Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Names of Local Officers
Concept Publishing Company Delhi, 1978
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Names of Local Officers
- 1 Names of Sresthins (Bankers)
- 2 Names of Prathama Kulikas (Chief Artisans.)
- 3 Names of Prathama Kayasthas (Chief Scribes)
- 4 Names of the Prathama Pustapalas
- 5 Names of Pustapala (Record-keepers)
- 6 Names of the Vithi-Mahattaras (Vīthī-elders)
- 7 Names of Mahattaras (Village-headmen)
- 8 Names of writers and engravers
- 9 References
Names of Sresthins (Bankers)
1. Chchha(cha)ndaka (चंदक) (No. 46, L.. 12) : He is mentioned as the youngest son of a certain Hari-sresthin. Chandaka means 'charming'. It was the name of Gautama Buddha's charioteer.1
2. Dhrtipala (धृतिपाल) (No. 34, L. 5; No. 35, L. 4): It is the name of a nagara-srestliin (the guild-president of the town). The first part of the name is based on the virtue 'Dhrti (which mean firmness, resolution or command).2 The second part is Pala which means a guard, protector or keeper.3 The complete expression means 'an observer of firmness'.
3. Hari-sresthin (No. 46, L. 1 1) : He was the son of Kaivarttisresthin. While he and his father are called sresthins, none of his sons is called sresthin or banker by profession. Hari is the name of god Visnu or Krisna.
4. Kaivartti-sresthin (No. 46, L. 11) : Kaivarta (कैवर्त्ति) is a fisherman (born of prostitute by [[kshatriya[[ or of an Ayogava female by a Nisada father). 4 We may infer that his mother was from the family of a fisherman and father belonged to a Sresthin class.
5. Ribhupāla (No. 36, LL. 3-4; L. 5, L. 14; No. 37, L. 4) : The orthographic change in the first letter is to be noted.5 Ribhu here may mean property or wealth. 6 The whole may thus mean, 'a protector of property or wealth'. In No. 36 Ribhupala has been mentioned as a nagara-sresthin. In No. 37 he is also described as Aryya.
6. Sridatta (No. 46, LL. 11-22) : He was the eldest son of Hari-sresthin and the grandson of Kaivartti-sresthin. Sri is the goddess of wealth and datta means given. The whole expression will mean, 'born by the grace of
the goddess of wealth'.
7. Vargga, Vargga-gramika (No. 46, L. 12, L. 15) : He was the middle son of Hari-sresthin. In L. 12 he is mentioned only as Vargga and in L. 15 as Vargga-gramika,- While his father is called a sresthin he was not sresthin or banker by profession. The word gramika affixed to Vargga's name suggests that he was the headman of a village which seems to be no other than Avadara. Vargga literally means 'one who excludes or removes or averts'.7
Names of Prathama Kulikas (Chief Artisans.)
1. Dhrtimitra (धृतिमित्र) (No. 34, L. 5; No. 35, L. 5) : It is a name based on virtue, the first' part being Dhrti 'perseverance' and the second' part 'mitra' friend, the whole meaning 'one who is friendly to perseverance', i.e., a man' full of perseverance. Names ending in mitra 8 are very few 'in the Vedic literature but seem to have been very popular in the post-Paninian period. Coins9 as well as the epigraphic records show an abundant use of mitra-ending names.10
2. Matidatta (मतिदत्त) (No. 37, L. 5) : It is also a name based oil virtue, the first part being 'mati' intellect and the second 'datta' the whole meaning, 'begotton by virtue of intellect'.
3. Varadatta (वरदत्त) (No. 36, L. 4) : The first part is Vara meaning boon and the second is 'datta' the whole meaning 'begotton by a boon'. Names ending in datta were very popular in the time of Patanjali and figure much in ancient Pali works.11 It is a vaisya name-ending.
NAMES OF KULIKAS (Artisans)
We get only one name of a kulika (कुलिक) which occurs four times in an inscription.
Bhima (No. 43, LL. 3; 17, 19, 25) :
It is a name based on the Epic tradition. Bhima was the name of one of the five Pandavas in the Mahabharata and literally means 'dreadful'.
Names of Prathama Kayasthas (Chief Scribes)
1. Sambapala (साम्बपाल) (No. 34, LL. 5-6; No. 35, L. 5) : The first part of the name Samba is to be derived from Samba which literally means accompanied by Amba (Durga) and is the name of Lord Shiva.12 It has been the name of a son of Krishna and Jambavati as well as of several authors and teachers.13 Pala is a name-ending suffix having the least significance in the present case. Perhaps it has been added only to honour the Grhyasutra injunction of not giving names of deities directly to human-beings.14
3. Viprapala (No. 36, L. 4) : The first part is vipra which means a brahmana and the second part is 'pala' which means 'protector', the whole thus meaning 'one who protects the brahmanas'. We do not get pala name ending in the Paninian period. It is a kshatriya name-ending.
NAMES OF KAYASTHAS (Scribes)
1. Devadatta (No. 43, L. 3): The first part of the name is deva and the second is datta, the whole meaning 'given by the gods'. This name was very popular in the time of Patanjali.15
3. Lakshmana (लक्ष्मण) (No. 43, L. 3) : It is a name based on the Epic tradition. Lakshmana was the younger brother of Rama and his name literally means 'endowed with auspicious signs or marks, lucky, fortunate'.16
4. Naradatta (No. 52, L. 18) : The first part is Nara which here means the primeval man or eternal spirit pervading the universe, i.e., Purusa (always associated with Narayana 'son of the primeval man'). Both Nara and Narayana are considered as gods or sages and accordingly called devau, rsi, tapasau.17 The second part is datta, the whole meaning 'given by the eternal spirit pervading the universe'. He seems to have been a scribe belonging to the office of the
minister for peace and war.18
5. Prabhuchandra (प्रभुचंद्र) (No. 43, L. 3, L. 25) : The first part is Prabhu which is one of the names of Lord Siva in the Mahabharata.19 The second is chandra, the whole meaning 'a moon, (on the forehead) of Siva.20
6. Rudradasa (रुद्रदास) (No. 43, L. 3, L. 25) : The first part is Rudra which is another name of Lord Siva, and the second is dasa meaning 'a slave or servant'; the whole thus means 'one who is a servant of Lord Shiva'.
7. (Vinayada)tta (No. 43, L. 3) : The first part is Vinaya and the second is datta. It is a name based on virtue. It may literally mean, 'born by virtue of modest speech or prayer'.
Names of the Prathama Pustapalas
1. Bhatanandin (भटनन्दिन) (No. 37, L. 11) : The first part is Bhata and the second is nandin. Bhata (भट) here is the name of a serpent-demon (Naga).21 The whole means 'one who is an attendant of Bhata'. The other meaning of Bhata is scholar which is not applicable here.
2. Divakaranandin (दिवाकरनन्दिन) (No. 28, L, 10) : The first part is 'Divakara' (day-maker), which is another name of god Sun.22 Nandin here is a name-ending suffix literally meaning 'the happy one' and is the name of Visnu, Shiva and an attendant of Siva. This name-ending was not known in the time of Panini. According to Sankalia names directly after deities were probably after the family-god, 23 which in the present case seems to have been Siva. It is possible that the first part of the name was connected with same deity and than the name of the family-deity was added as the name-ending surname. The word nandin (नंदिन) is generally used to refer to 'an attendant of Siva' or the vahana 'nandin' bull of Siva. So the name Divakarnandin may literally mean 'an attendant of god Sun'. The word Nandin also means 'gladdening'.24 So another interpretation can be 'one who pleases or wins over Lord Sun'.
3. Gopadatta (No. 37, L. 11) : The first part is Gopa and the second is datta. Gopa literally meaning cowherd is a synonym for Lord Krishna. 25 So it would
mean 'born by the grace of Lord Krsna'. Names ending in datta are common in Buddhist literature.26
4. Nara(na)ndin (No. 37, L. 10) : The first part Nara here means the primeval or eternal spirit pervading the universe, 27 the second part is nandin; the whole meaning 'one who is an attendant of Nara'. It may also mean 'one who pleases or wins over Nara' or the one pleasing (other) human-beings.
Names of Pustapala (Record-keepers)
Names ending in Dasa
1. Arkkadasa (अर्क्कदास) (No. 44, L. 10) : Arkka (अर्क्क) is the name of god Sun28 and dasa means servant; the whole meaning 'one who is a servant of god Sun'.
2. Haridasa (हरिदास) (No. 28, L.10) : The first part is Hari which means 'god'. It is a name given to many gods,29 but generally it is used for Visnu or Krsna. The second part is dasa. The whole literally means 'one who is an attendant of Hari'.
3. Patradasa (पत्रदास) (No. 36, L. 6, L. 8) : Patra means a letter or documents, and dasa means 'a servant'. Thus the whole may literally mean, 'one who is a servant to letters or documents' which is a very befitting name for a record-keeper.
Names ending in Datta
1. Durgadatta (No. 44, L. 10) : Durga is the name of a goddess who is worshipped in navaratras, datta means 'given', the whole- meaning 'given by goddess Durga'.
2. Risidatta (रिशिदत्त) (No. 34, L. 10) : Risidatta31 (No. 35, L. 7) : We get this word in above two forms but the first form is more accurate though not fully correct due to orthographic differences. The correct form should be 'Rsidatta' (ऋषिदत्त). The first part 'Rsi' means 'a sage' and 'datta' means given, the whole
meaning 'given by (the grace of) a sage'.
3. Vibhudatta (विभुदत्त) (No. 34, L. 10; No. 35, L. 7) : 'Vibhu' means all-pervading, and is applied to the names of several important gods, Brahma, Visnu, Siva, the Sun, Kubera and Indra32 and 'datta' means 'given'. The whole thus literally means 'given by the all-pervading, i.e., God'.
4. Visnudatta (विष्णुदत्त) (No. 36, L. 9) : The first part is Visnu and the second datta,the whole thus literally meaning, 'given by god Visnu'.
Names ending in Nandin
1. Jayanandin (जयनन्दिन) (No. 34, L. 10; No. 35, L. 7) : Jaya is the name of Indra, 33 and nandin means 'an attendant', the whole meaning 'one who is an attendant of Lord Indra' or by the other meaning explained elsewhere, 34 it may mean 'one who pleases or wins over Indra'.
2. Sasinandin (शशिनन्दिन) (No. 28, L. 10) : The first part is Sasi meaning moon and the second is nandin, the whole literally meaning 'one who is an attendant of the god Moon' or the one who pleases or wins over god Moon.
3. Simhanandin (सिंहनन्दिन) (No. 43, L. 4; L. 17) : The first part Simha means, lion, may indicate the lion of goddess Durga. The second part is nandin, the whole thus meaning 'an attendant of Simha' or the one who pleases or wins over 'Simha'. It may be noted that in Hindu religion the vahana of a god is equally important and and is an object of worship. '
4. Sthanunandin (स्थानुनन्दिन) (No. 36, L. 10) : The Sanskrit form of the first part Sthanu (स्थानु) is sthanu. It is the name of Lord Shiva (who is supposed to remain as motionless as the trunk of a tree during his austerities).35 Nandin means 'an attendant'. The whole thus literally means 'one who is an attendant of Lord Shiva 36 or the one who pleases or wins over Lord Shiva.
5. Vijayanandin (विजयनन्दिन) (No. 36, L. 9) : Vijaya is the name of god yama, 37 according to the lexicographical works, of a son of Jayanta (son of Indra), of a son of vasu-deva; of a son of Krsna and of an attendant of Visnu, and nandin means 'an attendant', or the one who pleases or
wins over lord Yama. This name has been very frequently used in ancient literature.38 We are not sure to what god the name connotes the meaning.
Miscellaneous 1. Dhrtivisnu (धृतिविष्णु) (No. 28, L. 10) : The first part is Dhrti (धृति) which means resolution or satisfaction. It is a name based on virtue. The second part Visnu gives no meaning to the first part; it has only been added probably as the family deity. 39
2. Virochana (विरोचन) (No. 28, L. 10) : It is the name of the god Sun, literally meaning 'illuminating'.40 It is thus a case of the name of a god directly given to a man which is against the rules prescribed by the Smrtis.
3. Yasodama (यशोदाम) (No. 43, L. 4, L. 17) :
Yasas means fame and dama means a garland, 41 the whole thus meaning 'a garland of fame'. It was used as a proper name quite frequently in ancient period.42
Names of the Vithi-Mahattaras (Vīthī-elders)
1. Ganda (गण्डा) (No. 43, L. 4) :
According to lexicographers Ganda means 'the chief; best, excellent' 43 and thus can signify a hero. The term is also used for the animal rhinoceros, so it can also be a case of a name based on the name of an animal.
The custom of deriving names from animals was unknown in the Vedic pericd. 44 But in Panini we find such references.45
2. Harisimha (हरिसिंह) (No. 43, L. 5) :
The first part is Hari which is the name alike of Visnu, Krsna, Moon, Vayu (the god of the Wind) and according to lexicographers of Shiva.46 The Second part 'simha' has the purpose only of a surname and does not give any sensible meaning to the first part. In modern practice the word 'simha' is used as a surname of kshatriya, thakur and rajput castes.
3. Jyesthadama (ज्येष्ठदाम) (No. 43, LL.4-5) :
The first part of the word is Jyestha literally meaning elder. Here it may stand for Jyestha Linga described in the Linga Purana.47 The second part dama means 'a garland'.48 The whole thus literally means, 'a garland of Jyestha Linga' and testifies
to the popularity of the Jyestha Linga as an object of religious reverence.
4. Kumaradeva (कुमारदेव) (No. 43, L. 4) :
5. Prajapati (प्रजापति) (No. 43, L. 4) :
Prajapati means 'lord of creatures'. It was originally applied to the supreme god and later on to Visnu, Siva and Brahma.49 It is also a name against the rules prescribed in the Dharmasutras, the names of gods being prohibited to be directly given to human-beings.
6. Ramasarman (रामशर्मन) (No. 43, L. 4) :
The first part of the name is Rama based on the name of Lord Rama of the Epic Ramayana. The second part is 'sarman' (शर्मन) meaning 'comfort or happiness' and is often used at the end of the names of brahmanas, they being the well-wishers of society.
7. Svamichandra (स्वमिचंद्र) (No. 43, L. 5) :
The first part is svamin meaning lord or master which according to lexicographers is the name of Lord Shiva. 50 The second part is chandra, the whole thus literally meaning 'a Moon on (the forehead of) Lord (Shiva)'.
8. Umayasas (उमयशस) (No. 43, L. 4) :
The first part is Uma and the second yasas. According to lexicographers Uma means a city, town or landing-place, 51 and yasas means fame. The whole thus literally means 'one who has fame in the city'.
Names of Mahattaras (Village-headmen)
1. (De)vakirtti (देवकीर्त्ति) (No. 29, L. 4) :
The first part is 'Deva' which means 'god' and the second part is 'kirtti' meaning 'fame'. The whole expression means 'having fame like that of the gods'.
2. Devasarmman (देवशर्म्मन) (No. 29, L. 5) : The first part of the word 'Deva' means 'god' and the second part 'sarmman' is a name-ending added to the name of brahmanas as prescribed by the Dharma Sastras.
3. Gopala (गोपाल) (No. 29, L. 5) :
Literally meaning one who tends or protects cows, is a synonym
for Lord Krishna. In this case also the name is against the rules prescribed by the Dharmasastras.
4. Gosthaka (गोष्ठक) (No. 29, L. 4) :
It is an abbreviated name, with the addition of suffix 'ka'. Literally it means 'belonging to an assembly or society'.52
5. Kala (काल) (No. 29, L. 4) :
Kala means time and as destroying all things, signifies death or time -of death (often personified and represented with the attributes of Yama). Kala personified is also a Devarsi in Indra's- court,- and is also the name of a son of Dhruva.53
6. Khasaka (खासक) (No.29, L. 5) : It is an abbreviated name with the addition of suffix 'ka' which according to Panini is used to denote :
- (i) Depreciation.54
- (ii) Endearment.55
It is a non-Sanskritic word most probably a local or dialectal feature. Here ka suffix may have been used in the sense of endearment meaning a "poor khasa (खस)": Khasa is the name of a people and of their country (in the north of India).56 Khasaka can be native of that country or a man belonging to that race (considered as a degraded kshatriya).57
7. Kshemadatta (क्षेमदत्त) (No. 29, L.-4) : The first part is kshema which means ease, security or prosperity.58 The second part is 'datta' Thus the whole literally means 'given by prosperity'. It may signify that the family became prosperous just before his birth. We find many names based on the word 'kshema' in ancient Sanskrit literature.59
8. Pingala (पिङगल) (No. 29, L. 4) :
It is a one-word name based on colour and means 'reddish- brown', 'yellow' or 'gold-coloured'.60
9. Rama (राम) (No. 29, L. 6) :
If is another one-word name. Here the name of Lord Rama, the Epic hero, has been given directly to a person against the rules of the Smrtis. We may suggest that in such cases either the second part is dropped or is not given at all by the parents.
10. Ramaka( रामक) (No. 29 L. 5) :
It is also an abbreviated name possibly from Rama-datta (Cf. Panini V.3.82) with the addition Of the suffix 'ka'. In the Agni Purana it is the name of Rama Raghava. 61 It is formed from
11. Shivanandin (शिवनन्दिन) (No. 44, LL, 3-4) :
12. Somapala (सोमपाल) (No. 29, L. 6) :
Soma is nectar (the beverage of the gods called Amrta) and pala means 'protector'. Thus the whole literally means 'protector or guardian of Amrta'. It is the name of several men in the Rajatarangini 64 and in plural it is the name of the Gandharvas (as keeping especial guard over Soma).65
13. Sribhadra (श्रीभद्र) (No. 29, L. 6) : Shri is the name of the goddess of wealth, the wife of Visnu and bhadra means 'blessed'. Thus the whole literally means 'blessed by the goddess of wealth'.
14. Sunkaka (शुङकक) (No. 29, L. 4) :
It is also an abbreviated name with the addition of suffix 'ka'. The word should have been Sankuka instead of Sunkaka. The present form may be due to the mistake of the engraver. The word Sunkaka is meaningless. Sanku is the name of Lord Siva. We have many names based on the word Sanku in literature. Sankuka was the name of a poet (author of the Bhuvanabhyudaya and son of Mayura), 66 and also of a writer on rhetoric. 67
15. Varggapala (वर्ग्गपाल) (No. 29, L. 4) :
The first part is Vargga which means 'a separate division, group, company, family, party', literally meaning 'one who excludes or removes or averts'.68 The second part is pala meaning protector, thus the whole means 'protector of the division, group or party'.
16 Visnubhadra (विष्णुभद्र) (No. 29, L. 5) :
The first part is Visnu and the second 'bhadra, the whole literally meaning 'blessed by (god) Visnu'.
17 ....Visnu (...विष्णु) (No. 29, L. 5) :
The first part is lost and the second part is visnu. Visnu was probably the family-god of this person.
Names of writers and engravers
1. Dhruvasarman (ध्रुवशर्मन ) (No. 10, L. 9, L. 13) : The lofty pillar ( Inscription No. 10), 'firm and excellent' was caused to be made by Dhruvasarman.The first part of the name is 'Dhruva' the Polar star. Panini deals at length with names derived from stars. 69 The second part of the name is 'sarman' which is a common surname for a brahmana.
2. Gopasvamin (गोपस्वामिन) (No. 21, L. 15) :
The Gaya spurious copper plate inscription of Samudragupta was written by the order of Dyuta Gopasvamin, the Aksapataladhikrta of another village. 70 His name has already been explained among the names of Commanders
3. Harisena71 (No. 1, L. 32) :
The draft of the Allahabad Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta which is termed as a 'kavya' was composed by Harisena.72
4. Ravila (रविल) (No. 32, L. 15) :
Ravila has been mentioned as the writer of the draft of the Mandasor Stone Inscription of Malava Sam vat 524 (A. D. 467). 73 It is a name ending in ila. 74 It seems to be an abbreviated form of Ravidatta just as Devila of Devadatta. 75 Thus it is a name based on the deity Sun and originally signified one given by the Sun.
5. Shribhadra (श्रीभद्र) (No. 29, L. 17) :
He engraved the Dhanaidaha Copper Plate Inscription of Kumaragupta I. Sribhadra is the name of a serpent-demon in the Buddhist literature. Sri is goddess Laksmi and bhadra means auspicious, happy, beautiful, lovely, good or gracious. Thus literally Sribhadra means 'one who is (made) happy by goddess Laksmi'.
6. Stha(sta)mbhesvara-dasa (स्तम्भेश्वर-दास) (No. 29, L. 17) :
He is the writer of the Dhanaidaha Copper Plate Inscription of Kumaragupta I. Stambheshvara is the name of Lord Siva 76 and dasa means 'a servant or devotee'. So the whole will literally mean 'one who is a devotee of Lord Siva'.
7. Tilabhattaka (तिलभट्टक) (No. 1, L. 33) :
The Allahabad Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta was inscribed by Mahadandandyaka Tilabhattaka, who is described as
meditating on the feet of the Paramabhattaraka.77 The name has already been discussed among the names of Commanders.
8. Vatsabhatti (वत्सभट्टी) (No. 17, L 23) :
The Mandasor Stone Inscription of Kumaragupta and Bandhuvarman (the Malava years 493 and 529) was composed by Vatsabhatti.78 Vatsa is often used as a term of endearment (=my dear child).79 Originally it was used for a calf, then for the young of any animal and finally for any offspring or child. The child or the young of any animal being lovely, it became a term of endearment. The second part of the present name is bhatti which is a variation of bhatta. Bhatti is formed from 'bhatti' meaning 'lord'.80
1. Jivanta (जीवंत) (No. 16, L. 8):
He was the head of the guild of oilmen of Indrapura. Jivanta is a one-word name. Literally it means 'long-lived', 81 which shows the wish of the parents for the child to live long. It was the name of a man in the time of Panini. 82
2. Mara (visa) मार (विष) (No. 55, LL. 2-3) :
He was the father of Dāmasvāminī who raised a pillar at Rajaghat, Varanasi, in memory of her parents. The first part of the name is Mara which is the name of the god of love who in the Buddhist literature is described as the greatest enemy of the Buddha and his religion.83 The second part of the name is not legible. If it is visa then the whole can literally mean 'one who is a poison for the god of love', i.e., a man of great self-control whom the arrows of Mara cannot affect.
3. Samghila (संघिल) (No. 22, LL. 5-6) :
He was a soldier who has been mentioned as an 'Ashvapaty. Samghila is a name ending in 'la'.84 It is an abbreviated form of the full name 'Samghadatta'. In Sanchi inscriptions we find several names with to-ending e.g., Agila (Agnidatta), Satila (Svatidatta), Nagila (Nagadatta), Yakhila (Yaksadatta), Samghila (Samghadatta).85
4 .......... Visnu (No. 29, L. 7) : It is the name of some officer whose name appears to have the ending Visnu who may have been his family-deity. The first part is not legible.
1. Fz. p. 405, col. 1.
2. Ibid., p. 519, col. 2-3.
3. Ibid., p. 622, col. 3.
4. Ibid., p. 311, col. Ill; cf. infra, ch. IV.
5. It is रिभु instead of ॠभु.
6. Fz. p. 226, col. 2.
7. Ibid., p. 923, col. 3.
8. Panini, VI. 2. 165.
9. P.L. Gupta, Coins, p. 39. R. pp. 90-91.
10. V.S. Agrawala, Jy. p. 185.
11 JJ. Vol. XIV, pp. 242-43.
12. Fz. p. 1207.
14. Manava Grhya, I. 18. 1-2.
15. Mahabhasya, Vol. I, p. 38 :
- लोके तावन्मातापितरौ पुत्रस्य जातस्य
- संवरतेSवकाशे नाम कुर्वाते देवदत्तो यज्ञदत्त इति ।
16. Fz. p. 892, col. 2.
17. Ibid., pp. 528-29.
18. लिखितं संधिविग्रहारि (धि) करण-कायस्थनरदत्तेन । Also see Hz. p. 343, note 7. The relevant expression has been translated by Bhattacharya (JJ. VI, p. 55, L. 18, see translation) as written by karana-kayastha Naradatta. But this is incorrect. The intended reading was adhikarana which stand for 'office'.
19. Fz. p. 684, col. 3.
20. Cf. सिद्धि: साध्ये सतामस्तु प्रसादात्तस्य धूर्जटे:। जान्हवीफेनलेखेव यन्मूर्ध्नि शशिन: कला ।। Narayana Pandita, HitopadeSa, Prastavika, p. 1, v. 1.
21. Fz. p. 745, col. 1.
22. Fz. p. 478, col. 3.
23. H.D. Sankalia, Pz. p. 115.
24. Fz. p. 527, col. 2.
25. Fz. p. 368, col. 1.
26. V.S. Agrawala, Jy. p. 187.
27. Fz. pp. 528-29.
28. Fz. p. 89, col. 1.
29. Ibid., p. 1289, col. 2-3.
32. Fz. p. 978, col. 3.
33. Ibid., p. 412, col. 3.
34. See Divakaranandin.
35. Fz. p. 1262, col. 3.
36. Cf., Names ending in Nandin, GJ. Vol. II, p. 95.
37. Fz. p. 960, col. 1.
39. H.D. Sankalia, Pz. p. 115.
40. Fz. p. 983, col. 2.
41. Ibid., p. 475, col. 1.
42. Ibid., pp. 474-475.
43. Ibid., p. 344, col. 1.
44. V.S. Agrawala, Jy. p. 186.
45. Panini, II. 1.56 : उपमितं व्यघ्रादिभि: सामान्यप्रयोगे, Cf. Panini, V. 3.81. The names of species adopted as personal names, e.g. Vyaghraka, Simhaka.
46. Fz. p. 1289, col. 3.
47. Ibid., p. 426, col. 3.
48. Ibid., p. 475, col. 1.
49. Ibid., p. 658. col. 2-3.
50. Ibid., p. 1284, col. 1; cf. G. Buhler, GJ. Vol. II, p. 95. Names with 'svamin' as their first part are Saivite names.
51. Fz. p. 217, col. 1.
52. Ibid., p. 367, col. 2.
53. Ibid., p. 278, col. 1.
54. Kutsite, Panini, V. 3.75, e.g. Puranaka, name of a servant.
55. Panini, V. 3.76, etc.
56. Fz. p. 338, col. 3.
58. Ibid., p. 332, col. 3.
59. Ibid., p. 332, col. 3; p. 333, col.l.
60. Ibid., p. 624, col. 3.
61. Ibid., p. 878, col. 2.
62. Panini, VII, 3, 34.
63. Fz. p. 878, col. 2.
64. Bz. p. 165.
65. Fz. p. 1250, col. 2.
66. Bz. p. 193.
67. Fz. p. 1047, col. 2.
68. Ibid., p. 923, col. 3.
69. Panini, IV. 3.34; 36, 37; VIII. 3.100; Jy. pp. 189-90; JJ. Vol. XIV, pp. 224; 238-40.
70. No. 21, L. 15 : अन्य ग्रामाक्षपटलाधिकृत-द्यूत-गोपास्वम्यादेश (लिखितोअयम्)
71. His name has alreadybeen explained among the names of ministers.
72. No. 1, L.L. 31-32 :एतच्च काव्यमेषामेव भट्टारकपादानां दासस्य समीपपरि-सण्र्पणानुग्रहोमीलित-मते खाद्यटपाकिकस्य महादंडनायक ध्रुवभूति पुत्रस्य सान्धिविग्रहिक-कुमारामात्य महादंडनायक हरिषेणस्य सर्व्वभुतहितसुखायास्तु
73. No. 32, L. 15 : रविलस्य कृति: ।
74. Panini, V. 3.79.
75. V.S. Agrawala, Jy. p. 191.
76. Stambha and Sthanu are just synonyms both meaning pillar and displaying qualities of stiffness, firmness or fixedness. (Fz. pp. 1258 and 1262). Sthanvisvara is the name of a Linga of Siva, (Fz. pp. 1262-63) and hence Stambhesvara also represents the same.
77. No. 1, L. 33 :अनुष्ठितं च परमभट्टारक पादानुध्यातेन महादंडनायक-तिलभत्ट्टकेन ।
Fleet, (Dx)1 , p. 17 translates it as 'And the accomplishment of the matter has been effected by the Mahadandanayaka Tilabhattaka, who meditates on the feet of the Paramabhattaraka (i.e., Chandragupta II)'. It is all due to the fact that Fleet considered this inscription as posthumous ((Dx)1 , p. 1). The word Paramabhattaraka here applies to Samudragupta as the pillar was set up during the life-time of the great emperor. See: Majumdar, Pg. p. 137.
78. No. 17. L. 23 :पूर्व्वा चेयं प्रयत्नेन रचिता वत्सभट्टिना ।
79. Fz. p. 915, col. 3
80. Ibid., p. 745, col. 1, 2.
81. Ibid., p. 423, col. 2.
82. Panmi, IV. 1.103 : Jaivantāyana Jaivanti, i.e., one who belongs to the family of Jivanta ; Jz. p. 62.
83. Fz. p. 811, col. 3.
84. Panini, V. 3.79.
85. V.S. Agrawala, Jy. p. 191.