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Sculpture of the god Kartikeya at Harsh
Sculpture of the god Skanda, from Kannauj, circa 8th century
Coin of the Yaudheyas with depiction of Kartikeya

Kartikeya (कार्तिकेय) was son of Shiva and the brother of Ganesha. He is also known as Skanda. Skanda is believed to give name to the Jat gotra Sheokand and to the region Scandinavia.


  • Agnibhuh (अग्निभुः) meaning son of Agni
  • Arumugam (आरुमुगम)
  • Dandapani (दंडपानी) = "wielder of the mace"
  • Kārttikeya (कार्त्तिकेय) meaning 'son of Krittika'
  • Kumāra (कुमार)
  • Mahasena (महासेन) Baudhayana Dharmasutra mentions Skanda as 'Mahasena' and 'Subrahmanya.'
  • Murugan (मुरूगन)
  • Shanmukha (षण्मुखा) meaning 'one with six faces'
  • Skanda (स्कन्द) meaning 'that which is spilled or oozed, namely seed'
  • Subbarmani (सुब्बरमनी), Tamil word owing to similarity of sound or fictitious Sanskritization.
  • Subrahmanya (सुब्रमण्य), Baudhayana Dharmasutra mentions Skanda as 'Mahasena' and 'Subrahmanya.'
  • Swaminatha (स्वामीनाथ)

Kartikeya is known by many names in ancient and medieval texts. Most common amongst these are Murugan, Kumara, Skanda, and Subrahmanya. Others include Aaiyyan, Cheyyon, Senthil, Vēlaṇ, Swaminatha ("ruler of the gods", from -natha king), śaravaṇabhava ("born amongst the reeds"), Arumugam or ṣaṇmukha ("six-faced"),[1] Dandapani ("wielder of the mace", from -pani hand), Guha (cave, secret) or Guruguha (cave-teacher), Kadhirvelan, Kathiresan, Kandhan, Vishakha, and Mahasena.[2] On ancient coins where the inscription has survived along with his images, his names appear as Kumara, Brahmanya, or Brahmanyadeva.[3] On some ancient Indo-Scythian coins, his names appear in Greek script as Skanda, Kumara, and Vishaka.[4] In ancient statues, he appears as Mahasena, Skanda, and Vishakha.[5]

He is known by many other names, including Kārttikeya (meaning 'son of Krittika' ), Arumugam or Shanmukha (meaning 'one with six faces'), Kumāra (meaning 'child or son'), Skanda (meaning 'that which is spilled or oozed, namely seed' in Sanskrit.[6]

The Atharva Veda describes Kumaran as 'Agnibhuh' or son of Agni, the fire god. The Satapatha Brahmana refers to him as the son of Rudra and the ninth form of Agni. The Taittiriya Aranyaka contains the Gayatri mantra for Shanmukha. The Chandogya Upanishad refers to Skanda as the "way that leads to wisdom". The Baudhayana Dharmasutra mentions Skanda as 'Mahasena' and 'Subrahmanya.' The Aranya Parva canto of the Mahabharata relates the legend of Kartikeya Skanda in considerable detail. The Skanda Purana is devoted to the narrative of Kartikeya.[7]

Mention in Inscriptions

Mention by Panini

Skanda-Vishakhau (स्कन्द-विषाखौ) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [9]

Skanda in the Vedic period

Skanda was known in the Vedic period also. We find references to him in the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Puranas, the Mahabharata and Ramayana, Patanjali's Yogasutras and even some early Buddhist texts. He is believed to be of the nature of fire god Agni. It is interesting to note that with the spread of Brahmanism and later Saivism, Skanda Kumara became very popular in southern India, where several local deities and nature spirits, mostly worshipped by the local tribes and rural people were gradually identified with him and integrated into Saivism under the generic name Kumara or Kartikeya.[10]

Skanda in the Legends and the Puranas

According to the legend he was born to Siva and Paravathi to destroy the demon Tarakasura. Before he was born, Parvati performed severe austerities so that he would have extraordinary skills and strength. He was born in a forest of (grass that grew like) arrows (sara vana) and there by earned the epithet of Saravanabhava. He was reared by six divine mothers from the constellation of Krittika, which earned him the name of Kartikeya. With six faces he suckled the milk of his six foster mothers and thereby earned the name Shanmukha. When he grew up, he became the commander-in-chief of the divine army which earned him the name of Deva Senapathi. His chief exploits include slaying of Tarakasura, Banasura and Pralambasura, protecting the yagna of Narada, tunneling through the mountain Krauncha, and a debate with Brahma in which he showed his true wisdom. He is considered to be eternal. Hence the name Kumara.

In his iconography he is depicted with one head and two arms or six heads and twelve arms. The six heads symbolically represent the five senses and the mind, the six tattvas and the six chakras. Originally a bachelor god, with the rise of Tantricism he became associated with two principal Shaktis, Valli and Devasena. The former came from a humble background while the latter is the daughter of Indra. His weapon is a lance with which he destroyed the demon Tarakasura.

The Skanda Purana and the Kumara Khanda from the Rudra Samhita of Siva Purana contain details of the birth and legends of Kartikeya. According to the latter, Kartikeya was born under strange circumstances. Agni swallowed the energy of Siva as per the wishes of gods, but much to the annoyance of Parvathi. Unable to bear the intensity of the energy Agni secretly impregnated the six wives of Rishis with it through the pores in their skin. After bearing the energy of Siva they were unable to carry it further. So they dropped it on the Himalayas. Himavant the mountain god was also unable to bear the energy. So he dropped it in the river Ganges. The goddess Ganges also could not bear the intensity of the energy. She managed to carry it for some distance and then left it in the middle of reeds where it eventually materialized into a beautiful baby named Kumara.

According to this legend, the energy of Siva passed through six carriers and six places before becoming Kumara. Hence he is associated with number six and worshipped for six days in the lunar month. After his birth, he was picked by his six mothers who reared him for some time before he was summoned by Lord Siva to undertake an expedition against the demon Tarakasura. All the gods and goddesses equipped him with various weapons and gifts and also accompanied him to the battle field where he slew the demon and saved the worlds from anarchy. After this his fame grew as a god of wisdom and might, protector of the weak and restorer of dharma. The Kumara Khanda also informs that besides Tarakasura, he slew other demons like Tarakasura, Banasura and Pralambasura and helped gods in restoring peace and divine order.

Kartikeya in Mahabharata

The first elaborate account of Karthikeya's origin occurs in the Mahabharata. In a complicated story, he is said to have been born from Agni and Svaha, after the latter impersonated the six of the seven wives of the Saptarishi (Seven Sages). The actual wives then become the Pleiades. Karthikeya is said to have been born to destroy the Asura Mahisha.[5] (In later mythology, Mahisha became the adversary of Durga.) Indra attacks Karthikeya as he sees the latter as a threat, until Shiva intervenes and makes Karthikeya the commander-in-chief of the army of the Devas. He is also married to Devasena, Indra's daughter. The origin of this marriage lies probably in the punning of 'Deva-sena-pati'.It can mean either lord of Devasena or Lord of the army(sena) of Devas.

He has been mentioned in Mahabharata at various places. Here it is worth mentioning about his Ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo in Shalya Parva of Mahabharata.

Ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo

Mahabharata Shalya Parva section 45 describes about all the gods and combatants who came to the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo.

Vaishampayana said, "Collecting all articles as laid down in the scriptures for the ceremony of investiture, Brihaspati duly poured libations on the blazing fire. Himavat gave a seat which was adorned with many costly gems. Kartikeya was made to sit on that auspicious and best of seats decked with excellent gems. The gods brought thither all kinds of auspicious articles, with due rites and mantras, that were necessary for a ceremony of the kind.

On this occasion out of the diverse gods those with probable Jat clan connections are Dhatri,Gandharvas,Yakshas, Kashyapa, Atri, Hara, Sinivali, Airavat, Vasuki, Garuda, Kala, Mani, Kunda, Kusuma, Kumuda, Damvara, Bala, Ghasa, Kanchana, Meghamalin, Sankukarna etc.

Mahabharata Shalya Parva section 45 further says, "Listen now to the names of those other combatants armed with diverse weapons and clad in diverse kinds of robes and ornaments, that Skanda procured: They were Sankukarna, Nilkumbha, Padmai, Kumud, Ananta, Dwadasabhuja, Krishna, Upakrishnaka, Ghranasravas, Kapiskandha, Kanchanaksha, Jalandhama, Akshasantarjana, Kunadika, Tamobhrakrit, Ekaksha, Dwadasaksha, Eka Jata, Sahasravahu, Vikata, Vyaghraksha, Kshitikampana, Punyanaman, Sunaman, Suvaktra, Priyadarsana, Parisruta, Kokonada, Priyamalyanulepana, Ajodara, Gajasiras, Skandhaksha, Satalochana, Jwalajibha, Karala, Sitakesa, Jati, Hari, Krishnakesa, Jatadhara, Chaturdanshtra, Ashtajihva, Meghananda, Prithusravas, Vidyutaksha, Dhanurvaktra, Jathara, Marutasana, Udaraksha, Rathaksha, Vajranabha, Vasurprabha, Samudravega, Sailakampin, Vrisha, Meshapravaha, Nanda, Upadanka, Dhumra, Sweta, Kalinga, Siddhartha, Varada, Priyaka, Nanda, Gonanda, Ananda, Pramoda, Swastika, Dhruvaka, Kshemavaha, Subala, Siddhapatra, Govraja, Kanakapida, Gayana, Hasana, Vana, Khadga, Vaitali, Atitali, Kathaka, Vatika, Hansaja, Pakshadigdhanga, Samudronmadana, Ranotkata, Prashasa, Swetasiddha, Nandaka, Kalakantha, Prabhasa, Kumbhandaka, Kalakaksha, Sita, Bhutalonmathana, Yajnavaha, Pravaha, Devajali, Somapa, Majjala, Kratha, Tuhara, Chitradeva, Madhura, Suprasada, Kiritin, Vatsala, Madhuvarna, Kalasodara, Dharmada, Manma, Thakara, Suchivaktra, Swetavaktra, Suvaktra, Charuvaktra, Pandura, Dandavahu, Suvahu, Rajas, Kokilaka, Achala, Kanakaksha, Valakarakshaka, Sancharaka, Kokanada, Gridhrapatra, Jamvuka, Lohajvaktra, Javana, Kumbhavaktra, Kumbhaka, Mundagriva, Krishnaujas, Hansavaktra, Candrabha, Panikurchas, Samvuka, Panchavaktra, Sikshaka, Chasavaktra, Jamvuka, Kharvaktra, and Kunchaka.


Historically he is a god of great antiquity. Some of the coins of Kushanas bear the name and image of Skanda-Kumaro-Bizogo (Skanda Kumara Vishakha) and Shiva. They also bear the title of Devaputra, probably as a divine origin of the king and his identification with Skanda.The Yaudheyas who played an important role in decline of Kushanas worshipped Skanda and issued coins bearing image of Skanda and Mayura. The Guptas were also worshippers of Skanda and Shiva as evidenced from the fact that one of the Gupta ru;ers was named Skanda Gupta (455 - 467 AD) and another Kumara Gupta (414 - 455 AD). [11] The Kushanas, who governed from what is today Peshawar, and the Yaudheyas, a Jat republican clan in the Punjab, stuck coins bearing the image of Skanda. The deity was venerated also by the Iskhvakus, and the Guptas. [12]

Historically, Kartikeya enjoyed immense popularity in the Indian subcontinent. One of the major Puranas, the Skanda Purana is dedicated to him. In the Bhagavad-Gita (Ch.10, Verse 24), Krishna, while explaining his omnipresence, names the most perfect being, mortal or divine, in each of several categories. While doing so, he says: "Among generals, I am Skanda, the lord of war."

Kartikeya's presence in the religious and cultural sphere can be seen at least from the Gupta age. Two of the Gupta kings, Kumaragupta and Skandagupta, were named after him. He is seen in the Gupta sculptures and in the temples of Ellora and Elephanta. As the commander of the divine armies, he became the patron of the ruling classes. His youth, beauty and bravery was much celebrated in Sanskrit works like the Kathasaritsagara. Kalidasa made the birth of Kumara the subject of a lyrical epic, the Kumaarasambhavam.

In ancient India, Kartikeya was also regarded as the patron deity of thieves, as may be inferred from the Mrichchakatikam, a Sanskrit play by Shudraka, and in the Vetala-panchvimshati, a medieval collection of tales. This association is linked to the fact that Kartikeya had dug through the Krauncha mountain to kill the demon Taraka and his brothers (in the Mrichchakatikam, Sarivilaka prays to him before tunnelling into the hero's house).

However, Kartikeya's popularity in north India receded from the Middle Ages onwards, and his worship is today virtually unknown. Reminders of former devotions to him include a temple at Achaleshwar, near Batala in Punjab, and another temple of Skanda atop the Parvati hill in Pune, Maharashtra. Another vestige of his former popularity can be seen in Bengal, where he is worshipped during the Durga Puja festivities alongside Durga.

According to Fred Clothey, the evidence suggests that Kartikeya mythology had become widespread sometime around 200 BCE or after in north India.[13] The first clear evidence of Kartikeya's importance emerges in the Hindu Epics such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata where his story is recited. In addition to textual evidence, his importance is affirmed by the archeological, the epigraphical and the numismatic evidence of this period. For example, he is found in numismatic evidence linked to the Yaudheyas, a confederation of warriors in north India who are mentioned by ancient Pāṇini.[14] They ruled an area consisting of modern era Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh (extending into Garhwal region, Uttarakhand). They struck coins bearing the image of Skanda, and these coins are dated to be from before Kushan Empire era started. During the Kushan dynasty era, that included much of northwest Indian subcontinent, more coins featuring Kartikeya were minted.[15] He is also found on ancient Indo-Scythian coins, where his various names are minted in Greek script.[16] Coins of the Yaudheyas feature Kartikeya, and these are dated to 1st century CE Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.[17]

Kartikeya was revered in major cultural centers of ancient India. For example, he was a major god for the Ikshvakus, an Andhra dynasty, as well as for the Gupta Empire.[18] In south India, eight of the early Pallava dynasty rulers (300-550 CE) were named after Skanda or Kumara, suggesting the significance of Kartikeya by then.[19] Kalidasa's epic poem the Kumārasambhava features Kartikeya.

Nagavanshi History

Dr Naval Viyogi[20] writes....Ancient Naga[21] culture has very deep roots in the cultural and religious life of the people of Maharashtra, which can be seen even today, from the intensive stud of their traditional gods and goddesses. The original symbol of Mātangi. is Valmiki (whiteant-hill): Renuka, Enammna and Mātangi are worshipped in the form of Valmiki at different places in south. Santeri is worshipped in the form Bambi or serpent dwelling. This Valmiki is Yoni or vulva of earth and the serpent, who lives in, is representative of manhood or Linga. The meaning of the word Renuka, in origin, is earth (Renu+ka = like Renu) that is why she is called "of Kori Bhumi" or "Kumari Bhumi". Santeri is also known by the synonymous name of "Bhumi-ka" in Gomantaka. Similarly local gods like Marugan, Subrahmani, Khandova, Jyotiva, Khalnath and Bheron, which are worshipped in the form of Valmiki, are considered to be Kshetra-pati or Kshetra-pala (protector or keeper) Nagas.

Subrahmanya still to-day is worshiped by the name and form of Valmiki. Particularly, Manmelār (Manumilar = Melar of earth) in Bellari and Adimelar in Jejuri, situated at the bank of river Kanha, are also Valmiki-Naga. Why does the sculpture of Santeri of Gomantaka, have a serpent in its hand? or why does the worshipper of Matangi are a Nag-garland (Nagkanth) in her hand? It can be understood from its protectorship form of Naga.[22]

Valmiki is worshipped as an important deity in the temple of Adi-Subrahmanya. Similarly an image of Naga or serpent was also worshipped along with the Valmiki. There is one image of Kartikeya on upper portion of altar, another of serpent king Basuki in centre and third one Sesha Naga below the above in the temple of Subrahmanya.[23] It means Bambi or dwelling of snake and snakes are important objects of worship in this temple. These objects are worshipped here, in the form of Subrahmanya, and it is considered to be another name for Kartikeya.

But Subrahmanya is worshipped in the form of serpent. The word Subrahmanya has come into existence from Skand-Nag and Subbarmani Tamil word owing to similarity of sound or fictitious Sanskritization. The original meaning of this word is Nag-mani or Nagraj or Nagashreshthi (superior[24] Nag). In South India this name is meant for Skanda and its meaning is serpent and if at any place , any deity is in worshipped by this name, that is also serpent.

At many places, in the south, where Subrahmanya is worshipped as serpent, along with Valmiki, is recognized as skand-kartikeya. It is also originally a serpent deity. Hence, Subrahmanya does mean a serpent.

[p.30]: Therefore in South Gurgan, another form of Subrahmanya and a well known serpent protector deity, is also considered to be a serpent by the local people. Murug Subrahmanya, a serpent protector, invites special attention among all the deities.[25]

Jyotiva of Maharashtra and Khalnath of Konkan Gomantak, both are recognize as serpent protector god. There is mutual intercourse between the protector deities and the serpents. The reason of this secret is that serpent is protector as well as lord of lands. Valmiki is a form of vulva of earth and serpent is a form of man-hood or Linga. It is being worshipped particularly in the form of giver of issue.[26]

The Bherava form of Jageshwari and protector of Mhāskovā are famous in Maharashtra likewise Jyotiva of Thamai and Khalnath of Santeri, Mhāskovā is particularly a deity of Dhangars. It appears to devotees in the form of serpent with five hoods and take shelter in Valmiki. It seems that there is similarity in between Jyotiva of Mhaskova, Khalnath, Murug Subrahmanya etc famous protector deities.[27]

It is clear that Jyotiva serpent deity is recognized and worshipped in the form of protector. This serpent is also Kshetra-pati or lord of land. Valmiki is a form of vulva of earth and serpent is a form of manhood or Linga. It is particularly worshipped in the form of deity of issue giver.

Most of the protector deities of south are maintaining their form as serpent. Their most favourite and influencing protector deity, Murug, appears to his devotee in the form of serpent. Kartikeya who is identified with Subrahmanya is worshipped in the form of Valmiki and serpent both and he represents serpent King.

In Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[28] tells....Burning of the four queens of King Sussala: Four queens took this opportunity of the enemy's weakness and set out to follow the late king to the next world. Fearing interruption, however, from an attack of the enemy, and deterred also by the exhaustion

[p.124] of their servants, they could not go to the distant Pitrikānana, but were quickly consumed near the temple of Skanda, not far from the palace. Queens Devalekha born at Champa and her mother-in-law Taralalekha, Rupollekha, and the accomplished Jajvalā born at Vallapura, and Rajalakshml daughter of Garga; — all perished in the fire. The Damaras believed that the snow fell on account of the accession of the new king to the the throne, and therefore named him Himarāja.[VIII(i),p.123-124]

Jat History

We find in the above list that not only Jat but number of Jat clans are there. We try to interpret some of the shlokas in this chapter with sanskrit language quotations with the help of what Jat historians have mentioned.

According to Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[29], It may not be out of place to mention here, as confirmed by N.S. Chaudhary[30] on the authority of Shiva-Stotra, one of the generals of Kartikeya (Skanda) carried name "Jata (जट)". It is well known fact that in the Deva-Asura war Kartikeya (Skanda) commanded the forces of the former, and it is quite plausible to believe that the warriors (later known to Panini as Ayuddhajivi ganas), led by general called Jata, became famous as Jat in history. We have also reason to believe that Panini, when used the phrase 'Jata jhata sanghate' (denoting union or federation or confederation or binding together, etc.), took his clue from the Jata general's role in fomenting unity in the warriors against Asuras. Jata general is also believed to give name Jutland.

....Akshasantarjana, Kunadika, Tamobhrakrit, Ekaksha, Dwadasaksha, Eka Jata ... Beholding the installation of Kartikeya, These and many other mighty companions, O king, came to the high-souled and illustrious Kartikeya". [31]This has been illustrated in following shlokas in the online edition of Mahabharata in Sanskrit alongwith Devanagari as under:

अक्षसंतर्जनॊ राजन कुनदीकस तमॊ ऽभरकृत akṣasaṃtarjano rājan kunadīkas tamo 'bhrakṛt [32]
एकाक्षॊ द्वादशाक्षश च तदैवैक जटः परभुः ekākṣo dvādaśākṣaś ca tathaivaika jaṭaḥ prabhuḥ [33]

The Jat historian Dharmpal Singh Dudee, has explained the above mahabharata legend, in which Brahma nominated Swami Kartikeya as senapati of all the beings and performs his coronation on this position. On the occasion of coronation, Swami Kartikeya received various offerings from manifold people. One of these was a chief of all the senapatis (generals) named Jat. [34] This shloka reads in Sanskrit as under:

अक्षः सन्तर्जनो राजन् कुन्दीकश्च तमोन्नकृत।
एकाक्षो द्वादशक्षश्च तथैवैक जटः प्रभु ।।

Translation- O Rajan! Akshaḥ santarjana, kundīka, tamonnakrata, ekāksha, dwādashāksha and a 'Jat' the chief lord offered to Swami Kartikeya.

Antiquity of Jat

Thus appearance of Jat name as such in Mahabharata and other Jat clans along with Brahma shows that name of Jat is as antique as Brahma.[35] Not only Jat word existed at that time but also the other Jat clans from which various Jat clans further originated.

Skanda Purana

See main article Skanda Purana

Skanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is the largest Purana, and is devoted mainly to the life and deed of Kartikeya (also called Skanda), a son of Shiva and Parvati. It also contains a number of legends about Shiva, and the holy places associated with him. The Puranas was recited by Skanda, and is available in distinct parts, sometimes fragmented too. It also describes the Shaiva tradition in Hemakuta region (near Vijayanagar) of Karnataka, Kashi part describes the Shaiva tradition of Varanasi, and the Utkal part states about Shaiva tradition of Orissa.

जाटों का विदेशों में जाना

ठाकुर देशराज[36] ने लिखा है .... उत्तरोत्तर संख्या वृद्धि के साथ ही वंश (कुल) वृद्धि भी होती गई और प्राचीन जातियां मे से एक-एक के सैंकड़ों वंश हो गए। साम्राज्य की लपेट से बचने के लिए कृष्ण ने इनके सामने भी यही प्रस्ताव रखा कि कुल राज्यों की बजाए ज्ञाति राज्य कायम का डालो। ....द्वारिका के जाट-राष्ट्र पर हम दो विपत्तियों का आक्रमण एक साथ देख कर प्रभास क्षेत्र में यादवों का आपसी महायुद्ध और द्वारिका का जल में डूब जाना। अतः स्वभावतः शेष बचे जाटों को दूसरी जगह तलाश करने के लिए बढ़ना पड़ा। .... बाना लोगों ने ईरान के देश में जाकर बस्ती आबाद की जहां उनके नाम पर ही उस नदी का नाम मशहूर हो गया जिसके कि किनारे वे जाकर बसे थे। भारत में बाणगंगा के किनारे से उठकर गए थे जहां पर कि आजकल बयाना आबाद है। उषा इन्हीं लोगों की पुत्री थी। कृष्ण से लड़ने के कारण भक्त लोगों ने बान लोगों के सरदार को बाणासुर कहा है किंतु बात ऐसी नहीं है। कंस, बान, दंतवक्र यह सब चंद्रवंशी थे असुर नहीं थे। कुछ लोग मानते हैं कि स्कैंडेनेविया को बान के लड़के स्कंद ने आबाद किया था।

Jatland Links


  1. Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam (ed.). India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 80.
  2. Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 1, 22–25, 35–39, 49–58, 214–216.
  3. Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 104-106 with footnotes.
  4. Thomas, Edward (1877). Jainism: Or, The Early Faith of Aṣoka. Trübner & Company. pp. 60, 62 (see e.g. coin 11).
  5. Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 123–124.
  6. Clothey p.49 Skanda is derived from the verb skanḍr meaning "to attack, leap, rise, fall, be spilled, ooze"
  7. Ratna Navaratnam ; Karttikeya, the divine child:the Hindu testament of wisdom published in 1973 by the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
  8. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p.595-596
  9. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.363
  10. http://www.saivism.net/pantheon/skanda.asp
  11. http://www.saivism.net/pantheon/skanda.asp
  12. Ratna Navaratnam ; Karttikeya, the divine child:the Hindu testament of wisdom published in 1973 by the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
  13. Fred W. Clothey 1978, pp. 45–46.
  14. Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 101-105 with footnotes.
  15. Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 101-105 with footnotes.
  16. Thomas, Edward (1877). Jainism: Or, The Early Faith of Aṣoka. Trübner & Company. pp. 60, 62 (see e.g. coin 11). [note 4]
  17. Richard D. Mann 2011, pp. 101–103.
  18. Ratna Navaratnam; Karttikeya, the divine child:the Hindu testament of wisdom, 1973, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
  19. Fred W. Clothey 1978, p. 22.
  20. Nagas, The Ancient Rulers of India, Their Origins and History, 2002, pp. 29-30
  21. Dr. Dhere R. C. "Lajjagauri" P-65 cited by Kosare H. L. P-215
  22. Dr. Dhere R. C. "Lajjagauri" P-65 cited by Kosare HL. PP-215-216
  23. Kalyan Tirthak year 31 no 3 January 1957 P-324 Mentioned by H. L. Kosare P-216
  24. N. V. Mandlik, "Writing and speeches of late Vishvanath Narayan Mandlik," Bombay 1896 P-245 Mentioned by H. L. Kosare P-216
  25. Mandlik N. V. PP 159-61 Mentioned by H L Kosare P- 216
  26. Mandlik N. V. P-162 Mentioned by Kosare H L P-217
  27. Mandlik N. V. PP-188-89 Mentioned by Kosare P-218
  28. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i)]],p.123-124
  29. Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria):The Jats - Their Origin, Antiquity & Migrations, Rohtak, 1993, p. 342 ISBN 81-85235-22-8
  30. Niranjan Singh Chaudhary, Jat Prasanottari (Hindi), Jat Hitkari Prakashan, Vrindavan, New Delhi, p. 14
  31. Mahabharata Shalya Parva section 45
  32. Mahabharata in Sanskrit Ch-44/53
  33. Mahabharata in Sanskrit Ch-44/54
  34. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998 , Page 2
  35. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998 , Page 2
  36. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Utpatti Aur Gaurav Khand)/Navam Parichhed,pp.147-150

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