Samudragupta

From Jatland Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Samudragupta (समुद्रगुप्त) (335 - 380 AD) was ruler of Gupta Empire and successor of Chandragupta. Chandragupta died in 335 and was succeeded by his son Samudragupta, a tireless conqueror.

Conquests of Samudragupta

Samudragupta took the kingdoms of Ahichchhatra and Padmavati early in his reign. He then took the Kingdom of Kota and attacked the tribes in Malavas, the Yaudheyas, the Arjunayanas, the Madras and the Abhiras. By his death in 380, he had incorporated over twenty kingdoms into his realm, his rule extended from the Himalayas to the river Narmada and from the Brahmaputra to the Yamuna. He gave himself the titles King of Kings and World Monarch. He performed Ashwamedha yajna (horse sacrifice) to underline the importance of his conquest. Samudragupta is considered to be one of the greatest military geniuses that India ever produced, thus also known as the 'Napoleon of India'. His name is taken to be a title acquired by his conquests (Samudra referring to the `oceans'). Samudragupta is believed to have been his father's chosen successor even though he had several older brothers. It is therefore believed that after the death of Chandragupta I, there was a struggle for succession in which Samudragupta prevailed.

Samduragupta was not only a warrior but also a great patron of art and literature. The important scholars present in his court were Harishena, Vasubandhu and Asanga. He was a poet and musician himself. He was a firm believer in Hinduism and is known to have worshipped Lord Vishnu. He was considerate of other religions and allowed Sri Lanka's Buddhist king to build a monastery at Bodh Gaya.

He was succeeded by his son Ramagupta, who was captured by the Saka Satraps (Kshatrapas) and was soon succeeded by his brother Chandragupta II.

The main source of Samudragupta's history is an inscription engraved on one of the stone pillars set up by Ashoka in Kausambi (present day Allahabad). In this inscription Samudragupta details his conquests. This inscription is also important because of the political geography of India that it indicates by naming the different kings and peoples who populated India in the first half of the fourth century AD The inscription or more aptly the eulogy to the Great Gupta's martial exploits states that its author is Harishena, who was an important poet of Samudragupta's court.

The beginning of Samudragupta's reign was marked by the defeat of his immediate neighbours, Achyuta, ruler of Ahichchhatra and Nagasena. Following this Samudragupta began a campaign against the kingdoms to the south. This southern campaign took him south along the Bay of Bengal. He passed through the forest tracts of Madhya Pradesh, crossed the Orissa coast, marched through Ganjam, Vishakapatnam, Godavari, Krishna and Nellore districts and may have reached as far as Kancheepuram. Here however he did not attempt to maintain direct control. After capturing his enemies he reinstated them as tributary kings. This act prevented the Gupta Empire from attaining the almost immediate demise of the Maurya empire of Ashoka and is a testament to his abilities as a statesman. The details of Samudragupta's campaigns are too numerous to recount here. These can be found in the first reference below. However it is clear that he possessed a powerful navy in addition to his army. In addition to tributary kingdoms, many other rulers of foreign states like the Saka and Kushana kings accepted the suzerainty of Samudragupta and offered him their services.

Much is known about Samudragupta through coins issued by him. These were of eight different types and all made of pure gold. His conquests brought him the gold and also the coin-making expertise from his acquaintance with the Kushana. Samudragupta is also known to have been a man of culture. He was a patron of learning, a celebrated poet and a musician. Several coins depict him playing on the Indian lyre or Veena. He also restored the old Hindu practice of the Ashwamedha sacrifice. Though he favoured the Hindu religion like the other Gupta kings, he was reputed to possess a tolerant spirit vis-a-vis other religions. A clear illustration of this is the permission granted by him to the king of Ceylon to build a monastery for Buddhist pilgrims in Bodh Gaya.

Beyond doubt Samudragupta was a great military general, but apart from that, his personal accomplishments are equally remarkable. He showed great magnanimity towards all those kings who were defeated. His polished intelligence and good knowledge of scriptures won him many admirers. He gathered a galaxy of poets and scholars and took effective actions to foster and propagate religious, artistic and literary aspects of Indian culture. He had good proficiency in music and was perhaps an accomplished Veena player. This fact is amply demonstrated in his lyrist type coins. Most king took pride in trumpeting their bravery but Samudragupta is the only king in whole of Indian history who showed softer side of his personality (Kumargupta, his grandson, have copied this type and minted few Lyrist type gold coins, which are exceedingly rare). These coins are very special and rare.

Vincent Smith has elevated Samudragupta in Indian history as the Napoleon of India. His tradition of (Milito) religious toleration reflects in the Allahabad inscription and speaks thus " put to Shama the preceptor of the lord of the gods. Brahaspati by his sharp and polished intellect and Tamburu and Narad by lovely performance." Samudragupta had several sons. His rule is presumed to have been till about 375 AD.

Samudragupta probably died in AD 380, and was succeeded by his sons Ramagupta and Chandragupta.


Ram Sarup Joon[1] writes that ....Samudra Gupta conquered the whole of Punjab and a major part of India. The clans defeated by him included

Samudra Gupta also subjugated the powerful Shaka and Kushana dynasties. In keeping with ancient traditions he performed Asvamedh Yagya (Horse sacrifice ceremony). He was not only an eminent soldier but also a poet and musician of omen calibre. Inspite of being a Jat he has not been maligned by Brahmin historians of Rajput era. He died in 365 A.D. [? The date of his death is accepted by all historians as 375 A.D.]

Nalanda Copper-plate Inscription of Samudragupta Year 5

Ref - Epigraphia Indica XXV, p.50, Select Inscriptions by D. C. Sircar, p. 227

Gaya Copper-plate Inscription of Samudragupta Year 9

Ref- Corpus Inscripionum Indicarum, Vol. III by John Faithful Fleet p.254

Eran Stone Inscription of Samudragupta

  • (Lines 1 to 6, containing the whole of the first verse and the first half of the second, are entirely broken away and lost.)
  • (Line 7.)— ....................................in giving gold ...................................... [by whom] Prithu and Râghava and other kings [were outshone.]
  • (L. 9.)— . . . . . . . . . there was Samudragupta, equal to (the gods) Dhanada and Antaka in (respectively) pleasure and anger; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by policy; (and) [by whom] the whole tribe of kings upon the earth was [overthrown] and reduced to the loss of the wealth of their sovereignty;—
  • (L. 13.)— [Who], by . . . . . . . . . satisfied by devotion and policy and valour,—by the glories, consisting of the consecration by besprinkling, &c., that belong to the title of 'king,'— (and) by . . . . . . . . . . . combined with supreme satisfaction, — .................. (was) a king whose vigour could not be resisted;—
  • (L. 17.)— [By whom] there was married a virtuous and faithful wife, whose dower was provided by (his) manliness and prowess; who was possessed of an abundance of [elephants] and horses and money and grain; who delighted in the houses of .............; (and) who went about in the company of many sons and sons' sons;—
  • (L. 21.)— Whose deeds in battle (are) kindled with prowess; (whose) . . . . . . very mighty fame is always circling round about; and whose enemies are terrified, when they think, even in the intervals of dreaming, of (his). . . . . . . that are vigorous in war; —
  • (L. 25.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in a place in Airikina, the city of his own enjoyment. . . . . . . . . . . . . has been set up, for the sake of augmenting his own fame.
  • (L. 27.) — . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . when the king said . . . . . . .
(The rest of the inscription is entirely broken away and lost.)

Source: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 20-21.

Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta

Allahabad stone pillar inscription of Samudragupta

Ashoka Pillar: The 10.6 metre high, polished sandstone shaft dates from 232 BC and was found lying on the ground in the fort in 1837 and set up at its present location. Inscribed on the column are Ashoka's edicts and a later inscription eulogising the victories of Samudragupta (335-375 AD). This is the first record of the events in this Gupta ruler's life.

A detailed record of the reign of Samudragupta is preserved in the shape of an inscription--a prasasti, or panegyric, composed by the poet Harisena and engraved on the same pillar on which Emperor Asoka, centuries before, had had an edict carved. The two inscriptions make a contrasting reading: Asoka's, written in simple Pali, speaks of peace and righteousness; Samudragupta's, written in elegant and classical Sanskrit, glorifies war.

But for the Allahabad prasasti of Samudragupta, we would not have known the political conditions prevalent at that time. This inscription gives an exhaustive account of political career of Samudragupta and the kingdoms conquered by him. Inscriptions also give glimpses regarding the social conditions of the ages to which they belong.

Text of Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta in English

Sanskrit Text
समुद्रगुप्त का प्रयाग स्तम्भ अभिलेख

स्थान: इलाहाबद (यह मूलत: कौशाम्बी में था जहां से लाकर इलाहाबद किले में स्थापित किया गया)

भाषा: संस्कृत, लिपी: ब्राह्मी, काल: समुद्रगुप्त (३३५-७६ ई.)

विषय:समुद्रगुप्त का जीवन चरित तथा उपलब्धियों का विवरण

मूल पाठ

१. यह:....कुल्यै: (?)....स्वै....ातस....

२. [यस्य ?] ....(॥) [१]

३. ---मुं (?) व....

४. [स्फ़ु]रद्वं (?) ....क्ष:स्फ़ुटोद्ध [ ]सित....प्रवितत....(॥) [२]

५. यस्य प्र[ज्ञानु]षङ्कोचित-सुख-मनस: शास्त्र-त[त्व]ार्त्थ-भर्त्तु:

---स्तब्धो---नि*****---नौच्छृ--- (।)

६. [स]त्काव्य-श्री-विरोधाबन्धु-गुणित-गुणाज्ञाहतानेव कृत्वा

[वि]द्वल्लोके(S)वि[ना][शि(] स्फ़ुटबहु-कविता-कीर्ति-राज्यं भुनक्ति (॥) [३]

७. [आ][र्य्यो]]हीत्युपगुह्य भाव-पिशुनैरुत्कीर्णीण्तै रोमभि:

सभ्येषूच्छृसितेषु तुल्य-कुलज-म्लालाननोद्वीक्षि[त]: (।)

८. [स्ने]ह-व्यालुलितेन बाष्प-गुरुणा तत्वेक्षिणा चक्षुषा

य पित्राभिहितो नि[रीक्ष्य]निखि[लां] [पाह्येव] [मुर्वी]]मिति (॥) [४]

९. [दृ]ष्ट्रवा कर्माण्यनेकान्यमनुज-सदृशान्य[द्भु]तोद्भिन्न-हर्षा

भा[ा]वैरस्वादय [न्त:]*****--- ---[के]चित (।)

१०. वीर्योत्तप्ताश्च केचिच्छरणमुपगता यस्य वृत्ते(S)प्रणामे-

()प्य[र्ति?]-ग्रस्तेषु--- --- --- --- (।) [५]

११. संग्रामेषु स्व-भुज-विजिता नित्यमुच्चापकारा:

श्व:-श्वो मान-प्र --- --- ---- ---- ---- ---- (।)

१२. तोषोतुङ्गै: स्फ़ुट-बहु-रस-स्नेह-फ़ुल्लैर्म्मनोभि:

पश्चात्तापं व --- --- ---- ---- ---- ---- म[?]स्य[ ]द्वसन्त[म?] (।) [६]

१३. उद्वेलोदित-बाहु-वीर्य्य-रभसादेकेन येन क्षणा-

दुन्मूल्याचुत-नागसेन-ग1 --- --- ---- ---- ---- (---)

१४ दण्डैर्गाहयतैव कोतकुलजं पुष्पाह्वये क्रीडता2

सूर्य्ये (?) नित्य (?) --- --- तट --- --- --- (॥) [७]

१५. धर्म्म-प्राचीर-बन्ध: शशि-कर-शुचय: कीर्तय: स-प्रताना

वैदुष्यं तत्त्व-भेदि प्रशम् ---- ---- ---, कु---यमु(सु?) --- तार्त्थम् (?) (।)

१६. [अद्धयेय:]सूक्त्तमार्ग्ग: कवि-मति-विभवोतसारणं चापि काव्यं

को नु स्याद्यो (अ)स्य न स्यादगुण-मति-[वि]दुषां ध्यानपात्रं य एक: (॥) [८]

१७. तस्य विविध-समर शतावतरण-दक्षस्य स्वभुज-बल-पराक्क्रमैकबन्धो: पराक्क्रामांकस्य परशु

शर-शंक-शक्ति-प्रासासि-तोमर-

१८. भिन्दिपाल-न[ा]राच-वैतस्तिकाद्यनेक-प्रहरण-विरुढाकुल-व्रण-शतांक-शोभा-समुदयो-पचित-

कान्ततर-वर्ष्मण:

१९. कोसलमहेन्द्र-माह[ा]कान्तारकव्याघ्रराज-कौरालकमण्टराज-पैष्टपुरक-महेन्द्रगिरि-कौट्टूरक

स्वामिदत्तैरण्डपल्लकदमन-काञ्चेयकविष्णुगोपावसमुक्त्तक-

२०. नीलराज वैङ्गेयकहस्तिवर्म्म-पाल्लकोग्रसेन-दैवराष्ट्रकुबेर-कौस्थलपुरक-धनञ्जय-प्रभृति-

सर्व्वदक्षिणापथराज-ग्रहण-मोक्षानुग्रह-जनित-प्रतापोन्मिश्र-महाभाग्यस्य3

२१. रुद्रदेव-मतिल-नागदत्त-चन्द्रवर्मा-गणपतिनाग-नागसेनाच्युत-नन्दि-बल-वर्म्मा-द्यनेकार्य्यावर्त्त-

राज-प्रसभोद्धरणोद्धृत-प्रभाव-महत:4 परिचारकीकृत-सर्व्वाटविक-राजस्य

२२. समतट-डवाक-कामरूप-नेपाल-कर्त्तृपुरादि-प्रत्यन्त-नृपतिभिर्म्मालवार्जुनायन-यौधेय-माद्रकाभीर-प्रार्जुन-सनकानीक-काक-खरपरिकादिभिश्च5 सर्व्व-कर -दानाज्ञाकरण-प्रणामागमन-

23. परितोषित-प्रचंड-शासनस्य ...... देवपुत्रषाहीषाहनुषाहि-शकमुरुंडै:सैंहलकादिभिश्च

24. सर्व्वद्वीप वासिभिरात्मनिवेदन-कन्योपायन-दान-गुरुत्मदंक स्वविषयभूक्तिशासन (या ) चनाद्यु-पाय-सेवाकृत ....

25.

26.


31. पुनाति भुवन-त्रयं पशुपतेर्ज्जटान्तर्गुह-निरोध-परोमोक्ष-शीघ्रमिव पाण्डु गाङ्ग (पय:)।।....


1. संभवत: यह गणपति का पहला अक्षर है।

2. कोत परिवार अपनी सेना द्वारा बंदी बनाया गया जब वह पाटलिपुत्र में खेल रहा था ।

3. कोशल = दक्षिणी कोशल (रायपुर, संभलपुर, बिलासपुर), माहाकान्तार = जंगली क्षेत्र, व्याघ्रराज = व्याघ्रदेव, कोरालक = कुणाल जल (कोलार ताल ऐलोरा के पास), पैष्टिपुर == पीठापुरम, महेन्द्रगिरि = महेन्द्र पर्वत, कौट्टूर = कोठूर महेन्द्रगिरि के पास, काञ्चेय == काञ्जीवराम, अवमुक्त्त == अभी अज्ञात, वेंगी == आधुनिक वेंगी, पल्लक = पल्लकड, दैवराष्ट्र = देवराठे गाँव खानपुर तालुका, कुस्थलपुर = कुशस्थलयु (द्वारका),

4. रुद्रदेव = रुद्रसेन वाकाटक या रुद्रसेन III (शुंग वंश का पश्चिम भारत का शासक), मतिल == बुलंदशहर का, चन्द्रवर्मा = सुसनिया पर्वत का चन्द्रवर्म, गणपतिनाग, नागसेन = नाग शासक पद्मावती के, अच्युत = बरेकी के नन्दिन को अच्युत के साथ जोड़कर समस अच्युतनन्दिन बना है.

5. समतट = उत्तरी पूर्वी बंगाल आधुनिक बाद-कान्त जिला तियेरा, डवाक = डबोक (नवगांव, आसाम), कामरूप = गौहाटी (आसाम), कर्त्तृपुर = करतारपुर (जालंधर), कटोरिया = गढ़वाल, मालव = राजस्थान का दक्षिणी भाग और मालवा के वासी, आर्जुनायन = मथुरा के पास से प्राप्त मुद्राएँ, यौधेय = जोहियावार वासी, प्रार्जुन = नरसिंहपुर मध्य प्रदेश के वासी, सनकानीक == पूर्वी मालवा, काक = ककनादबोट साँची मध्य प्रदेश, मद्रक = शाकल वासी (आधुनिक स्याल कोट, पाकिस्तान), आभीर = अपनत (उत्तरी कोंकण वासी) परितोषित-प्रचंड-शासनस्य

समुद्रगुप्त का प्रयाग स्तम्भ अभिलेख[2]
Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta


  • (Line 2g.)-This lofty column (is) as it were an arm of the earth, proclaiming the fame,-which, having pervaded the entire surface of the earth with (its) development that was caused by (his) conquest of the whole world, (has departed) hence (and now) experiences the sweet happiness attained by (his) having gone to the abode of (Indra) the lord of the gods,-of the Mahārājādhirāja, the glorious Samudragupta,
  • (L. 1.)-[Who] . . . . . by his own kinsmen . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .;-whose . . . . . . . . . . .;-
  • (L. 3.)-[Who] . . . . twanging (of the bow-string) . . . . . . . . . . burst open and scattered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dishevelled . . . . . . . . . . .;
  • (L. 5.)-Whose happy mind was accustomed to associate with learned people; who was the supporter of the real truth of the scriptures; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . firmly fixed . . . . . . .;-who, having overwhelmed, with the (force of the) commands of the collective merits of (his) learned men, those things which obstruct the beauty of excellent poetry, (still) enjoys,in the world of the wise, the sovereignty of the fame (produced) by much poetry, . . . . . . and of clear meaning;-
  • (L 7.)-Who, being looked at (with envy) by the faces, melancholy (through the rejection of themselves), of others of equal birth, while the attendants of the court breathed forth deep sighs (of happiness), was bidden by (his) father,--who, exclaiming "Verily (he is) worthy," embraced (him) with the hairs of (his) body standing erect (through pleasure) (and thus)indicative of (his) sentiments, and scanned (him) with an eye turning round and round in affection, (and) laden with tears (of joy), (and) perceptive of (his noble) nature,-[to govern of a surety] the whole world;
  • (L. 9.)-Whose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . some people (were accustomed to) taste with affection, displaying exceeding great joy when they beheld (his) many actions that resembled nothing of a mortal nature; (and) whose protection other people, afflicted by (his) prowess, sought, performing obeisance, . . . . . . . . .. . . . .;--.
  • (L. 11.)-[Whose] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . doers of great wrong, always conquered by his arm in battle, . . . . . . tomorrow and to-morrow . . . . . . . . . . . . pride . . . . . .. . . . . . . repentance, with minds filled with contentment (and) expanding with much clearly displayed pleasure and affection, . . . . . . . . . the spring (?);-
  • (L. 13.)-By whom,-having, unassisted, with the force of the prowess of (his) arm that rose up so as to pass all bounds,uprooted Achyuta and Nāgasena . . .;-
  • (L. 14.)-(by whom), causing him who was born in the family of the Kotas to be captured by (his) armies, (and) taking his pleasure at(the city) that had the name of Pushpa, while the sun . . . . . the banks . . . . . .;-
  • (L. 15.)-(Of whom it used to be said),- "The building of the pale of religion; fame as white as the rays of the moon, (and) spreading far and wide; wisdom that pierced the essential nature of things; . . . . . calmness . . . . . . . .; the path of the sacred hymns, that is worthy to be studied; and even poetry, which gives free vent to the power of the mind of poets; (all these are his); (in short) what (virtue) is there that does not belong to him, who alone is a worthy subject of contemplation for those who can recognise merit and intellect ?;"-
  • (L. 17.)-Who was skilful in engaging in a hundred battles of various kinds;-whose only ally was the prowess of the strength of his own arm;-who was noted for prowess;-whose most charming body was covered over with all the beauty of the marks of a hundred confused wounds, caused by the blows of battle-ayes, arrows, spears, pikes, barbed darts, swords, lances, javelinsfor throwing, iron arrows, vaitastikas, and many other (weapons);-
  • (L. 19.)-Whose great good fortune was mixed with, so as to be increased by (his) glory produced by the favour shewn in capturing and then liberating Mahendra of K?sala, Vyāghraraja of Mahākantāra, Mantarāja of Kurūḷa, Mahendra of Pishtapura, Svāmidatta of Kottura on the hill, Damana of Erandapalla,Vishnugopa of Kānchi,Nīlarāja of Avamukta,Hastivarman of Vengā, Ugrasena of Palakka, Kubera of Devarāshtra, Dhananjaya of Kusthalapura, and all the other kings of the region of the south;-
  • (L. 23.)-Whose tranquil fame, pervading the whole world, was generated by establishing (again) many royal families, fallen and deprived of sovereignty;-whose binding together of the (whole) world, by means of the amplitude of the vigour of (his) arm, was effected by the acts of respectful service, such as offering themselves as sacrifices, bringing presents of maidens (giving) Garuda-tokens, (surrendering) the enjoyment of their own territories, soliciting (his) commands, &c., (rendered) by the Daivaputras, Shahis, Shahanushahis, Sakas, and Murundas, and by the people of Simhala and all (other) dwellers in islands;-who had no antagonist (of equal power) in the world;-who, by the overflow of the multitude of (his) various virtues adorned by a hundred good actions, rubbed out the fame of other kings with the soles of (his) feet;-who, being incomprehensible, was the spirit that was the cause of the production of good and the destruction of evil;-who, being full of compassion, had a tender heart that could be won over simply by devotion and obeisance;-who was the giver of many hundreds of thousands of cows;-
  • (L. 26.)-Whose mind busied itself with the support and the initiation, &c., of the miserable, the poor, the helpless, and the afflicted;--who was the glorified personification of kindness to mankind;-who was equal to (the gods) Dhanada and Varuna and Indra and Antaka;-whose officers were always employed in restoring the wealth of the various kings who had been conquered by the strength of his arms;-
  • (L. 27.)-Who put to shame (Kashyapa) the preceptor of (Indra) the lord of the gods, and Tumburu, and Nārada, and others, by (his) sharp and polished intellect and choral skill and musical accomplishments;- who established (his) title of 'king of poets' by various poetical compositions that were fit to be the means of subsistence of learned people;-whose many wonderful and noble deeds are worthy to be praised for a very long time;-
  • (L. 28.)-Who was a mortal only in celebrating the rites of the observances of mankind, (but was otherwise) a god, dwelling on the earth;-who was the son of the son's son of the Mahārāja, the illustrious Gupta;- who was the son's son of the Mahārāja, the illustrious Ghatotkacha;--who vas the son of the Mahārājādhirāja, the glorious Chandragupta (I.), (and)- the daughter's son of Lichchhavi, begotten on the Mahādevī Kumāradevī;-
  • (L. 30.) -(And) chose fame,-ever heaped up higher and higher by the development of (his) liberality and prowess of arm and composure and (study of ) the precepts of the scriptures,- --travelling by many paths, purifies the three worlds, as if it were the pale yellow water of (the river) Gangā, flowing quickly on being liberated from confinement in the thickets of the matted hair (जटा) of (the god) Pashupati.
  • (L. 31.) -And this poetical composition,- (the work) of the Khādyatapākika, the son of the Mahādandanāyaka Dhruvabhūti, the Samdhivigrahika and Kumāramatya, the Mahādandanāyaka Harishena,who is the slave of these same feet of the Bhattāraka, (and) whose mind is expanded by the favour of constantly walking about in (his) presence,-let it be for the welfare and happiness of all existing beings!
  • (L. 33.)-And the accomplishment of the matter has been effected by the Mahādandanāyaka Tilabhaṭṭaka, who meditates on the feet of the Paramabhattāraka.
  • Source - From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 10-17.

Sanskrit text in Roman

Allahabad Stone Pillar Inscr. of Samudragupta (Fl. No. 1; Bh. No.1538)

  • 1. ...... kulyaiх(?)....................svai ................аtasa...........................................
  • 2. [yasya?]......................................... (||*)[1*]
  • 3. . muм (?)va...............................................................................................
  • 4. [sphu]radvaм (?).................kшaх sphuтoddha[м]sita ..............pravitata.......(||*)[2*]
  • 5. yasya pra[jгаnu]шaкg-ochita-sukha-manasaх щаstra-ta[ttv]-аrttha-bharttuх Я Я stabdh-o я Я Я я ni я я я я Я n-occhр Я Я я Я Я (|*)
  • 6. [sa*]tkаvya-щrи-virodhаn-budha-guнita-guн-аjг-аhatаn=eva kрtvа [vi]dval-loke(ё*)vi-[nа][щi*]sphuтa-bahu-kavitа-kиrtti-rаjyaм bhunakti (||*)[3]
  • 7. [А*]ryyo hиty=upaguhya bhаva-piщunair-utkarннitai romabhiх sabhyeшуcchvasiteшu tulya-kulaja-mlаn-аnan-odvиkшi[ta]х (|*)
  • 8. [sne]ha-vyаluлitena bашpa-guruна tattv-ekшiна cakшuша yaх pitrаbhihito ni[rиkшya] nikhi[lам*] [pаhyeva*][murvи]miti (||*)[4*]
  • 9. [dр*]штvа karmанy-anekаny-amanuja-sadрщаny-a[dbhu]t-odbhinna-harша bh[а*]vair-аsvаdaya[ntaх*]я я Я я я Я Я Я Я Я Я я [ke*]cit(|*)
  • 10. vиry-ottaptащ-ca kecich-chharaнam=upagatа yasya vрtte(ё*)praнаme(ё*)py=a[rtti?]-[grasteшu*] Я Я я я я я я я Я Я я Я Я я Я Я (||*)[5*]
  • 11. saмgrаmeшu sva-bhuja-vijitа nityam=ucch-аpakаrах щvaх-щvaх mаna-pra я я я я Я Я я Я Я я Я Я(|*)
  • 12. toш-ottuкgaiх sphuтa-bahu-rasa-sneha-phullair-mmanobhiх paщcаttаpaм va я я я я Я Я я ma[?]sy[а]d=vasanta[m?](||*)[6*]
  • 13. udvel-odita-bаhu-vиryya-rabhasаd=ekena yena kшaнаd-unmуly-аcyuta-nаgasena-ga- я Я Я Я я Я Я я Я (|*)
  • 14. daндair=grаhayat=aivaKota-kula-jaм puшp-аhvaye krидatа sуryye(?)nitya(?) я Я Я taтa я Я Я Я я Я Я Я Я (||*)[7*]
  • 15. Dharmma-prаcиra-bandhaх щaщi-kara-щuchayaх kиrttayaх sa pratаnаvaiduшya tattva-bhedи praщama я я я uku Я pa я mu(su?)Я я tаrttham(?)(|*)
  • 16. [addheyayaх] sуkta-mаrggaх kavi-mati-vibhav-otsаraнam ch=аpi kаvyaм ko nu syаd-yo ё*sya na syаd-guнa-mаti-[vi]duшам dhyаna-pаtraм-ya ekaх (||*)[8*]
  • 17. tasya vividha-samara щat-аvataraнa-dakшasya sva-bhuja-bala-parаkkram-aikabandhoх parаkkram-акkasya paraщu-щara-щaкku-щakti-prаs-asi-tomara
  • 18. bhindipаla-n[а]rаca-vaitаstik-аdy-aneka-prahаraнa-virудh-аkula-vraнa-щat-акka-щobhа-samuday-opacita-kаntatara-varшmaнaх
  • 19. kausalaka-mahendra-mаh[а*]kаntаraka-vyаghrarаja-kaurаlaka-maнтarаja-paiштapuraka-mahendragiri-kauттуraka-svаmidatt-airaндapallaka-damana-kaгceyaka-viшнugop-аvamuktaka-
  • 20. nиlarаja-vaiкgeyaka-hastivarmma-pаlakkak-ograsena-daivarаштraka-kubera-kausthalapuraka-danaгjaya-prabhрti-sarvva-dakшiнаpatha-rаja-grahaнa-mokш-аnugraha-janita-pratаp-onmiщra-mаhаbhаgyasya
  • 21. rudradeva-matila-nаgadatta-candravarmma-ganapatinаga-nаgasenаcyuta-nandi-balavarmm-аdy-anek-аryyаvartta-rаja-prasabh-oddharaн-odvрtta-prabhаva-mahataх paricаrakи kрta-sarvv-атavika-rаjasya
  • 22. samataтa-дavаka-kаmarуpa-nepаla-kartрpur-аdi-pratyanta-nрpatibhir-mmаlav-аrju-nаyana-yaudheya- mаdrak-аbhиra-prаrjуna-sanakаnиka-kаka-kharaparik-аdibhiщ=ca sarvva-kara-dаn-аjга-karaнa-praнаmа-gamana
  • 23. paritoшita-pracaндa-щаsanasya aneka-bhraштa-rаjyotsanna-rаjavaмщa-pratiштhаpan-odbhуta-nikhila-bhu[va]na-[vicaraнa-ща]nta-yaщasaх daivaputra-шаhi-шаhаnuшаhi-щaka-muruндaih saimhaлakаdibhiщca
  • 24. sarvva-dvиpa-vаsibhir-аtmanivedana-kanyopаyanadаna-garutmad-aкka-svaviшaya-bhukti-щаsana-[y]аcan-аdy-upаya-sevа-kрta-bаhu-vиryya-prasara-dharaнi-bandhasya prithivyаm=a-pratirathasya
  • 25. sucarita-щat-аlaкkрt-аneka-guнa-gaн-otsiktibhiщ-caraнa-taлa-pramршт-аnya-narapati-kиrtteх sаddhv-asаdh-уdaya-pralaya-hetu-puruшasy=а-cintyasya bhaktyavanati-mаtra-grаhya-mрdu-hрdayasy=аnukampаvato=(т*)neka-go-щata-sahasra-pradаyina[х]
  • 26. [kрpa]нa-dиn-аnаth-аtura-jan-oddharaнa-santradиkш-аbhyupagata-manasaх samiddhasya vigrahavato lok-аnugrahasya dhanada-varuн-endr-аntaka-samasya sva-bhuja-bala-vijit-аneka-narapati-vibhava-pratyarppaна-nitya-vyаpрt-аyukta-puruшasya
  • 27. niщita-vidagdha-mati-gаndharvva-laлitair-vrидita-tridaщapatiguru-tumburu-nаrad-аder-vvidvaj-jan-opajиvy-аneka-kаvya-kkriyаbhiх pratiштhita-kavirаja-щabdasya sucira-stotavy-аnek-аdbhut-odаra--caritasya
  • 28. loka-samaya-kkriy-аnuvidhаna-mаtra-mаnuшasya loka-dhаmno devasya mahаrаja-щrи-gupta-prapautrasya mahаrаja-щrи-ghaтotkaca-pautrasya mahаrаjаdhirаja-щrи-candragupta-putrasya
  • 29. licchavi-dauhitrasya mahаdevyам kumаradevyам-utpannasya mahаrаjаdhirаja-щrи-samudraguptasya sarvva-pрthivи-vijaya-janit-odaya-vyаpta-nikhil-аvanitalам kirttиm= itas=tridaщapati
  • 30. bhavana-gaman-аvаpta-laлita-sukha-vicaraнаm-аcakшанa iva bhuvo-bаhur-ayam= ucchritaх stambhaх (|*) yasya pradаna-bhujavikkrama-praщama-щаstravаky-odayair= uparyyupari-saгcay-occhritamanekamаrggaм yaщaх(|*)
  • 31. punаti bhuvana-trayaм paщupater=jjaт-аntar-guhа- nirodha-parimokшa-щиghram=iva pандu gакgaм [payaх*](||*)/1* etac=cha kаvyam-eшаm-eva bhaттаrakapаdаnам dаsasya samиpa-parisarppaн-аnugrah-onmиlita-mateх
  • 32. khаdya(kу*)тapаkikasya mahаdaндanаyaka-dhruvabhуti-putrasya sаndhivigrahika-kumаrаmаtya-ma[hаdaндanаya*]ka-hariшeнasya sarvva-bhуta-hita-sukhаyаstu |
  • 33. anuштhitaм ca paramabhaттаraka-pаd-аnudhyаtena mahаdaндanаyaka-tilabhaттakena |

Commentaries and variants.

(From CII III, (Bh.), SI, 262-268. Fleet, CII, III, pp. 6ff.; Bhandarkar`s List No. 1538).

  • L.1 first 4 lines, containing two verses are almost wholly destroyed. Fleet: [yaх] before kulyaiх.
  • L.3 Fleet - pu(?)мv instead muм.
  • L.4 Fleet - sphа(?)ra-dva(?). L.7 CII.III (Bh) - [e*][heva] instead [А*]ryyo.
  • L.9 CII.III (Bh) - [ko] instead [ke].
  • L.13 ga may be supposed to be the first akshara of the name gaнapati (cf. line 21 below). The lacuna then may be conjecturally filled up by gaнapatyаdinnрpаn saкgare (SI).
  • L.24 read pрthivyа- (SI).
  • L.25 Properly sаdhvasаdhу- instead sаddhv-asаdh- (SI).
  • L.26 Read mantra (SI) or sattra. But uddharaнa-mantra is better.(CII,III,Bh.). Fleet: dиkшаdyupa- instead dиkш-аbhyupagata-.
  • L.29 read -utpanna- (SI).

  • No. 1. L. 21 : रुद्रदेव-मतिल-नागदत्त-चन्द्रवर्म्म-गणपतिनाग-नागसेनाच्युत-नन्दि-वर्म्मांद्यनेकाय्यवित्तर्राज-प्रसभोद्धरणोद्धृतप्रभावमहत:....।
  • No. I.L. 22 : समतट-डवाक-कामरूप-नेपाल कृत्तर्पुरादि-प्रत्यन्तनृपतिभि: ....।
  • No. I, LL. 22-23 :मलवार्जुनायन-यौधेय-माद्रकाभीर-प्रार्जुन-सनकानीक-काक-खरपरिकादिभिश्चसर्व्व कर -दानाज्ञाकरण-प्रणामागमन-परितोषित-प्रचंड-शासनस्य ।
  • No. I, LL., 23-24 : देवपुत्रषाहीषाहनुषाहि-शकमुरुंडै:सैंहलकादिभिश्च

सर्व्वद्वीप वासिभिरात्मनिवेदन-कन्योपायन-दान-गुरुत्मदंक स्वविषयभूक्तिशासन (या ) चनाद्यु-पाय-सेवाकृत ...

  • L.L. 30-31, V.9 : प्रदान-भुज-विक्क्रम-प्रशम-शास्त्रवाक्योदयैरुपर्य्युपरि-सञ्चयोच्छ्रित-मनेक-मागर्गं यश: । पुनाति भुवन-त्रयं पशुपतेर्ज्जटान्तर्गुह-निरोध-परोमोक्ष-शीघ्रमिव पाण्डु गाङ्ग (पय:)।।

Bhim Singh Dahiya on tribes in inscription

Bhim Singh Dahiya writes that the Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta mentions the Malavas, Arjunayanas, the Yaudheyas, the Madras, the Madras, the Abhiras, the Prarjuna, the Sankanikas, the Kaks and the Kharaparikas etc. He further explains that the inscription of Dharan Jat emperor, names the other Jat clans.[3][4]

Eran pillar Inscription of Samudragupta

There is another undated Pillar Inscription of the time of Samudragupta got engraved by a feudatory on a rectangular stone pillar found in the ruins of a temple at Eran village of sagar district in madhya Pradesha. Apart from recording the building of a temple there the inscription contains a short euology of samudragupta ina partly damaged form.

See also

  • Eran - For Eran pillar Inscription of Samudragupta

References

  1. History of the Jats/Chapter IV ,p. 58
  2. भारतीय पुरालेखों का अध्ययन: द्वारा शिव स्वरुप सहाय, प. २४६-२४७
  3. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol. III, No.1
  4. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats - The Ancient Rulers, p. 234-235

External links


Back to The Rulers