” or Vishnu) temple at that location to commemorate the incident, which is now an important tirtha or holy place.

Lord Vishnu came in disguise of saint and told the king “Undoubtedly you are the one who established law of dharma on earth again and saved it. You are the one who created every element by sheer power of dharma just to save earth. But just one deed of yours to ask Shiva to leave his beloved city is cursing your mental peace. By no means is your deed right. You need to correct it by making a Shiv Linga & worship him to come to his city-Anandavana and Lord Shiva returned to his city. The Lord as Saint said to king that on the 7th day after installation of Shiva linga, a celestial plane will appear and grant moksha to the king by carrying him to Lord Shiva’s abode. The Shivalinga installed was named after the king as Divodaseswara Shiva. This deity is still in Varanasi near Vishwa Bhuja Gauri temple at Dasaswamedha Ghat.

Thus Lord Vishnu caused the departure of King Divodasa and gave Varanasi back to Lord Shiva. Lord Vishnu and Shiva, along with other demigods and goddesses, have manifested themselves here in many ways ever since. You can find all varieties of temples dedicated to many personalities. Thus, they say that all the gods reside here. And it is said that all of the holy places of India can be found in certain portions of the town. Mathura is found in one part of the town, Ayodhya in another, as well as Badrinatha, Dwaraka, and so on. In fact, some of the ancient texts say that Varanasi is not of this earth, but is a holy place and part of the spiritual realm. Therefore, dying in this city brings salvation from future material existence. So there is a strong atmosphere of devotion here as many pilgrims come from all over to spend their last days living in this city, bathing in the sacred Ganges, visiting temples, and having darshan of the deities, all for spiritual purification.

Reference - Story of King Divodasa and Return back of Lord Shiva to his own city

बनारस = वाराणसी

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[18] ने लेख किया है .....बनारस = वाराणसी (AS, p.607): महाभारत अनुशासन पर्व के अनुसार काशी के राजा दिवोदास ने वाराणसी नगरी को बसाया था. जान पड़ता है यह नगरी काशी की प्राचीन नगरी के स्थान पर ही या उसके सन्निकट ही बसाई गई होगी. (दिल्ली की विभिन्न बस्तियों के समान). इससे यह भी सूचित होता है कि काशी का वाराणसी नाम जो इसके वरुणा और असी नदियों के बीच में होने के कारण पड़ा था, बाद का है. (देखें वाराणसी, काशी)

जाट इतिहास

ठाकुर देशराज[19] भारत में कहां से और किस तरह आर्य लोग आए, यह तो उपर वर्णन किया जा चुका है। अब यह देखना है कि भारत में आने के पश्चात् उन्होंने क्या किया तथा उन्हें किन कठिनाइयों का सामना करना पड़ा?


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-6


सबसे पहला कार्य जो उन्हें करना पड़ा, वह भूमि को अधिकृत करके बस्तियां बसाने का था। बड़े-बड़े घने जंगलो को काटकर, दलदलों को सुखाकर, बस्तियां बसाई गई। अनेक इतिहासकार मानते हैं कि आर्यों के भारत में आने पर उन्हे यहां की आदिम कौमों के साथ युद्ध करने पडे़।1 यही नहीं, पहले आए हुए आर्यों को पीछे से आने वालों के साथ युद्ध करना पड़ा। ऋग्वेद में दाश्राज्ञ-युद्ध की चर्चा को इतिहास-वेत्ता इतिहास मानकर उस युद्ध को चन्द्रवंशी और सूर्यवंशियों का युद्ध मानते हैं। कारण कि उस स्थल पर अनु, द्रुह्य (चन्द्रवंशी) और सुदास, दिवोदास (सूर्यवंशी) व्यक्तियों के नाम आते हैं।2 वेदों में ऐसी प्रार्थना है, जिनमें इन्द्र से युद्ध में विजय-हेतु प्रार्थना की गई है। यथा -

यो नो दास आर्यो वा पुरूष्टु ता देव इन्द्र युधये चिकेतति

अर्थ - हे इन्द्र ! हमसे जो युद्ध करना चाहता हो, वह दास हो, आर्य हो अथवा अदेव (असुर) हो। (कोई हो उसका नाश करो) ऋ. मं. 10 सूक्त 38 कां. 3।

दास से यहां भारत के मूल निवासियों से तात्पर्य है। असुर वे लोग थे, जिन आर्यो को भारतीय आर्य ईरान में छोड़ आये थे। अथर्ववेद में भी उनके स्थलों पर युद्ध के विवरण मिलते हैं, जिनमें से कुछ यहां देना हम उचित समझते हैं।

हंत्वेनान् प्रदहत्वरिर्यों नः पृतन्यति।

क्रव्यादाग्निना वयं सपत्नान् प्रदहामसि।।

अथर्ववेद 13.1.29

अर्थ - अग्नि के स्वभाव वाला तेजस्वी पुरूष इन शत्रुओं को मारे और जो शत्रु सेना लेकर हमें विनाश करता है, उसको पूर्वोक्त अग्नि अच्छी तरह जला दे। कच्चा मांस खाने वाले शवाग्नि के समान अति उग्र स्वभाव के पुरूष द्वारा हम शत्रुओं को जला दिया करें।

अग्ने सपत्नानधरान् पादयास्मद्ब्यथया सजातमुत्पिपानं बृहस्पते

अथर्ववेद 13.1.31

अर्थ - हे अग्ने! तू हमारे शत्रुओं को नीचे गिरा दे। हमारे समान बल वाले और हमसे उंचे होते हुए (शत्रुओं) को हे वृहस्पति! पीड़ित कर।


स्थानाभाव से ये थोड़े से उद्धरण दिए जा रहे हैं, सो भी इसलिए कि पाठकों को यह समझने में कोई कठिनाई न रहे कि भारत-आगत आर्यों का बहुत सा समय युद्ध करने में बीता।


1 . ये आदिम लोग भी हमारे खयाल से तो आर्य ही थे, जो जल प्रलय के समय यहाँ आ गए थे, अथवा पहले से मौजूद थे, इसमें अनेक मत हैं.
2 . महाभारत मीमांसा, सी. वी. वैद्य लिखित, पृ. 142 -168


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-7


अनेक संघर्ष और युद्धों के पश्चात् मान्व-आर्य पूर्वोत्तर भारत में और ऐल-आर्य पच्छिमोत्तर भारत में फैल गए। गंगा-यमुना के द्वाबे और पंचनद की भूमि अधिकांश मे ऐल आर्यों के और सरयू हिमालय की तलहटी और विन्ध्याचल की समीपवर्ती (उत्तरी भारत की) भूमि मान्व आर्यों के अधिकार में आ गई। मध्य-भारत की भूमि में वे सिकुड़कर इकट्ठे हो गए, जिन्हें आर्य अपने से अयोग्य समझते थे और जिन्हें इतिहासकार भारत के आदिम निवासी मानते हैं। मान्व आर्यों ने जो पीछे से सूर्यवंशी कहलाने लगे थे अयोध्या, मिथिला, काशी और ऐल (चन्द्रवंशी) आर्यों ने प्रयाग, हस्तिनापुर आदि सर्वप्रथम प्रसिद्ध बस्तियां आबाद कीं। इस समय को वैदिक-काल नाम देना सर्वथा उपयुक्त है। इस वैदिक-काल में भारतीय आर्यों की धार्मिक, सामाजिक तथा राजनैतिक स्थिति क्या थी इस बात का वर्णन प्रत्येक इतिहास-प्रेमी के बड़े लाभ की बात है। इसीलिए संक्षेप से हम यहां तद्विषयक सामग्री उपस्थित करते हैं।

External links

References

  1. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.185
  2. The Ancient Geography of India/Varanasi, p.438
  3. RV 1.112.14; 1.116.18
  4. RV 6.61.5
  5. (RV 7.18.28)
  6. K. C. Singhal; Roshan Gupta (2003). The Ancient History of India, Vedic Period: A New Interpretation. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 58. ISBN 978-81-269-0286-6.
  7. Singh, Rana P.B.; Pravin S. Rana (2002). Banaras Region: A Spiritual and Cultural Guide. Varanasi: Indica Books. p. 31. ISBN 81-86569-24-3.
  8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divodasa
  9. Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
  10. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divodasa
  11. See full article at Story of Divodāsa from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
  12. Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
  13. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divodasa
  14. Dowson's Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology
  15. Anusasana Parva/Book XIII Chapter 31
  16. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The migrations of the Jats to the North-Western countries, p.236
  17. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Mandas,p.135
  18. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.607
  19. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter I,pp. 6-8

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