Maharana Sangram Singh

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[Not to be confused with Rana Sangu or Sangram Singh (1540 AD), a Sangwan Gotra King]

Maharana Sangram Singh (महाराणा संग्राम सिंह) or Rana Sangram Singh (12 April 1484 – 30 January 1528), commonly known as Rana Sanga (राणा सांगा) , was Rana of Mewar during the 16th century. He ruled between 1508 and 1528.

Rana Sanga succeeded his father, Rana Raimal, as king of Mewar in 1508. He fought against the Afghan Lodhi dynasty of Delhi Sultanate, and later, against the Mughals in the Battle of Khanwa, which ended with Mughal victory, and died shortly thereafter on 30 January 1528.

Rana Sanga was married to Rani Karnavati who later committed Jauhar on 8 March 1535 A.D., inside Chittorgarh Fort. This was the second of the three Jauhars performed at Chittor. She was the mother of the next two Ranas, Rana Vikramaditya Singh and Udai Singh II, and grandmother of Maharana Pratap.

Victories over Ibrahim Lodi

After conquering Malwa, Rana Sangram Singh turned his attention towards north eastern Rajasthan, which was then under the control Khilji's ally, Ibrahim Lodi of Delhi. Rana invaded this province after a rebellion in Delhi had diverted Sultan Lodi's attention. Maharana scored several victories, capturing some key strategic assets in the process, including the fort of Ranthambore. In retaliation, Lodi invaded Sanga's home province of Mewar after having put down the rebellion in Delhi.

Sanga counter attacked, invading enemy territory. He fought ethnic Afghans under Lodi at Khatoli (Gwalior) in 1517-18. Although Sanga lost his left arm and was crippled in one leg, he also won and captured land.

Lodi, reportedly stunned by this aggression (the extent of which was unprecedented in the preceding three centuries), once again moved against Sanga’s region in 1518-19 period, but was humbled at Dholpur. Lodi fought Sanga repeatedly, only to be defeated each time, losing much of his land in present-day Rajasthan, while the boundaries of Sanga's military influence came to extend within striking distance of Agra.[1]

Wars between Rana Sanga and Babur

Rana Sanga was recognized within north India as a principal player in the power struggle to rule northern India. His objectives grew in scope – he planned to conquer the much sought after prize of the Muslim rulers of the time, Delhi, and bring the whole of India under his control.

He had crushed Gujarat, conquered Malwa and was now close to Agra. It was at this juncture that he heard that Babur had defeated and slain Ibrahim Lodi and was now master of the Delhi Sultanate.

Rana Sanga decided to wage a war against the Mughal invader. As a first move, he coerced Afghan fugitive princes like Mehmud Lodi, to join him. A number of Muslim Rajputs under Hasan Khan Mewati also assured their support to Rana Sanga. Then Rana ordered Babur to leave India.He sent Raja Shiladitya, also called Sardar Silhadi, as ambassador to Babur to dictate him to leave India. Babur instead lured Silhadi who convinced him to defect from battle at crucial hour, which he did. Its a different matter that Babur executed him in later years. Babur accepted that to rule North India, he may have to engage in a battle with Rana Sanga and hence, had no desire for retreat. It was planned that Silhadi, who held a large contingent of 30,000 men, would join Babur’s camp at critical moment of battle and thus defeat Rana Sanga.

Battle of Khanwa - Silhadi went back to Chittor and told Rana that war is a must. The Rajput forces of Rana Sanga, supplemented by the contingents of Mewati and the Afghan, Mehmud Lodi and Medini Rai of Alwar, met Babur’s army at Khanwa near Fatehpur Sikri on 17 March 1527. The battle, which lasted for not more than 10 hours, was bitterly contested and became an exceedingly brutal affair. At a critical moment of battle, the defection of Silhadi and his contingent caused a split in the Rajput forces. Rana Sanga, while trying to rebuild his front, was wounded and fell unconscious from his horse. Rana's army thought their leader was dead and fled in disorder, thus allowing the Mughals to win the day.

Rana Sanga was whisked away to safety by the Rathore contingent from Marwar and once he became conscious, he learnt of the defeat. But unwilling to admit defeat, he set out once more to rebuild his military and renew war with Babur. He vowed not to set foot in Chittor till Babur was defeated by him. In 1528, he once more set out to fight Babur at Chanderi to help Medini Rai who was attacked by Babur.

Some historians have opined that had there not been the cannons of Babur, then Rana Sanga might have achieved a historic victory. Babur's cannons had put an end to the outdated style of warfare at that time in India. Yet others opine that defeat was not on account of gunpowder power of Babur, but because of treachery by some of Rana's close allies like Sardar Silhadi who deserted at the time of crucial moments of the battle of Khanwa.

खानवा का युद्ध

खानवा राजस्थान में भरतपुर के निकट एक ग्राम है, जो फतेहपुर सीकरी से 10 मील (लगभग 16 कि.मी.) उत्तर-पश्चिम में स्थित है। 'भारतीय इतिहास' में प्रसिद्ध 'खानवा का युद्ध' मेवाड़ के राणा साँगा और बाबर के मध्य इसी स्थान पर शनिवार, 17 मार्च, 1527 ई. को हुआ था। 'खानवा का युद्ध' जो कोई दस घंटे चला, अविस्मरणीय युद्धों में से एक है। यद्यपि राजपूत वीरता से लड़े, किंतु विजयश्री बाबर को हासिल हुई। शायद ही कोई दूसरा ऐसा घमासान युद्ध हुआ हो, जिसका निर्णय अंतिम घड़ी तक तुला में लटका रहा। पानीपत युद्ध का कार्य खानवा के युद्ध ने पूरा किया। बाबर द्वारा राणा साँगा पर विजय प्राप्ति ने बाबर एवं उसके सैनिकों की चिंता समाप्त कर दी और वे अब भारत विजय के सपने को साकार कर सकते थे। खानवा की विजय ने मुग़ल साम्राज्यवाद के बीजारोपण के मार्ग से बहुत बड़ी बाधा हटा दी थी। राजपूतों की हार का एक कारण पवार राजपूतों की सेना का ठीक युद्ध के समय महाराणा को छोड़कर बाबर से जा मिलना था। इस युद्ध के पश्चात् बाबर के क़दम भारत में पूरी तरह से जम गए, जिससे भावी महान् मुग़ल साम्राज्य की नींव पड़ी। खानवा को 'कनवा' नाम से भी जाना जाता है।[2]

Assistance to Rana Sanga by Sarvakhap Panchayat

See thread -

External links