Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Jat Clan in India

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Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)

Book by Bhim Singh Dahiya, IRS

First Edition 1980

Publisher: Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd, AB/9 Safdarjang Enclave, New Delhi-110064

The full text of this chapter has been converted into Wiki format by Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क

7

Jat Clan in India


Identifying the Jat clans

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Here are the names of the existing Jat clans in India. Some of these have ān, as suffix. This is according to Panini's rule.1

"Janapada Shabdāt Kshatriyad-ān;"

It means that the affix 'an' comes in the sense of a descendant after a word which is both the name of a country and a Kshatriya tribe. Similar is the position of 'ai' suffix. The suffix, 'ya' is interchangeable with 'a' ,e.g., Punia/Puniya; Gulia/Guliya; Tevathia/ Tevathiya; Dahia/Dahiya; Sibia/Sibiya and so on. Both the forms are equally correct though the second form is generally used here. Similarly the last 'n' (न) and 'ṇ' (ण) are interchangeable, and the letter 'h' is sometimes superfluous. In the Indian works, the suffix 'ka' is sometimes added. "The final 'ka' is a common Sanskrit suffix to ethnic names given or withheld at random,2. e.g., Madra/Madraka; Licchavi/Licchavika, Khokar/Khokaraka, Maun/Maunaka (Man) and so on. Therefore, for comparison with the Puranic names, this suffix 'ka' should be ignored. It will be really surprising to note that almost all the names have been retained in their original pristine form and glory.

According to Jain tradition of Kalāchārya, there were 95 or 96 chiefs (clan heads?) in the first century B.C.3 Now, there are more than 239 clans. Practically all of them are found mentioned by Ibbetson and others in A Glossary of Tribes and Castes in North West Frontier and the Punjab.4


1. Ashtadhyayi, IV, I, 68.
2. Justin, op. cit., p. 351.
3. JBORS, 1930, Vol. XVI, p. 233/34.
4. Compiled by A.C. Rose, 1970. Rose, or Roj is a Jat clan.


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According to V.S. Agrawal, "even if a Janapada consisted of other castes also, besides the ruling Kshatriya caste, the political sovereignty would still be in the hands of the dominant Kshatriya clan who had founded the Janapada." 5 Therefore, if some Janapada name appears as of Brahmans, etc., it is not actually so as the Janapadas were invariably named after the Kshatriya clans. For example, Attri does not refer to the Brahmans but to the Attri Jats, as they are expressly called "Mlecchas". The Brahman surnames, apart from the old Rishis, are derived from the name of the river or place of state, from which they hail, e.g., Sarasvata from river Sarasvati, Chanakya from village Chanaka, Gaur from the Gaud in north Bengal founded by a king of Sakala (Punjab).6

Every effort has been made to collect all the clan names. Still it is quite possible that a few names may have been omitted. In order to give the most approximate and correct pronunciation, the names are given in English as well as in the Hindi language. These are given in alphabetical order to facilitate easy reference. It is a matter of great pity that, with such an abundance of Jat clan names available in Indian works, our historians failed to grasp the truth. This failure on their part becomes all the more shocking when considered in the light of the fact that the same clan names are being used even now and we hear them almost daily in news and newspapers. To ascribe this state of affairs to ignorance only, is not the whole truth. There is something deep-rooted, something vicious in the intellectual climate of the country which makes our historians baulk at the very name 'Jat'.6a That is why, even after the so-called 'Guptas' have been proved to belong to the Jats of the Dharan clan by Dr. Jayaswal and Dasaratha Sharma, others including Majumdar and Altekar (in Vakataka Gupta Age) have dismissed the fact as not serious history! Perhaps perpetuation of falsehood and misconceptions are necessary ingredients of serious history. Grammarian Chandragomin wrote in sixth century that "the invincible Jats, defeated the Hunas". But S.K. Belvelkar writing in the present century opines that the word 'Jat' should be changed into 'Gupta'. 7 Why so much aversion against


5. Op. cit., p. 425.
6. Tribes and Castes, Vol. I, p. 22, note 3.
6a. For a refreshing change, see "The Classical Age", p. 174.
7. System; of Sanskrit Grammar, p. 58.


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this word? From Bamiyan to Banaras, from Makran to Malwa, from Kashmir to Kutch, Jats are still found but history insists on repeating ad nauseam that the Kshaharat, the Kushanas, the Kidars, the Hunas, were all driven out of sacred India!. And the irony of it is that the people who are supposed to have driven them out the Bharashivas, the Vrika Vishnuvardhana, the Dharan/Guptas, the republican tribes-were themselves Jats.

When in the nineteenth and twentieth century, thanks to the efforts of European scholars, the history of India was taken out from the limbo of lethargy, a search was made for naming a period in India's history as the 'Golden Age'. The Maurs (Mauryas) were out of the question, because they were 'Sudras', and Yuga Purana had declared them as 'utterly irreligious".

(स्वराष्ट्रम् मर्दंते घोरं धर्मंवादी अधार्मिक:)

Therefore the so-called 'Gupta' period was sought to be given this honour of being the 'Golden Age'. But Dr. Jayaswal had come to know that the Guptas were Jat, and therefore, unadulterated praise could not be bestowed on the Guptas ! Hence, a character, named Chanḍsen, a usurper and killer of his adopted father, was found in a drama, to show how bad the Guptas were, and how under the moral pressure of Indian public opinion they became 'good'. Was this pressure, which overnight changed the bad into good, not strong enough to kick them out of their throne?

The time has come when the history of the nation must be corrected and justice done to the brave Jats, "their country's pride". The axiom of 'justice delayed is justice denied' may not be applied to matters historical.

The Mahabharata records that the Kangs (Kankas) and Tushara brought horses as presents to Yudhishthira. It further says that the Chinas (Chhinas), the Hunas, the Sakas, the Odhrans, used so live beyond the hills (of Himalayas):

चीनाहूणाम् शकानोढ्रान पर्वतान्तावासिन :

The Sibis (Sibia Jats) are known to the Greeks as well as the Indians in the Punjab as well as in Chittor (Mewar) from where their coinss are being unearthed. The Visnu Puranna identifies the Mandas, the Tokhars, the Tomars, the Siddhas/Siddhus, the


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Sukandas/Seokandas, the Kokars/Khokhars, etc. etc.8 The Attris, the Hans, the Tomars, the Kundus are mentioned in the Vayu Purana. The Mundas, the Jakhads, and many others are mentioned in the Mahabharata. Sabha Parvan mentions the Kundaman, Paura (Ghora), Hans and Sibi.9 The Panghala, the Khatkals, the Ailavats, the Jatasras, etc., are mentioned by Varahamihira. The Dhanch, the Dhonchak,the Bring, the Lohars, the Kular the Gondals, the Tukhars, etc. are reflected in Kalhana's Rajatarangini. The Sundha Hill (Jodhpur) inscription of Chechigadeva mentions the Salyas (Syal), the Sanghas (Sanghas), and the Naharas.10 The Takhars and the Gondals and the Balharas and the Lohars (Lohariya Jats Of Mathura), all are recorded to have played vital roles in the history of Kashmir. The Syal and the Vrikas are known from the inscriptions of their kings in Punjab and Mathura areas. The Mans are known from their coins in South Maharashtra, the Tanks from their coins in Orissa and Bengal, the Johls from their kings and their coins in North West Indian states, the Katariyas, The Pirus and the Ghangasas from their kings, the Kasvans from their empire and king Kanishka, the Sahravats from their 400 years rule as "Western satraps", and many others are known from their repulican states. The Kaks, the Kharapariks, and the Sankanikas are known from the Allahaabad Pillar inscription of Samudragupta Dharan. Are not they the same as the Kakrans/Kaks, the Kharaps, and the Salkalans? D.R. Bhandarkar finds a tribe named Kharaparas, mentioned in the Batihagarh inscription (District, Damoh, M.P.)11 The Udaigiri (near Bhilsa) cave inscription of the year 402 A.D. mentions a king of Sankanika clan. And the Salkalan Jats are still existing. Here only the letter 'l' is changed into 'n' but their love of sibilants is proverbial. Buddha Prakash, in The Age of the Mricchakatika discusses the term, "Khera Khana" appearing in Act vi of that play, and mentions, "He (the guard) gave a long list of foreign tribes which contains some very strange and obscure


8. Visnu Purana, pp. 157-162.
9. Sabha Parva, 52, 13-18.
10. EI, Vol. IX, p. 74 ff.
11. IHQ, Vol. I, p. 258.


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names, not known from other sources. One such name is "Khera Khana".12

Buddha Prakash, an excellent historian known for thoroughness and detail, would not have felt helpless if he had studied the names of Jat clans in Hoshiarpur (Punjab) and Saharanpur (UP) where he lived and worked. Khera is a Jat clan name, also called, Khere (for its people), and Khana is of course the Central Asian title for the king like old Khakan or medieval Khan. But the full list of names mentioned includes the Khasa, Khatti, Khadovilaya, Kannada, Kannappavarana, Dravida, China, Chola, Babbara, Kherakhana, etc.

Here the Khasas are the well known Himalayan people; Khattis are Khattris, a Jat clan; Khadovilaya may be Khatkal clan, if instead of 'v' there is a 'k' in the original; the next three names, are well known in south India; China may be for Chhina Jats, Chola may be Chahl Jats (Chol of Central Asia; or Cholas of south India ?); Babbar is another clan name of the Jats, and Khera Khana has been already explained above.

It is significant that they are called 'Mlecchas'. This is a ready-made test for identifying these people. If they are called 'Mlecchas' or 'Sudras', or Vrishla Asuras-then it is a sure bet that the people named are 'foreigners' and most probably Jats from Central Asia (cf Mauryas). It is the direct result of the "arrogance", noted by Pargitar, which termed all the Punjabis as Mlecchas or Sudras. Incidentally, a people called Melanchlaeni are mentioned as a Scythian nation by Hecataeus, perhaps because they used to wear black clothes. They are also mentioned by Pliny in his Geography.13 Ptolemy placed them on the Volga,14 Bhagavata Purana, expressly calls the first king (Simuka) of Satavahana dynasty, as "Vrishalo Bali". Patanjali always uses the term Vrishala as meaning "Anti-Brahmana".15

Allahabad Pillar inscription of Samudragupta

And now a few attempts at identification.

The Allahabad Pillar inscription of Samudragupta mentions

the Malavas, Arjunayans, the Yaudheyas, the Madras, the Abhiras, the Prarjuna, the Sankanikas, the Kaks and the Kharaparikas, etc.


12. SIH&C, p. 405, ff.
13. Pliny, op. cit., VI, 5.
14. Quoted by Rawlinson, in his Herodotus, Vol. III, p. 78.
15. Patanjali Kalina Bharat (in Hindi), p. 95.


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We have already dealt with the other clans, and would now limit our consideration to Prarjuna only. Is it one name? We know that Arjunayanas are already mentioned separately, and the word is Prarjuna, and not Pararjuna (प्रार्जुन, not पर-अर्जुन ) and so it is not the same as the Kambojas and Para-Kambojas; Tanganas and Para-Tanganas of Mahabharata.16 That is to say, it does not mean the 'nearer' and 'farther' group of the same clan. Our theory is that it represents two (and not one) clan-the Prar (present Brar) and the Juna, the present Juna clan. Thus, the inscription of the Dharan Jat emperor, names only the other Jat clans.17

  • (5) Abhira = Abara (well known of Abhira-Ahir equation).
  • (6) Prar = Brar प्राज्जूणक of Arthasastra
  • (7) Juna = Juna प्राज्जूणक of Arthasastra

And we propose to identify the Kuru with the present Khar clan, because the river Kuru is called Kur, and the Persian town Kurkatha/Kurkada, has its parallel in the name of two towns, both called, Kharkhoda, in Rohtak and Meerut districts.

The Dahal kingdom of Central India, was of the Dhal Jats, the Dala of Kushana Inscription and the Dahl (Mann) of Germany. In Mahabharata we find Vidarbhas, mentioned with the northern people, named Rishikas, Kaks, Tangana, Uttaras, etc.19 Now what are these "Vidarbha" people of Nagpur area doing in the north? Are they really the Vidarbhas? It is possible that they are the


16. MBT, VI, 9, 64-65.
17. CII, Vol. III, No.1.
18. JRASB, 1925, p. 205.
19. MBT, VI, 9, 64-65. हृषीविदर्भाः कान्तीकास तङ्गणाः परतङ्गणाः । उत्तराश चापरे मलेच्छा जना भरतसत्तम (VI.10.63)


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Bhinders, a Jat clan, and their name Bidar/Binderis Sanskritised into Vidar (bha). It is possible, because all the other names are of Jat clans, viz. Risika=Arsika=Asika=Asiagh; Kaks=Kaks; Tangana=Tangal, and Uttara=Utar.

List of Jat clans

Now let us record the clan names.

A

1.Abra (अबरा)

2. Ailavat (ऐलावत)

3. Andar (अन्दा)

4. Antal (आन्तल)

5. Arya (आर्य)

6. Asiagh (आसिआघ)

7. Atval (अटवाल)

8. Attri (अत्री)

9. Aulakh (ओळख)

B

10. Babbar (बब्बर)

11. Bagdavat (बगदावत)

12. Bajad (बजाड़)

13. Bajwa (बाजवा)

14. Bal (बल)

15. Ballan (बल्लान)

16. Balhara (बलहारा)

17. Ban (बाण)

18. Bains/Vains (बैंस) /(वेन्स)

19. Bassi (बस्सी)

20. Bath (बाठ)

21. Belari (बेलारी)

22. Benhval/Benival (बेन्हवाल) /(बेनीवाल)

23. Bhambu (भम्बू)

24. Bhangu/Bhangal (भंगू)/(भंगल)

25. Bhinder (भिंडर)

26. Bhatti (भट्टी)


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27. Bhoparai (भोपाराय)

28. Bhullar (भुल्लर)

29. Bring (बरिंग)

30. Bisla (बिसला)

31. Brar (बरार)

32. Budhwar (बुधवार)

33. Bura (बूरा)

C

34. Chahl (चहल)

35. Chattha (चट्ठा)

36. Chauhan/Chavan (चौहान)/(चवान)

37. Chebuk (चेबुक)

38. Cheema (चीमा)

39. Chhillar (छिल्लर)

40. Chhikara (छिकारा)

41. Chhonkar (छोंकर)

42. Chhina (छीना)

43. Chimni (चिमनी)

D

44. Dabas/Davas (डबास) /(डवास)

45. Dagar (डागर)

46. Dahima (दाहिमा)

47. Dahiya (दहिया)

48. Dalal (दलाल)

49. Dal/Dhall (डल)/(ढल)

50. Daulta (दौलता)

51. Dangi (डांगी)

52. Daraad (दराड़)

53. Dasval (दसवाल)

54. Deol/Deval (देओल)/ (देवल)

55. Dhama/Dhami (धामा)/(धामी)

56. Dhalival (धालीवाल)


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57. Dhaka (ढाका)

58. Dhankhad (धनखड़)

59. Dhanch (ढांच)

60. Dhanda (ढांडा)

61. Dhanoya (धनोया)

62. Dharan (धारण)

63. Dhillon (ढिल्लों)

64. Dhindsa (ढिंडसा)

65. Dhindval (ढिंडवाल)

66. Dhonchak (ढोन्चक)

67. Dhul (ढुल)

68. Dohan (दोहन)

69. Dosanjh (दोसांझ)

G

70. Gallan (ग़ल्लान)

71. Gathval (गठवाल)

72. Gaur/Gauru (गौर)/(गौरु)

73. Gauraya (गौराया)

74. Gazwa (गजवा)

75. Ghangas/Khangas (घंगस)/(खंगस)

76. Ghuman (घूमन)

77. Gill (गिल)

78. Godha (गोधा)

79. Godara (गोदारा)

80. Greyval (ग्रेवाल)

81. Guliya (गुलिया)

82. Guhil/Gehlavat (गुहिल)/(गहलावत)

83. Gumar (गुमड़)

84. Gurlavat (गुरलावत)

85. Gondal (गोंदल)

86. Gussar (गुस्सर)


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H:

87. Hala (हाला)

88. Hans (हंस)

89. Her (हेर)

90. Huda (हुडा)

91. Henga (हेंगा)

J

92. Jakhad (जाखड)

93. Jaglain (जागलैन)

94. Jalauta (जलौटा)

95. Janjua (जंजुआ)

96. Jauhl/Johl/Jauhl (जोहल)

97. Janwar (जनवार)

98. Jatasra (जटासरा)

99. Jatrana (जटराना)

100. Jhajariya (झाजरिया)

101. Johiya (जोहिया)

102. Jun/Jaun (जून)/(जौन)


K

103. Kadyan (कादयान)

104. Kajla (काजला)

105. Kak (काक)

106. Kakar/Kakaran (काकर)/काकराण)

107. Kathia (कठिया)

108. Kllan (कल्लान)

109. Kahlon (कहलों)

110. Kalkil (कलकिल)

111. Kang (कांग)

112. Katariya (कटारिया)

113. Kashvan (कशवां)

114. Khar (खर)


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l15. Kher/Khere (खेर)/खेरे)

116. Kharap/Kharab (खरप)/ (खरब)

117. Khattri (खत्री)

118. Khatkal (खट्कल)

119. Khokhar (खोखर)

120. Kler (कलेर)

121. Kohad (कोहाड़)

122. Kular (कुलार)

123. Kundu (कुंडू)

124. Kuntel (कुंटेल)

L

125. Lalli (लल्ली)/(लल्ल)

126. Lakhanpal (लखनपाल)

127. Lamba (लाम्बा)

128. Lather (लठर)

129. Lathwal (लठवाल)

130. Lochab (लोचब)

131. Lohan (लोहन)

132. Lohariya (लोहरिया)

M

133. Machhar/Mathar (माछर)/(माठर)

134. Maderna (मदेरणा)

135. Madhan (मधान)

136. Mahil (माहिल)

137. Malik (मलिक)

138. Malli/Mall (मल्ली)/(मल्ल)

139. Man (मान)

140. Mangat (मांगट)

141. Mand (मंड)

142. Mander (मंडेर)

143. Mawla (मावला)

144. Mahla/Mahlavat (महला)/(महलावत)


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145. Minhas (मिन्हास)

146. Mirdha (मिर्धा)

147. Mitha (मीठा)

148. Mokhar (मोखर)

149. Mor/Maur (मोर)/(मौर)

150. Mund (मुण्ड)

N

151. Nahal (नाहल)

152. Nalwa (नलवा)

153. Nandal (नांदल)/(नान्दर)

154. Nain (नैन)

155. Naipal (नैपाल)

156. Narwal (नरवाल)

157. Naubar (नौबर) /(नौबार)

158. Nassir (नासिर)

159. Nahra (नहरा)

160. Nijjar (निज्जर)

161. Nuniya/Nun (नूनिया)/(नून)

O:

162. Ohlan (ओहलान)

163. Ojhlan (ओझलान)

164. Ojala (ओजला)

165. Odhran/Audhran (ओढ्रान)

P

166. Pahal (पहल)

167. Pallaval (पल्लवाल)

168. Panghal (पंघाल)

169. Panesar (पनेसर)

170. Panaich (पनाइच)

171. Pannu (पन्नू)

172. Panyag (पन्याग)


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173. Parihar (परिहार)

174. Paroda (परोदा)

175. Pawar (पवार)

176. Paraswal (परसवाल)

177. Phor (फोर)/(पोर)

178. Pharvey (फार्वे/(पारवे)

179. Phogat (फोगाट)

180. Phulka (फुल्का)

181. Piru (पीरु)

182. Potaliya (पोटलिया)

183. Puniya/Pauniya (पूनिया)/(पौनिया)

R

184. Rai (राय)

185. Rana (राणा)

186. Ranjha (राँझा)

187. Rathi (राठी)

188. Rattol/Rathol (रत्तोल) /(रठोल)

189. Rathor (राठोर)

190. Randhawa (रंधावा)

191. Rapadiya (रापड़िया)

192. Rawat (रावत)

193. Redhu (रेढ़ू)

194. Riar (रिआर)

195. Roj/Rose (रोज)

196. Ruhil/Rohella (रूहिल)/(रोहेल्ला)

S

197. Sahota (सहोता)

198. Sahraut/Sahravat (सहरौत)/(सहरावत)

199. Salar (सलार)

200. Salkalan (सलकलान)

201. Shamil (शमिल)

202. Samra (समरा)


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203. Sangha (संघा)

204. Sangheda (संघेड़ा)

205. Sangwan (सांगवान)

206. Sinsinwar (सिनसिनवार)

207. Sandhu (संधू)

208. Sapra (सपरा)

209. Saran (सारण)

210. Saroha/Sarohi (सरोहा)/(सरोही)

211. Saranh/Saramgha (सरान्ह)/(सराम्घ)

212. Sansi (सांसी)

213. Sekhon (सेखों)

214. Sewach (सिवाच)

215. Seokand (स्योकंद)

216. Seoran (स्योराण)

217. Shahi (शाही)

218. Shergill (शेरगिल)

219. Shibia (शिबिया)

220. Sihmar (सिहमार)

221. Singroot (सिंगरूट)

222. Siddhu (सिद्धू)

223. Sikarwar/Sagarwar/Sakarwar (सिकरवार)/(सगरवार)/(सकरवार)

224. Sohl (सोहल)

225. Solgi/Solanki (सोल्गी)/(सोलंकी)

226. Suhag (सुहाग)

227. Syal (स्याल)

T

228. Takkhar (तक्खर)

229. Tahlan (तहलान)

230. Tank/Tak (टांक)/(टाक)

231. Tanwar (तंवर)

232. Tataran (तातरान)

233. Thind (ठिंड)


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234. Tevathiya (तेवठिया)

235. Thakran (ठाकरान)

236. Tiwana (तिवाना)

237. Tur (तूर)

238. Tusar (तुसार)

239. Tomar (तोमर)

U

240. Utar (उटार)

241. Ulhan (उल्हान)

242. Virk/Vrik (विर्क)/(वृक)

243. Waraich/Bhraich/Waraish (वराइच)/(बहराइच)/वराइश)

244. Watdhan (वाटधान)

Description of Jat clans A-D

1. Ailavat - They are the descendants of Yayati Aila, the emperor of Jambudvipa. Ramayana mentions a Pururvas Aila, the son of a ruler, who migrated from Bahli (Bactria) in Central Asia to mid-India, with his wife named Urvasi, and settled at a place called Nandan, identified by A. Stein with the territory of that name in the Salt Range on the bank of Jhelum river in Punjab.20 Varahamihira mentions the Ailavats with the people of Taxila and Pushkalavati, Pauravas (Por Jats) and the Pingalakas (Panghal Jats).21 The Ailavats are now found in Rohtak and the adjoining areas of Haryana and in UP.

2. Atval - They are mentioned in Sabha Parva MBT, Vayu Purana and Mark. Purana.22 They are also mentioned in the Allahabad Pillar


20. Ramayana, VIII, 90, 21 to 234.
21. Brihat Samhita, IV, 26-27; quoted in SIH&C, pp. 29-30.
22. Sabha Parva, 31/15; Vayu Purana, 1/45/126; Markandeya Purana, 54/57.


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inscriptions of Samudragupta under the name Atvikas. By replacing the suffix 'ka' with 'al', we get the proper name, Atval. They are found in Punjab only and are followers of Guru Nanak.

3. Attri - Markandeya Purana mentions them with Lampakas.23 They are separate from Brahmans of this designation, as the Mahabharat says they were Mlecchas.24 They have now 60 villages in Kher and Tapal Tehsils of Aligarh (UP).

4. Aulakh - The Mahabharata, mentions them as Uluka.25 As per grammar rules the name Aulak, is derived from Uluk, the name of the country.26 Perhaps the Iranian Uruk, Indian Uraga was their country. The Aulakhs are now found in Punjab and western UP areas.

5. Babbar - Their Sanskritised name is Barbara. Arthashastra mentions a river named Srautasi on Barbara Kool.27 बर्बरकूले समुद्रैकदेशे श्रीघंतो नाम हृद: As the name suggests, they were near the sea (Caspian? Aral ?). Their country was known to the Greeks, as Barbikae.

6. Bhambu - A city named Bhambura in Sindh, is mentioned by Cunningham as capital of a king, named Bhambu Raja in the tenth century A.D.28

7. Balhara - This clan, too, finds numerous references. A country of Balhara, adjoining Jurz (Gujar) country, is mentioned as situated on the western sea coast in connection with the location of "A


20. Ramayna, VIII, 90, 21 to 234.
21. Brihat Samhita, IV, 26-27; quoted in SIH&C, pp. 29-30.
22. Sabha Parva, 31/15; Vayu Purana, 1/45/126; Markandeya Purana, 54/57.
23. op. cit. 57/39.
24. MBT, Bhisma Parva, 10/67.
25. ibid., Sabha Parva, 27/58 and 27/11.
26. Y. P. Sastri, JKI, p. 481
27. Arthashastra, pt. p. 179 (Ganapathi Shastri edition).
28. Ancient Geography of India, p. 248


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Race of Fair Women" .29 The Muslim historians, Abuzaid (916 A.D.), and Al Masudi (943 A.D.), speak of two empires, named as Juzr and Balhara. Juzr is rightly identified as Gujar kingdom, but the identification of Balhara with Rashtra Kuta is not at all called for.30 Rashtra Kuras are a separate clan (old Rastrikas, modern Rathis), whereas the rulers of Vallabhipura were Bal Jats, who carved out an independent kingdom after the Dharan (Gupta) empire disintegrated. Col. Tod quotes Strunjaya Mahatmya in which the author, Dhanesvara Suri, Guru of Siladitya VI, wrote, "From Ballbhi, the Bals settled in other countries."31 We have the name Balhara itself, and they are known to have played significant political/military role in the history of Kashmir and other areas. Mahabharata mentions the Vallabhikan with the Bahlikas, indicating their homeland in the north.32

In Kashmir, we know Rājavadan Balhara, son of Tejas Balhara from Kalhana's Rajatarangini 33 Stein says that Balhara is evidenttly a family or clan name. It was the period of Jaya Simha (Jai Singh), 1128-1149 A.D., and Kalhana was witnessing the contemporary scene as he wrote Rajatarangini in 1149/1150 A.D.

Rajavadana Balhara was Governor of Eveshaka and other districts. Plots, counterplots were taking place; moral and military characters were on the low ebb. But about Balhara himself, Kalhana says :34

"Balhara possessed a certain natural perfection of resolve and character, which, nowadays, is rare indeed, even among brave men. He thus did not act treacherously against Dhanya who had come to him inconsiderately; nor against Bhoja, as he might have done from greed."

History of India by Elliot and Dowson is full of the Balhara exploits, whose king is called the paramount ruler of India.35


29. JRAS, 1904, p. 163.
30. ibid., R. Hoernle, p. 641.
31. op. cit.. Vol. 1, p. 253.
32. MBT, II, 47/19.
33. op. cit., VIII, 2695/2696
34. ibid., p. 2993.
35. HIOH, Vol. I.


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8. Bains - According to Heornle and Cunningham, Harshavardhana belonged to this clan. He is connected with Shrimalpur which is a village on the border of Hoshiarpur and Jullundur districts in Punjab and is nowadays called Mahalpur. Even today it is inhabited by Bains Jats (see also Khatkals and chapter on Harsha).

9. Benhwal/Beniwal - They are mentioned by Pliny as Benae, along with the Brysai.36 the modern Beniwal and Varaish Jats. They are also very ancient people and in Central Asia they were called by the name ot Ven or Ben. 'Val' is a suffix added to the name. As they are frequently mentioned in Central Asian Ancient History, no references are considered necessary. However, we would like to utilise this opportunity to mention a story from Haryana. About.10 miles from G.T. Road, near Sonepat, towards Ganaur, there is a place called Mina Majra. It contains ancient ruins, including multi-storey buildings, which are now entirely under the earth surface. The pacca bricks from these ruins are being retrieved by the nearby villagers from unknown times. The bricks are about 8 inhes in width, 2 inches in thickness and 16 inches in length. The villagers go down up to 30 ft deep with the help of ropes, and after dislodging bricks from the walls, send them up for being utilised in their construction activities. A few people have lost their lives because of the closing in of the opening fissures in the top surface. There are certain ancient temples and a large tank near the site which occupy thousands of acres of land. Old statues of gods and goddesses are found there. The story the people tell about this ancient City is that, it was once the capital of king Chakwa Ben. He had some dispute with a sage and because the latter refused to comply With the terms, he was asked to go beyond the boundaries of Chakwa Ben's empire. It is stated that after many years the sage returned to the capital and narrated that he had gone north, south, east and west, up to the limits of the mountains and the seas, and every where people told him that they formed part of Chakwa Ben empire. So he was unable to go beyond his boundaries.


36.op.cit., Vol. VI,11


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All this indicates that the site is an ancient One and must have been used as a capital city or at least a very important centre. The identity of this Chakwa Ben is not known to history. However a stupa near Kesariya, known by the name of Raja Ben Chakravarti is described by Hiuen-Tsang as a memorial of a Chakravarti kings.37 Carlleyle notes a similar local tradition from Bairat (Jaipur), and there too, the name is Chakwa Ben.38 Is there any connection between Chakravarti Ben, the builder of a stupa in Bihar and the Chakwa Ben of the above legends? Only excavation work can tell whether Chakwa Ben was one of the important kings of Indian History. Cunningham, mentions similar legends of Chakravarti Ben in Bihar, Awadh and Ruhel Khand.39 Carlleyle says, he was an 'Indo-Scythian" king.40 He is right. The king belonged to Ben (Val) clan.

10. Bodh/Bodha/Budhwar - They are the Budii of Babylonian inscriptions, the Budii of Herodotus, the Putiya of Persians and the Phut of scriptures. 41 They are mentioned in the Vayu and Brahmanda Puranas as well as by Pataiijali.42 They are the Bodhi of Sindh/Balochistan of the seventh/eighth centuries A.D. The present Budhwar Jats are their representatives. Sabha Parva43 and Bhisma Parva44 also mention them.

11. Bring - A district is named after them (as Bring), in Kashmir. 45

12. Chahl - A part of the Khionites/white Hunas, the Chahlas (Chols of European historians) in the fourth century A.D., were settled on the


37. V. A. Smith, JRAS, 1902, p. 271.
38. ASI, Vol. VI, p. 84.
39. op. cit.
40. op. cit., p. 85.
41. Genesis, X, 36.
42. Mahabhashya,4/1{70.
43. Sabha Parva, XIII, 590.
44. Bhisma Parva, IX, 347.
45. Rajatarangini, IV, 193 note.


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east of Caspian sea. This was the period when Jauvlas/Johls were occupying Jabulistan in Ghazni area. In 438/39A.D. the Iranian Emperor Yazdegirel II led an expedition against the Chahls to the north of Gurgan. It was at Gurgan in the steppes of Dahistan that Yazdegird I had been killed by the Jats in 420 A.D., even in his own military headquarters, as Gurgan really was.46 The Chahls must have come to India in the fifth century A.D.

13. Chauhan/Chavan - Their history is well known and need not be repeated here. Vayu Puranaa mentions a people called Chahuka. By ignoring the suffix 'ka' and adding the suffix. 'an' as per Panini's rule, the name we get is Chahuan, which seems to be the correct original word. The Sanskritised name Chahman must have been given at the time of the fire sacrifice.

D.C. Sircar quotes Puranic authority to say :47

कलूताश्च चाहुकाश्चैव दार्वस्तथैव च
एते देशा उदिच्यास्तु प्राच्यान् देशान् निबोधत

In the country of Kalutas, Chahukas, Urnas and Darvas, the north signifies eastern countries. Why? Because they themselves were in the far north-west, and in their countries the north of India becomes east. The Chahukas are the Chahuans. It is only a difference of which suffix you prefer, if 'ka', then the clan name is Chahuka, otherwise by adding the suffix 'an', you have the correct name Chahuan-the present Chauhan.

The Prasasti, dated 842 of Chahuvanas ruling in Dholpur, 48 speaks of "Chahuvana Vara bhupati, Charuvamsa", i.e., the goodly race of the eminent 'landlord' Chahuvana.49 Y.B. Chavan (pronounced as Chauhan) former Defence Minister of India, is a scion of this clan.

14. Chhina - They are already mentioned earlier in the book. Hiuen-Tsang mentions a kingdom of Chinabhukti in eastern Punjab.50 Chhinas


46. See Erasllahr by J. Harquart, p. 56.
47. Studies in Geography of Ancient and Mediaeval India, 1963.
48. EI, V, No. 12, JGOS, XI, 39.
49. JRAS, 1905, p. 21.
50. A. Cunningham, op. cit., p. 230.


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are now found near Jullundur and it is the place where certain Chinese prisoners were kept by the Kushana rulers. Markandeya Purana and Mahabharata 52 places them with the Kambojas. Mahavastu mentions their assembly whose decisions were binding.53 H.S. Chhina, IAS, Chief Secretary, Government of Punjab in 1976, is a scion of this clan.

15. Dagar/Dagor - Pliny first mentions this Jat clan in Central Asia as 'Tagoras' who went westwards with the Yue-che hordes in second century B.C. Maencheu Helfen identifies them with the Asis and the Tokhars.53 S.P. Tolstov identifies the Turkish tribe Duker, with the Tokhars. Digor is also mentioned as one of the four tribes of the Ossets (Vasati of Indian works). They called their country on the Urukh river and its tributaries as Digor, or Digur, which name appears in the Geography of Moses, of Khorene as As-Digor. These Digors were the ancestors of the Dagar Jats. P.c. Bagchi believes the Dogar and Tukhars were one and the same.55 The ruling family of Orchha- Tikamgarh, was called Digora.56

16. Dahiya - This is one or the major Jat clans, and its antiquity goes back to, at least, the sixth century B.C. Originally, on the Caspian shores, they had spread in northern Iran and the Oxus valley. The Chinese name for Balkh-Dahia was given after them and they were a settled people since very early times. When in the second century BC, the other Jat clans-- called Yue-che (pronounced as Gutti) came to them under pressure from the Hunas, they were practically welcomed.

Qanungo says that the Dahae (Dahi) are supposed to be the ancestors of the Indian Jats57 but, no, Dahiyas are one of the constituting clans of the Jats. Wilson says that Dahas of Vishnu


51. Chapter 57, verse 39.
52. MBT, Bhisma IX.
53. Vol. I, p. 171.
54. JOAS, Vol. LXV, 1945, p. 79.

55. Indian History Congress, 1943, p. 36.

56. EI, XXX, part III, p. 89.
57. Qanungo, op.cit.


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Purana are the same as the (Scythians) Dahae.58 They are the Dahae who alongwith the Kangs and other Jat clans, fought Alexander the Great, on the north of Oxus river under their leader, Spitama. A whole division of Greek army, was cut to pieces at Samarkand in the valley of Zerof Shan. By the time Alexander reached there to take revenge for the "first Macedonian disaster", he found only his dead soldiers to bury. He had to fall back and establish his camp at Zariaspa, but the valiant Jats under Spitama attacked his main camp, too. Alexander failed to defeat them, so this brave world conqueror started for turning the ladies and other non-combatant population. This was most unfair. In desperation, the people themselves beheaded Spitama, and produced his head before Alexander. Only then he stopped the mean persecution of the general population. A large number of Jats, then joined the Greek army and when his Macedonian soldiers refused to fight in the Punjab, Alexander threatened to move ahead with his Jat (Bactrian) soldiers only. As per Greek writers, the Dahae under Alexander, were the first to attack the army of Porus in 326 B.C. This was not the first or the last time, when Jats' blood was shed from both sides.

The phrase, "Aryanām Dahyunām" of the Avesta, and the Persepolis inscription of Xerxas mention the Dahae people of Trans-caspiana. R.G. Kent says that Dahistan was the country of the Dahae.59 The story of prince Hibil Ziwal, (originally a gāthā of the Mandas) given in the Syriac Acts of Judas Thomas, has been recapitulated by E.S. Drower.60 The name of Hibil Ziwa's father, is given as Manda Dhiia. Here is perhaps the first mention of Dahia/Dahiya, and Manda is also a clan name of the Jats.

The Greeks have given the name as Dahae, which is the same as Iranian Dahi, and modern Dahi-ya. "The Dahae seem to be the Dahi of the 'Dahinam Dahyunam' of the Farvardin Yasht61 of the Parsees, which speaks of the five known countries of the then known world".62 They are the "Des Dahya" of "Les


58. Wilson, op. c it., p. 192 and 158.
59. Languages, Vol. XII, p. 298.
60. JRAS, 1954, p. 153.
61. Yasht, XIII, p. 144.
62. J.J. Modi, JBBRAS, Vol. XXIV, 1914, p. 548.


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Dahia, Sont les' Dahae des Grecs, les Tahia des-Chinois" of E.Bloche. 63 It was after the Dahiyas that the Iranian name of the country was called Dahistan. The modern Russian Daghistan meaning, high or mountain country, as per Steingass Persian-English Dictionary, 498, occupies the same land. D.P. Singhal's Map of Asia in 500 B.C.64 places the Dahiyas on the Caspian sea. Possibly, they are the Ud-dehi of Indian history, who, under a republican government, were found ruling near Mathura.

They must have come to India with Alexander's army; but the main body seems to have arrived with the Kasvans (Kusanas), as an inscription of that period mentions a Hippea Dahiya. Hilpea means owner of horses (Asvapati).

R. Sankrityayana says that the Dahae are the same as the Ansi of the Chinese. They are mentioned as excellent horse-riders and marksmen. He further says that the Iranian Parthi, was a Dahae tribe.65 P. Sykes also makes a similar remark to mean that there the Parthians were a division of the people called Dahae, whose habitat was that of the modern Yamut Turkoman to the east of the Caspian sea and who fought in the left 'wing' of the Persian Army at Arbela. In the Akhal Oasis to the north of river Atrek there is a district which in the tenth century A.D. and probably in much earlier times, was termed Dahistan".66 The connection of Dahiyas with Persia is further supported by Anabasis who states that the Dahae were one of the Chief tribes of Persia.67 Their fight at Arbela in 331 B.C., against Alexander, is mentioned by the same authority.68 It is well known that Cyrus the Great, was killed in battle against the Massagetae, under their Queen Tomyris. Berosssus further gives the information that Cyrus was waging war against the Dahae, when he was killed.69 Herodotus mentions them as Dadicae (Skt. Dadhika) and that they fought in Greece under Xerxes.70 At one time, the Dahiyas were settled on the confluence of


63. JRAS, 1915, p. 306.
64. D.P. Singhal, Map of Asia.
65. MAKI, Vol. I, p. 74.
66. A History of Persia, Vol. I, p. 307.
67. Chapter XIII.
68. Chapter III/2.

69. P. Sykes, op. cit., p. 153.

70. op. cit, VII, 66; IV 178; II, 401; I, 338.


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the Indus and the Sutlej rivers. Col. Tod says: "This (Dahiya) is an ancient tribe whose residence was the banks of Indus, near its confluence with Sutlej ; and although they retain a place amongst the thirty-six royal races, we have not the knowledge of any now existing. They are mentioned in the annals of the Bhattis of Jaiselmeer, and from name as well as locale, we may infer that they were the Dahae of Alexander".71 Col. Tod did not know that the Dahiyas are even now one of the largest clan of the Jats, and are found in Haryana, UP and Rajasthan. Traditionally, there are supposed to be forty villages of Dahiyas in Rohtak district alone but now the number must be much more. The Param Vir Chakra, (the highest award in India for bravery in battlefield), has been won by Major Hoshiyar Singh (the clever lion), who is a Dahiya Jat of Susana village in Sonepat district of Haryana state. This is one of the rare occasions, when this award has been given and that, too, to a living hero!

17. Dhillon - This is yet another important clan of ancient history. The fact that they are also found in the European population (Dillon) shows that they must have been older than the Christian era.

According to historian Qanungo, the city of Delhi is named after them and it was later on taken by the Chauhans. According to Farishta after the death of Kidar, Jaichand took the throne of Kannauj, to be succeeded by his brother, Dhill or Dahla, who founded the city of Delhi.72 This happened in the fourth century B.C., i.e., before Porus's and Alexander's times. Its old name was Dhillika as is recorded in the inscription of Somesvara Chauhan, in V.S., 1226 (1169 A.D.).73 Later on the suffix 'ka' was deleted and the city was named Dhilli. The inscriptions of V.S. 1337 found at Boher (Rohtak) reveal that the country of Haryāṇaka (Haryana) was first ruled by the Tomars and then by the Chauhans and then by the Ghori Sultans.74 Gurdial Singh Dhillon, ex-Speaker of the Indian Lok Sabha is a scion of this clan. S. Prakash Singh Badal,


71. Col. Tod op cit Vol. J p. 98. See also Ptolemy's Geography, VI, 19.
72. Brigg's edition, quoted by Tribes and Castes, Vol. I, p.23.
73. EI, Vol. XX, S. No. 344 of Inscriptions of Northern India.
74. S. No. 598, op. cit., JASB, 01. XUl, pt. VI; p. 108.


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Chief Minister of Punjab is also a Dhillon-the affix Badal, being the name of his ancestral village.

Description of Jat clans E-J

18. Gill/Gelani - They are the Aegli of Herodotus, Gelae of strabo and others and Gili/Gille of modern Central Asia. Gelanis are mentioned in a passage of Ammianus Marcellinus. 75 J. Marquart tried to substitute Segestians in place of Gelan perhaps to prove that Sakasthan (Sacestene of the Greeks) was independent up to 350 A.D. In the heyday of th Gills in the Caspian sea was called the Sea of Gilan. The Gills do not add the suffix 'an' to their name. They are found in Punjab and Haryana.76

19. Gathval/Kathval/Kathia - This important clan of the Jats have now switched over to the name "Malik" though, social functions, marriages etc. they still say their gotra is Gathval.

The Greeks give two forms of the word, viz., Kathaian and Kathaioi; and as per Dr. Jolly, S. Vidyalankar and K.P. Jayaswal, the word "Kathala stands for their country and Kathaioi for the people. The letter '0' gives the sound for 'V' and it is certain that they were the Kathvals and modern Gathwals. They were fierce fighters and with a military strategy called Shakta Vyuha, they faced Alxander when at least 17000 of them became martyrs. Beaut was given the highest consideration even in matters of state offcials. They practiced sati. In the tribes and castes they are mentioned as Kathia or Ravi Jats and are considered the same people who fought against Alexander.77

20. Gazwa - Certahin ancient coins have been found in Jaipur/Malwa area having the legend "Gajava". These coins are of the Gajwal Gazwa Jats, and not of the Malavas as supposed so far.


75, XVII, 5, 1.
76. op, cit., p, 36-50,
77. Vol. II, p. 482.


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Morkandeya Purana mentions a people named, Gajahvaya, who are the same.78

21. Ghangas/Khangas - This is a rare name indeed but fortunately, Priscus mentioned a king of the white Hunas, as Kong Khas, who made himself lord of Sogdiana in 356 A.D. and whose brother clans, crossed the Don river in 374/375 A.D., as per Franz Altheim, the German scholar.79 This king Kangkhas, certainly was a Khangas Jat. Kung-Kas was a son of Kidara, which is improvable-the clan of the son cannot be different from the clan of the, father, unless, both father and son, were founders of new clans. The Sassanid emperor of Iran, Piroz, promised to marry his sister to Kung-Khas.80 But he broke the promise and the result was war in which the Persians were summarily defeated. Piroz was taken prisoner and was released only after pledging his son Kawadh, as hostage and by paying a large sum of gold coins as tribute. Kung-Khas restruck the tribute coins with his own name, and it is these coins, inter alia, which throw light on the Khangas emperor in 4th century A.D. These Jats are now found in Punjab and Haryana. Tribes and Castes named them as Khung as .81

22. Godha - They are remembered in Brahmand Purrana, in the same style.

23. Gussar - They are a minor clan now, but inscriptional evidence shows two persons of this clan. One is the Maka, son of Saphar, and the second is the Swami Simhabala Gussur of Sanchi Vihara.82 It is quite possible that Gussur here may stand for the Gujars, as Herodotus says that Gorgoi were the agriculturists of the Scythians.


78. LVIII, 9.
79. Geschite der Hunnen.
80. ibid.
81. Vol. II, p. 377.
82. ASI, Vol. X, p. 62 ff.


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24. Goraya/Gaur/Ghor/Gauru - This clan can be traced back to the third century B.C. Ptolemy has referred to a country named Goruaia and to a town named Goraya. Strabo has also mentioned it.83 This country was situated in the Pamir mountain/valleys, between Badakhshan and Khota in Central Asia. As per W. W. Tarn, Goruaia was a part of Menander's empire in second century B.C.84 After their arrival in India, these people of the Goraya clan of the Jats, founded another town on the G.T. Road, between Ludhiana and Jullundur and named it after their old principal city in Central Asia as Goraya. These people are still residing in the same area. Possibly the Gaur/Gauru/Grauri Jats are the same as Gauraya because Ptolemy says that it was irrigated by Gaurayus river (Gaur/Ghor) of the Puranas.85 Markandeya Purana mentions the Ghora, and the Guruha, Separately.86

25. Gondal - They are the people who were known in the history of Kashmir by the name of Gonand. Their history is well known and is not repeated here. They ruled over Kashmir for centuries. The name, Gonad, with the suffix 'al', became Gonadal and was Sanskritised into Gonand. It is worth noting that the Nand Jats (pre-Mauryan) are now called Nandal/Nander.

26. Hala - Coins of a king named Ripu Salya have been found and these Coins have the fire altar on them.87 V.S. Agrawala says, "they migrated from west through Baluchistan and Sindh, where they left traces of their name in Salvka-giri, (mentioned by Panini) the present Hala mountains; and then advancing towards north Sauvira and along the Sarasvati, finally settled in north Rajasthan.88 Satyavan was a Salva (Hala) Prince and Savitri was a Madra/Maderna Princess (Madras, were descendants of Sibi's son


83. XV,p.567
84. The Greeks in Bactria and India,p. 226
85. Majumdar, Ancient India, p. 109-110
86. LVIII, 36
87. JRAS, 1901,p. 97 ff
88. op. cit., p. 55


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Madraka. Their infantry is mentioned as Salva Padati on the basis of the modern name of mountain Hala. It is probable that the modern Hala Jats were called Salvas by the ancients, [Sal]]/Syal is a separate Jat clan also. Elliot mentions a king, Hala, contemporary of Alexander89. "Hala Syat Salvahan" says Amar kosha commentary by Kshira.(हाल स्यात् सालवाहत:) "Sālo Hāla Nripe" says Visva Prakasha Kosa. Madhyamadhikara, in Siddhanta sarvabhauma, mentions Salivahana, author of Prakrita Saptasati and adds, "Tadiya Shakah", तदीय शकः. The Hala-Hunan of Brihat Samhita are the Halas. Salva is an incarnation of Asura Ajaka proving their non-Indian origin, perhaps.90 Kasika says that shalva was a Kshatriya, whose descendants are called Salva/Syal.

27. Hans - They are also found in Europe (German, Hans/Hanz). They are originally placed in the Puranas on the banks of river Nalini in Central Asia, alongwith the Tomars.91 Vayu Purana says it was a hilly area 92, and Mahabharata says it was a Mleccha country. 93 The river Nalini is said to arise from the Bindusarovar, identified with Aling-Kangri range by S. Muuzaffar Ali. 94 The same authority correctly Identifes a Nalini with Yang-tse river. Sabha Parva mentions them with the Paur Kundmān and Sibi. 95

28. Henga/Heng - They are the Hiung-nu of the Chinese, and are already discussed earlier. In Puranic literature, Hinga meant Bahlika or vice versa, their connection with Central Asia.96

29. Her - As per Ghirsman, in 20 BC, the king of Sogdiana was named Heraus (see under Sikarwar). In "Kushana Studies in USSR.", the"Heraios" are mentioned as a tribe of Kushanas.97


89. op. cit., pt. I, p. 108/109.
90. P&SM, p. 109.
91. Vayu Purana, 47/56.
92. ibid., 45/35.
93. MBT, Bhishma Parva.
94. The Geography of the Puranas, 1973, p. 6 .
95. Sabha Parva, 52/13-18.
96. Markandeya Purana. 58/52.


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This is the Her clan of the Jat, and ignoring the suffix- us/ios we get the correct name. The 'Her' are one of the Asli (original) Jats. Her means Lord or Master in 'Gothic'. 97

30. Jakhad - They are mentioned in the Mahabharata as Jagud. Markandeya Purana also mentions them in the north.98

31. Jatasara - They are mentioned in the Brihat Samhita as Jatasura along with the Potals, Chhinas, Bhallas, etc. Mahabharata reports that Krishna was abducted by a Jatasura and Sabha Parva mentions Jatasura Madra-Kas: as bringing presents for the Pandavas. They are now called Asra, the prefix Jat, coming from Mahabharta times, is dropped, just as Jataranas are now called Ranas only.99

32. Juna/Jauna - They are probably the same as Yaunas of Buddhist and Sanskrit works and perhaps, are to be identified with the Prarjuna of Arthashastra. V. Smith says that in 226-241 A.D., a Juna king, Ardshir, of Iran. 100 This shows that they had come to India much ealier than the movements of Jajuans of the Chinese, to be identifiel with the Jenjuan Jats and Rajputs.

Description of Jat clans: K-N

33. Kak - They are mentioned in Vayu Purana.101 They are mentioned in Allahabad Pillar Inscriptions of Samudragupta, along with Kharap, Salkalan, etc.-all Jat clans.l02


97. B. Gafurov, op. cit., p. 179.
98. Markandeya Purana LVII, 40.
99. See Tribes and Castes Vol. II.
100. EHI, 4th Edition, p. 289 note.
101. 4/2/14.
102. See also IA, Vol. II.


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34. Kang - In Sanskrit works, they are mentioned as Kankas. Their Central Asian origin has already been discussed. Vishnu Purana and Brahmanda Purana mention the Kang as ruling over South Maharashtra and Bhoj areas. According to Fleet, they were ruling near Hyderabad and the Musa river in the south (Deccan).103 They are mentioned in the Aban Yasht, where the brave Hunas (Huns? Sunu? Son ?) of Vaesaka invoke the goddess Ardvisura (Ardoksho of the Kusanas?) at the gate of the lofty fort of Khsathrosaoka of the high and holy Kanga.104 Firdausi places the fort of Kang (Kangdez) at about a month's distance from China.105 Modi also mentions a Khyaona Arejataspa, (perhaps reminding of Ari-Zatoi of the Manda empire).106 The Chinese name of Sogdiana-Kang- is so named as the Kang-nu were the rulers there.

35. Katariya/Katar - The Chinese work Pei-She, refers to a king of a Ta Yue-che (i.e., Great Jats) and called him Ki-to-lo which has been rendered by historians as Kidara, perhaps, because in the Chinese language, 't' is used for 't', 'th', 'd', etc. But, the Chinese name She-ki-Io is rendered as Sakala where both Ki and Lo are rendered as Ka and La. So, Ki-to-lo can be rendered, as Katara with equal justification. In fact the word Kedara, was taken as Ketara in Eastern India, as per Brihat-Kalpa Sutra Bhasya.107 Paul Pelliot supposed that they (the Kidarites) were a clan of Tukhars (Takkhars), perhaps, because they were settled in Turkharistan area.108 It is generally agreed that Ki-to-lo (Katara or Kidara) is a dynastic name. In fact, it is a clan name and Katariya Jats are even now found in Rohtak district, e.g., in village Samchana. This is further proved from the Chinese annals Pei She itself as it says that Ki-to-lo, the king, was attacked by Jujuan and further it says that another Ki-to-lo was pressed westwards by the Hiungnu (Hunas or Henga Jats). Again Ki-to-lo is the name of a country


103. JRAS, 1905, p.293.
104. J.J. Modi, ABORI, commemorative Volume, 1977, p.70,
105. ibid., p. 69.
106. ibid., p. 75.
107. VIJ, Vol, XVI, pt. I, p. 86; ancl JNSI, 1950,12 p. 199,
108. JA, 1934, p. 42,


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whose ambassador visited China in 477 A.D. according to Wei Shu. This is the same story of a clan name used for the king as well as for the people and the country over which he ruled. This thing happened, with Kasvans (Kusanas) the Gorayas, the Takkhars and so on. But the important thing is that this clan name Katara/Kidara, was used for a very long time on coins in Kashmir, by king Pravarasen II, son of Toramana and also in Punjab by kings named Bhasvan, Kusala, Prakasa, Siladitya, Kritavirya, etc., about whom nothing else is known. Only their coins show that they were Kidarites or Katariya Jats. The first Jat king called Ketara/Kidara, when pressed by another Jat tribe, named Janjuan (Jujuan of the Chinese), came to Balkh and from there attacked. India, occupying Gandhara and four other kingdoms, while his son took Purushpura, i.e., Peshawar, before 436 A.D. Altekar however, holds on numismatic evidence, that Kidarites rose to power in about 340 A.D. In 356/57 A.D. Shahpuhr II of Iran attacked them in Gandhara and the Katariya Jats sought help from Dharan Jats under Samudragupta, and in 367/68 A.D. they crushed the power of the Iranian king in a fierce battle. In 375 A.D. the first king Kidara/Kitara was succeeded by his son, named Piru, who extended his power further into India and again Piru is a Jat clan. He was succeeded by Varaharan. Barhana a village in Rohtak district, seems to have been named after him. Piru and Kedar are personal names of many Jats of today.

36. Khatri - They are also an ancient tribe mentioned by the Greeks as "Xathroi", corresponding to Sanskrit Ksatri. Kautilya says that they had a " Vratashastropjivin" type of Sangha or government. Jayaswal identifies them with the present Sindhi Khatris. Why not, also, with the Punjabi Khatris and Khatri Jats? It should be remembered that "Ksatra" was the first king of the Persians and the ancient "Hittites" of Turkey, were in fact known to the Egyptians as "Khattis", i.e. 'Khatris'. Khatri Jats are now found in Rohtak/Sonepat areas.


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37. Khatkal/Bains - They are mentioned in the Mahabharata, alongwith Karaskara, Mahishaka, Karkana and Viraka, by their Sanskritised name Kata Kalika109. By removing the suffix 'ika', we have the proper name, Katkal or Khatkal as they are named in Punjab. In Haryana they are called Khatkar. It should be noted that Kakar, Varika, etc., mentioned here are all Jat clans (see under "Guptas" also, who are sometimes called Karaskaras). As for Mahishas, they may be a Sanskritised form of Bains, which in Indian languages, gives the sound of Bhains (buffallo,.Skt. Mahisha.110 During the time of Naushervan (531-579 A.D.), the Sassanid emperor of Iran (who himself was born of a Jat lady of Tur clan, married by his father, Kavadh, in 498 A.D. when he was m exile and seeking the help of his Jat relations), we find that their chief, Khakan, at Balkh was in favour of peace with the Iranians. But the Haphthals (Haitals - Antals ?) who were now under the Gaṭkal clan, did not want peace and, therefore, they killed the ambassador sent for this purpose. The result was a civil war among the Jats. The army of Khakan, under General Fanz (should be Bans-a Jat clan, the same as European Vans/Vance) attacked and defeated the Gatkals (Khatkals) and killed their king. The Khatkals, called their elders' meeting and elected Fagane Bagani as their new leader. But Naushervan feared the increased power of the Balkh Khakan and so, came on the side of the Khatkals. The result was peace and marriage of Naushervan with a daughter of the Khakan to cement the ties. Hermuzd, his successor, was born from this marriage. Our point here is to show the existence of Khatkal Jats in that area in sixth century A.D. The famous martyr of our Independence movement S. Bhagat Singh, was a Khatkal Jat.111


38. Kharab - They are mentioned in the Allahabad Pillar Inscription, as Kharaparikas. The Padma Purana calls them Mlecchas, which is a proof of their being foreigners.112


109. MBT, Karna Parva, 37/54.
110. A.C.L. Carlleyle, ASI, Vol. VI, p. 47.
111. JBBRAS, 1914, Vol. XXIII/XXIV, p. 577 ff.
112. A.B.L. Avasthi, Prachin Bharatiya Bhugol, Lucknow, 1972, p. 202.


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39. Khokhar - They are named in Vayu Purana and Visnu Purana as Kokarakas. You remove the suffix 'ka' and get Kokar-the same as Khokhar.113

Kundu - Panini mentions Kaunduparatha, as a part of Trigarta, Jullundur kingdom. The Kulun, mentioned by Panini, are the Kahlon Jats, Kuluta, Kalan, Krishna of the Puranas, residents of Kullu, Himachal Pradesh. The Kuninda, however, are the Kundus. The coins of their king Amogha Bhuti, (king of Kunindas) have been found at Tappamev district Hoshiarpur, Punjab. According to Vayu Purana the Kundus were living on the banks of the Sita river in Central Asia. It is identified as the Tarim river.114 J. C. Yidyalankar says, it is the Yarkand river or Jarafshan, still called Sito, by the Chinese .115 A city, Kundus on the Pamirs, is named after them.116 Sabha Parva mentions a people called Kundaman, alongwith the Hans, Sibi and Paur.117

41. Lamba - They are called Lampakas or Lampas in the Indian literature, although Garuda Purana mentions them as Lamba. Markandeya Purana mentions them with the Kuserus, Chulikas, etc., as people of the north.118 The Matsya Purana, too, mentions them. The Mahabharata while mentioning them, seems to indicate their fierce warlike qualities.119 The Greeks mentioned them as Lambagae. Lassen has identified their habitat as the region of Lambagae, south of Hindu Kush near modern Lamghan. Abhidhana Chintamani of Hema Chandra says, "Lampakastu Murundah Syuh", showing that they were considered Sakas. Murunda is a Saka/Scythian title, meaning 'Chief/Head. D.S. Lamba, ex-Justice of Punjab and Haryana High Court, was a scion of this clan.


113. See Elliot and Dawson, op. cit., and Tribes and Castes, Vol. II.
114. S. M. Ali, op. cit., p. 105.
115. Bharat Bhmi, p. 123.
116. Through the Pamirs, p. 209.
117. Sabha Parva, 52/13-8.
118. Chapter LVII
119. MBT, Drona Parva, 121/42-43.


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42. Lohan - They are frequently mentioned in the history of Sindh. Mahabharata mentions them as northern people alongwith Kambojas and Rishikas (Arsikas, Asikas).120 The form of their name is Lohān itself. "The Lohans, who were apparently Jats knew no distinction of great and small".121

43. Lohariya/Lohar - This clan is famous in Kashmir history and gave it a whole dynasty called Lohar dynasty. Their settlement in India was Loharin, in Pir Pantsal range. The Lohar Kot-fort of Lohars is named after them. The famous queen Didda, married to Ksemagupta, was daughter of Lohar king Simha Raja, who himself was married to a daughter of Lalli (Jat clan) Sahi king Bhima of Kabul and Udabhanda (Und, near modern Attock).

Thus Didda was a Lohariya Jat scion, and a granddaughter of Lalli Jats of Kabul baseless called Brahmans. The descendants of their ruling family are still called Shahi Jats.

Queen Didda, made one Sangram Raj, her successor.

He was the son of her brother Udaya Raj and he died in 1028 A.D.122 Lohar itself remained with Vigrah Raj.123

Alberuni refers to this castle-Lohar Kot-as Loha Kot, and Mahmud Ghazni's attack on Lohar Kot was a dismal failure. Farishta tells that Mahmud failed because the fort "was remarkable on account of its height and strength."124

Lohariya Jats are also now settled in about six villages near Mathura and other areas.

44. Machhar/Mathar - Mahabharata mentions them and locates them in the west.125 Kaniska had a minister called Mathara.126 Their name was Sanskritised as Matsya (fish-Machha in Prakrit means fish).


120. MBT, II, 27,22-26.
121. Elliot, EHI, Vol. I.
122. RAJAT, VI, 355, and VII, 1284.
123. For details see, RAJAT, Vol II, p. 293; Steins, note E.
124. See "The Castle of Lahar", lA, 1897.
125. MBT, Sabha Parva, XXXI, 1195; Vana Parva, LI, 1991; Shanti Parva, LXI, 2430.
126. AIU, p. 147.


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Machhari near Alwar, was named after them.127 They are the Machiya of Darius. Markandeya Purana mentions them as Mathara.128

45. Man/Maan - The Vayu Purana mentions them as Maunika or Maun (Man) Vishnu Purana mentions them as Maunas, a tribe of Gandharvas, who annihilated the Nagas (Wilson's Edn.). They are the same as the English/German, Maan. Their coins have been found in Goa/ Konkan areas. Perhaps, they are the Mannai on the west of Caspian sea, who in the eighth century B.C. had their kingdom, called Mannai, now Armenia (Ari-Man). They were under the overlordship of Tiglath Pileser IV and it was on their seat that Deioces Manda founded his empire.

46. Mangat - In the Tang period of Chinese history, the Chinese called the Mongols, as Mengu pronounced as Mung-nguet.129 It is this word Mung-nguet which is now written as Mongait in Russia, e.g. A.L. Mongait, author of the Archaeology in USSR, Pelican series, London (1961) and is written as Mangat (a Jat clan) in India. B.S. Mangat, Deputy Inspector-General of Police, Punjab, is a scion of this clan. This clan's name appears in MBT as Manonugat-a country in Kroncha Dvipa, east of Pamirs.130 This has almost exact similarity with the Chinese form.

47. Mahlavat/Mall/Malli - They are perhaps the same as are described by the Greeks as Malloi. They were in fourth century B.C. on the west bank of Ravi and the south of Chenab-Jhelum confluence. They are described as extraordinarily strong and brave. They had alongwith the Oxydra-Kai, about one lac men under arms. The Greeks were terrified of them and it was with great difficulty that Alexander persuaded them to fight these Mallis. Alexander had a narrow escape in that battle. As expected the "Malavas" Were enemies


127. ASI, Vol. VI, p. 84 ff.
128. LVII, 37.
129. JA, 1920, I, 146, quoted by SIH&C, p.409.
130. Bhishma Parva, 12/21.


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of their neighbour-Oxydra-Kai (not identified, so far) and to face Alexander, they made peace and each unmarried Malava boy and girl was married to Oxydra-Kai girls and boys. Though the Greeks said that they won, but the scene of the treaty negotiations, does not reflect the 'defeated' Mallovai. From the Punjab 'Malwa', they went to Rajasthan and finally to Central India and named it as 'Malwa'. They had a republican form of government and their coins have the legends 'Malavanam Jaya', 'Malavaganasya Jaya', etc. The present Mall Jats are their descendants. Incidentally, the Saubhuti (or Sophytes, of the Greeks) are the modern Sobhati (Punjabis) and Agiri or Agri is a caste in some Rohtak villages. It is significant that Niti Prakashika calls them, "devoid of religion". Megasthenes says that they settled in the Punjab at the time of Dionysius (Danavesa ?).131 Panini and Chandra say that they were neither Brahmans nor Kshatriyas. They buried their dead and mounds were raised over their dead. Mal/Malli/Mahlavat132 seem to be the same. Malavata as such are mentioned by Patanjali.

48. Mavala - They are mentioned in the Mahabharata as Māvellakas, the present Mavala Jats.133

49. Madra/Maderna/Madhan - They are frequently mentioned in the epics and the Puranas. Their king, Salya, fought in the war. Madri, mother of Nakula and Sahadeva was a Madra princess. Sabha Parva shows that 'Jatasura Madra-Kanam' (i.e. Asra and Madra Jats) brought presents for the Pandavas, who were their relations. They are also called Mad or Madh (Madhan), as well as Maderna nowadays. In Kurukshetra alone, they have twelve villages.134 Many Madhan Jats are now Muslims also. They are recorded in the Bible as Madai.135 In Prakrit, the name Madra, becomes Madda. Their deity at Sakala, is called Kharaposta, which is an Iranian form.


131. Fragments, XLVI, 7.
132. Fragments, XXXVIII.
133. MBT, VII, 4, 46. मावेल्लकास तुण्डिकेराः सावित्री पुत्र काञ्चलाह । पराच्यॊथीच्याः परतीच्याश च दाक्षिणात्याश च मारिष (VIII.4.47)
134. ibid. II, 2, 12-13.
135. Genesis, X, 2.


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They ate pork and beef, drank rum with milk.136 Their strange dress, banners, arms and chariots are also noted.137 They came from the Iranian side.

50. Mund - The Vishnu Purana says that 13 kings of Munda clan shall rule over India for 200 years. But history, as known today, does not indicate the existence of any such reign. The fault lies with history, not with the Mundas, who did rule over India for two centuries. According to J. Allan, "We have considerable evidence to show that in the early centuries of the Christian era, the Murunda (Mund) kingdom was a powerful one, covering a greater part of the Ganga valley, and that the dynasty was a foreign one."138 We have maintained that all the Jats, Gujars, Ahirs (the later Rajputs) came from outside in different waves. No wonder, that the Munds, ruling at Magadha, were found to be kings of foreign origin.

51. Nuniya/Nun - Nun or Nunna is mentioned by L.A. Waddel as a title of Phoenician kings.139 They are mentioned in Rajatarangini as Lāvaṇya -Sanskritised form of Nun (salt) and are described as fierce fighters. A Nun from Rohtak is specifically mentioned. 140 Sir Feroz Khan Noon, ex-Minister of Pakistan, was a scion of this clan.

52. Nahra/Sangha - Both these clans are mentioned in the Sundha Hill (Jodhpur) inscriptions of Chechigadeva Chauhan.141 The Nahras may be the Neuri of the ancient Greeks, and the Naharians of the Egyptian Pharaohs.


136. MBT, VII, 44, 28,36.
137. ibid., IV, 8, 3-4.
138. B. N. Puri, India under the Kusanas, p. 51.
139. op. cit., p. 163.
140. RAJAT, IV, ii.
141. EI, Vol. lX, p. 74.

Description of Jat clans O-T

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53. Odhran/Audhran - The Puranas mention them as "Sakanodhrana", i.e., Saka Odhran. They are mentioned in Sabha Parva of Mahabharata142 as well as Vishnu Purana. Their first ancestor was Odra, and hi descendants are called Odhran.

54. Pangal - They are mentioned in Markandeya Purana and also by Varahamihira as Pingalaka.143 By removing the suffix 'ka' we get the correct clan name as Pingala or Panghal. They have no connection with wings (Pankha) of any bird, as sugsested by Ibbetson.144 They are now found in Mahindergarh dlstrict of Haryana.

55. Phulka - They are mentioned in the Bhagavata Purana alongwith Kiratas, Hunas, Pulindas, Kankas, etc. Their name given there is Pulkasa.

56. Paroda/Parada - Pargitar correctly points out that they were in the Northhwest.145 Mahabharata mentions them.146 They are mentioned as Paroda Sakas, and as Paladas and were very prominent in the fourth and fifth century A.D.147

57. Puniya/Pauniya - The people called Paunikas (Paunas) are mentioned inn Vayu Purana. They were ruling near Jagadhri on the Yamuna river and their epigraph has been found at Jagatgram near Chuhadpur in Dehradoon district.148 Herodotus mentions a people, Paeonia, a colony of Teucarians. 149 The Paeonias were transferred from Hellespont to Asia, under the orders of Darius the Great.


142 MBT. Chapter. 47.
143. Brihat Samhita, IV, 26-27.
144. Tribes & Castes, Vol. II.
145. Ancient Indian Historical Traditions, p. 206 and 208.
146. Sabha Parva, 50/1832.
147. For details see JBORS, XVIII, 209.
148. SIH&C, p. 263.
149. V. 12-27.


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Here we have the Pauniya and Tokhar Jats in Europe in the sixth century B.C.

58. Potaliya/Potal - A Sanskrit inscription from Kashmir mentions a king styled as Potala Deva Shahi, alias Nava Surendraditya Nandin. Here Potal is the clan name of this unknown Jat king; Deva Sahi is the usual title taken by all the Jat kings. It is the same as the Devaputra Sahi of the Kasvan Jats, and the title of Allahabad Pillar Inscription. Potals are also mentioned by Varahamihira, alongwith 'Jatasura' (the brave Jats ? ), Chhinas, Bhallas, etc.

59. Rathi/Rashtri - They are mentioned in the Indian literature as Rastrikas/Rathikas. By ignoring the suffix 'ka' we get the modern name Rathi. Their identification with Rastrikas is definitely justified for we find that the corresponding German name for the clan is still 'Raster'. Peter Raster, a German, is now teaching in the languages department of Delhi University.

They are mentioned alongwith the Bhojas, and both have elected an executive governing body. The name Saurashtra is known after them, as per Jayaswal. Arthashastra mentions Surastra as well as their Rashtrika, government.

In Asoka's inscriptions they are mentioned as Rastikas, in the Girnar, Rathikas in the Shah Bāzgarhi, and Rathakas in the Mansehra inscription. (For the use of the word Rathika, see Barua's Old Brahmi Inscription.)

In the inscription at Hathigumpha, king Kharvela of Orissa, is stated to have defeated the Rathikas and Bhojakas, i.e., Rathis and Bhojas in the fourth year of his reign. Their royal insignia was umbrella. They were, at that time in the Central India (East Malwa?). It is significant that the inscription of Kharavela says that Rathis and Bhojas, "were abandoned by good Brahmans". Why? Obviously because they were conquerors and they had not accepted the orthodox, unequal and useless ideas of those priests. They had their own priests called the Magas or Bhojas, after they settled in Bhoja country.

Rathis are now a trading and business community in Gujarat State, and, of course, they are a Jat clan in Haryana, Rajasthan


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areas. Shri Preet Singh Rathi, a minister in the Haryana cabinet, bears this name.

60. Sahota - The Puranic expression, "Huna Darva Sahudakā" contains their name as Sahuda or Sahuta. Their association with Hunas, explains their foreign origin.

61. Samra - This clan, too, was settled at one time in the lower Indus. They are mentioned by Farishta, who says on ancient authority, that the Samras had a kingdom in Sindh and were in fact one of the two main Zamindars (landlords) of Sindh, up to 782 A.H. (1380 A.D.) when many of them embraced Islam.150 The remaining Samras are now followers of Sikhism.151

62. Sandhu - The ancient Greeks mentioned them as Sindi (Sindicar of Herodotus) and placed them on the Basphorus. In Indian literaature they are mentioned as Sindhu or Saindhava and are associated with Sauvira-of the expression Sindhu-Sauvira. In Kurma Purana and Vishnu Purana, they are mentioned with the Hunas : "Sauvirah Saindhava Hunan". (सौवीरा सैंधवाहूणा:), as residents of Sakala, Sialkot. Panini mentions a Janapada (Repubhc) of the Sindhus between Jhelum and Indus rivers.152 In Mahabharata war, they fought on the side of Kauravas.153 A copper plate inscripttin of Gujarat, Chalukiya Pulakesi Raja refers to Tajiks, i.e., Arabs who had defeated the Sandhus and other tribes in West India. Earlier, in 739 A.D., they had defeated the Arabs under their king Punyadeva. In 756 and 776 A.D., they twice repulsed the Arab naval attacks.


150. Briggs' Edition, Vol. IV, p. 422.
151. See chapter on Sindh.
152. V. S. Agrawala, op. cit., p. 50.
153. Bhisma Parva, p. 882.


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63. Siddhu - They are mentioned in the Vishnu Purana.154 The royal houses of Patiala, etc., are from this clan. Brar, another clan has separated from Sindhus and so Brars are Sindhus. H.S. Brar, Governor of Haryana is a scion of this clan.

64. Saranh, Saramgha - In an inscription found in Kashmir, relating to the seventh century A.D., there is a reference to a minister named Makar Singh, who is called a Saranha. He is stated to have constructed a city in Kashmir. In this reference we have the earliest known mention of this Jat clan. Perhaps, they are the Sarangians of Herodotus who had the same areas as the Mandas in the battle of Thermopylae.155

65. Seokanda - They are mentioned in the Vishnu Purana as Sukanda.156

66. Solgi/Solanki/Sulika/Chulika - They are mentioned in the Puranas as Sulikas and Chulikas. The Matsya Purana says that they were the people through whose country flowed the river Chakhsu. 157 Pargitar suggests that Chakshu may perhaps be taken for Vaksu which is the Oxus and says that in that case the Sulikas may be the people on the Oxus river in Turkistan.158 The Brihat Samhita connects these people with the Gandhars and Vokkanas, (occupying modern Wakhan). According to a Buddhist historian of Tibet, Tara Nath, the kingdom of Sulik was located beyond Togara which may be further identiified with the country of the Tokharas, 159 according to some Togara may be identified with modern Ter in the south, which does not seem to be correct. P.C. Bagchi in, India and Central Asia says that the Sulikas are originally from Sogdiana in Central Asia,


154. Wilson's Edition. p. 158.
155. VII. 67.
156. op. cit., 157.
157. Chapter XX, 45, 46.
158. Markandeya Purana, p. 342, note.
159. See also IA. IV, 364.


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and came to settle in India.160 According to him the Sulki Rajputs of Shahpur district, the Solgi and Solakhi Jats of Multan region and the Sud of Amritsar, Ludhiana in the Punjab, the Chalukyas of the Deccan, and the Solankis of Gujarat in ancient times, appear to be the remnants of the Sogdians. According to Buddha Prakash, the word Chulika is variant of Sulika which represents the Chinese Suli.161 The Markandeya Purana mentions them as two different people, both in the north.162

In the sixth century A .D., the Sulikas are mentioned in the Haraha inscription of Ishānavarman Maukhari, who is supposed to have defeated them. Dr Roy Chaudhuri, suggests that the Sulikas should be identified with the Chalukyas who are mentioned in the Mahakūṭa Pillar Inscription.163

Thus the Solankis and the Chalukas of the later period are the same. The original word may be Sulik which was found similar to Chulik, meaning the palm, by the Brahman priest at the Mount Abu fire sacrifice. Therefore, it was given out that the Chalukyas were born from the palm (Chuluk) of Brahma. A grant of a Dharasen II of Vallabhi, mentions the Saulkikas, alongwith Pratasarakas, and Chauroddharanikas. The last two words may be the forerunners of Pratihira and Chaudhari (two titles) respectively. This inscription edited by J.F. Fleet is dated in the 252 of Gupta era. (?)164 Upendra Thakur, rightly identifies them with the Hunas of whom they were a part.165 The people called Chulik are still found in Central Asia.

67. Sikarvar/Sagarwar/Sakarwar - They are the same as Sakaravakas of the Puranas. In Mathura, they call themselves Sagarvar which is the same. They are called Sacaravcae by the Greeks and this name is the same as the Puranic name. In about 100 B.C. the Sakarwars began to play an important part in the politics of Persia. Their part in the death of Phraates II and Artban was significant, and they practically


160. op. cit., p. 146.
161. SIH&C, p. 258.
162. Quoted by B. C. Law, op. cit., p. 384.
163. ibid.
164. IA, January 1886, p. 187.
165. The Hunas in India, pp. 191·194.


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appointed Sinatroces as king of Persia in 77 B.C. In 27/26 B.C. when Phraates IV was contending with his adversary, Tiridates, the role of Sikarwars was decisive.166 From A. Gardiner's book, The Coins of Greeks and Scythian Kings of Bactria and India in the British Museum, Plate XXXIV, 8 we know, that the names of two kings of Sikarwar clan were Artader and his son Hyrcodes. They were ruling at Sogdiana and Bactriana in the second half of the first century B.C. As per Ghirshman, the Kusana king, Heraus (of Her clan) sat on their throne in about 20 B.C. This was the period of the rise of Kasvan Jats and their ally, the Kangs (Kanggnu or Kang-kiu of the Chinese and Kankas of the Indian works) occupied Bukhara. Their coins have been found at Tali-Bargu, near Samarkand.167 Ghirshman identified them with the Sacaraavae of the Greek writers and the Sakarav or Sakara of the coins. O.G. Von Wesendonk has rightly identified them with the Sakarvaka of the Puranas,168 According to J. Marquart, they were the people meant in the inscription of Darius and styled as Saka-Hauma-Varka169 but although both the Sakarvars and the Virks were Jats (Sakas), it is the latter people who are named by Darius. Of course the ruling clan of Virks had the Sikarvars and also other clans under them, as partners, at that time, but that was in the sixth century B.C. Ultimately, their kingdom was annexed by Kanishka into the Kasvan empire, as the Kaaba Zarathustra inscription of Shahpuhr I, shows that Sogdiana, alongwith the cities of Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkand, etc., were inside the empire.170 So, the Sikarvar came to India in the first century A.D. or earlier. Perhaps, they are the Sagartians of Herodotus and of the Behistan inscription.

68. Takhar/Tokhar/Tusar - Markandeya Purana mentions them with Kambojas, Barbaras and Chhinas and are called Vāhyato Narāh, i.e. "outside people".171 This shows that they were still not considered Indian at the time of Markandeya Purana. Mahabharata mentions the Tukharas as well as


166. Albert Hermann, Sacaraucae in Pauly .., Vol. I, pp. 1161-1620.
167. J. De Morgan op. cit., pp. 536-544.
168. Kusan, Chioniten and Hephthalites, 1933, p. 337.
169. op. cit., p. 43.
170. See American Journal of Semetic Languages and Literature, 1940, p. 354.
171. LVII, 39.


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Tusaras. Tusars are also mentioned by the Vayu Purana.172 There it is clear that Tukharas and Tusaras were different. That is why we have the Takhars as well as Tusar clans among the Jats. Mahabharata places them beyond the Himalayas and correctly so. The Hari Vamsa mentions them with Sakas, Pahlavas, and others and they are branded as Mlecchas -another proof of their Central Asian origin and conquering nature. But the Greek writer Strabo (obviously a much fairer judge than the author of Hari Vamsa) has only praise for them, in spite of the fact that they had destroyed the Greek kingdoms of Bactria. Says he: "The best known of the nomad tribes are those who drove away the Greeks out of Bactria, the Asi, the Pasiani, the Tochri and the Sacarauli, who came from the country on the other side of the Jaxartes ... "173

Here Asi are another name of the Sakas (Asiagh Jats, Asik, Skt., Arsika); the Pasiani has been rightly corrected as Kusiani (the Kusanas), and Tochri are the Tokhars/Takhars, and Sacarauli are the Sakaravakas of the Puranas. Lassen, identified the Tochares with the Tukharas and locates them in the north Hindukush.174 Their role in the history of Kashmir in the ninth/tenth century A.D. is important. The Tokhars are an important clan with a brilliant past. Their clan gave their name to a language (Tokhari), to a country (Tokharistan). Many books/articles have been written about them, e.g., P. Pelliot's 'Tokharien el KOl/tcheen"175.,. "A Fropos due to Kharim"176; W.B. Henning's "Argi and the Tokharians". Sylvain Levi's, "Le Tokharien"177; W.M. McGovern, "The Early Empires of Central Asia", etc. They seem to have come to India in the second century B.C. to second century A.D.

69. Tank/Tak - Tanks or Taks are mentioned as one of the thirty-six royal houses of Indian Kshatriyas, but, said Col. Tod in his Annals, they have disappeared from history owing to conversion to Islam in the thirteenth century. Not completely yet. a large number of Tanks


172. XIV, 118.
173. Strabo, XI, 151.
174. B. C. Law, op. cit., p. 396.
175. JA, 1934.
176. La Haute Asic.
177. JA, 1933.


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are now followers of Islam, there are many Tanks still existing among the Hindu Jats.

A Tak kingdom is mentioned by Hiuen-Tsang (631-643 A.D.). It is mentioned as situated towards east of Gandhara. HiuennTsang gives its name as Tekka, and the history of Sindh, ChachhNama, mentions it as Tak. Its capital was Shekilo (Sakala, modern Sialkot), and formerly king Mihiragula was ruling from this place. In seventh century A.D., its people were not pre-eminently Buddhists, but worshipped the Sun, too. Abhidhana Chintamani says that Takka is the name of Vahika country (Punjab). For what follows, we are indebted to Chandrashekhar Gupta for his article on Indian coins. 178 The Tanks must have come to India, prior to fourth century A.D., i.e., with the Kusanas. And with the Kusanas, they must have spread up to Bengal and Orissa, like the Maans and Kangs who spread into southern Maharashtra and the Deccan. In Orissa, the Tanks, had their rule in Orissa proper, Mayurbhanj, Singbhoom, Ganjam and Balasore districts. They are called by historians as "Puri Kushans" or Kushanas of Puri (Orissa). Their coins have been found at Bhanjakia and Balasore (Chhota Nagpur) and these coins have the legend Tanka written in Brahmi script of the fourth century A.D. Allan suggested the reading Tanka as the name of a tribe. 179 and others generally accepted the reading Tanka as correct.180 A1Ian placed them in the third or early fourth century A.D., while V.A. Smith placed them in the fourth or fifth century A.D.; R.D. Bannerji called them 'Puri Kushanas".

As for the proof that they were Jats, we invite attention to the fact that they still exist as such. Their association with the Kusanas (Kasvan Jats) further supports it. Their central Asian origin is proved by the fact that Niya Khrosthi documents from Central Asia, refer to coin denomination as Tangamule.181 Here the Word Tanga is the same as Tanka, and Mule meant 'price' in Central Asia.

Jain literature refers to the Tanks and the fact that they are termed 'Mlechhas', shows their foreign origin. The Jain works


178. VIJ, Vol. XVI, pt. I, p. 92 If.
179.Ancient India, Plate XII, fig. 3,
180. JNSI, 12, 1950, p. 72.
181. ibid, 16. 1954, p. 220, f.n. 4.


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say that the Tanks were invincible (cf Chandragomin for Jats, and Thucydides' remarks for Gatae). They were the inhabitants of Uttarapatha (N.W India) and they traded with the Dakshinapatha (south Deccan) in valuable commodities like gold and ivory.182

To conclude, in the words of C.S. Gupta, "The legend Tanka has no other satisfactory explanation than this, viz., that these coins were struck by the tribe of the Tankana (Takka) in the name of their community like those of the Yaudheya and Malava. It appears that the name inscribed by these people on their coins, gradually came to denote the name of the coin". 183

This is the origin of the Taka used even now for coins. The coins of Mahmud Ghazni, bears the Sanskrit legend: (अयं टंक महमूद पुरे घटे)

Allaudin Khilji, as well as Akbar, later issued Takkas. The Rewa Stone Inscription of Malaya Simha, of 1193 A.D., shows that Khilji spent 1500 Takkas for constructing a water tank, near Rewa. Rajatarangini says that king Ananta of Kashmir, issued Takkas.184 Tank coins are mentioned in the south also.185

In popular parlance, the Tank-Sarohas are mentioned together (like the Dahiya-Dabas and Siddhu-Brar combination). The cities of Tank, Sirohi are named after them. At one time, the entire Punjab was called Tank Desha. The reports of the Chinese pilgrims confirm this fact. Originally they were worshippers of the Snake-garlanded form of Shiva. Hence they were called Nagas also.186

70. Tomar - They are named in Vayu, Brahmanda and Visnu Puranas.187 According to Boher Inscription of 1337 v.s. they were ruling over Delhi before the Chauhans.188 The Pehawa Inscription mentions a Tomar family descending from Jaula king. Vayu Purana says they were originally on the river Nalini in Central Asia, which arises in


182. J. C. Jain, Jain Agama Sahitya men Bhartiya Samaj, pp, 173-74 & 480.
183. VIJ, Vol. XVI, pt. 1, p. 93.
184. Cunningham, Coins of Medieval India, p. 34.
185. JNSI, 30, (1968), p. 129.
186. cf. Jayaswal's views on Bhara-Sivas.
187. Wilson's Edition, p. 162.
188. JASB, Vol. XLIII, pt. 1, p. 108.


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Bindusarover and goes eastwards (for identity of these rivers, etc., see under Hans). They are also mentioned in the MBT.189

71. Tevathiya/Tevathi - Certain coins were found at Ujjain, and are described by K.P. Jayaswal. 190 A coin has a river with a fish on one side; it has a legend in the oldest form of Brahmi, reading, Tubathi or Turbathi. Probably its Sanskrit equivalent is Turvashti. Coin seems to be older than Maurya times. The name which is a place name, appears to be connected with the dynastic name Turvasa. The reverse has a tree on the ground marked with a square.

These are the observations of late Dr. Jayaswal. His reading of the name, Tubathi, is practically correct; it should be Tevathi/Tuvathi, but it is not a place name, it is a clan name of the Jats. The symbols of water (with fish) and earth (with tree) are the traditional symbols of the Jats (Dharti-Pani in Hindi). It is, perhaps, older than Mauryan times. Tabiti is the name of the fire goddess of the Scythians.191

Description of Jat clans U-Z

If these suppositions are correct, then it shows that the Tevathiya Jats came to India during Achaemenid disturbances. Chaudhry Charan Singh, ex-Prime Minister of India is a scion of this clan and so is Justice Tevatya of the Punjab and Haryana High Court. Many Tevathiyas are now followers of the Prophet.

72. Utar - They are mentioned by Herodotus as Utians, alongwith the Sarangians (Sarangha) and the Pactyans192 (Pakhtoons). In the Puranas they are mentioned as Uttara. Mahabharata mentions them alongwith the Lohans, Rishikas and Kambojas.193 In the sixth century A.D. they were fighting the Holy Roman Empire, alongwith the Bals and the Kulars. There they are named as Utargari, meaning the caravan of the Utar. The word Gari has given the Indian name Gari (wagon). According to Cambridge


189. VI, 9, 69.
190. JBORS, 1936, Vol. XVII, p. 65.
191. Rawlinson's Herodotus, Vol. III, p. 160.
192. Book VII, ch. 68.
193, op. cit., II, 27, 22-26.


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Ancient History, Sargon, king of Agade (2371- 2316 B.C.), hears some complaints from the merchants of the city of Purushkhand, near Kayseri in Cappadocia and goes to battle against "the land of Uta-rapashtum".194 CAH is not sure of this name,195 because of the wrong bifurcation. The correct bifurcation should be Utara-Pashtum, i.e., the land of the Utaras and the Pashtuns. These two people are the same as the Utians and the Pactyans of Herodotus. R.N. Frye, mentions them as Uti in Armeniay196 Buddha Prakash says, "The clan of Yaudheyas has an unmistakable resemblance with the Yautiya of Laristan, the Ouitioi of Trans-Caucasia, and the Jut nomads of Kirmans"197.

Clearly, the Utians are the same as the Utara of CAH the Uttara of the Purana and the present Utar Jats. Their identification with the Yaudheyas, mayor may not be there, though it is possible. The Pashtum/Pactyan, are of course the Pashtun/Pakhtun of modern Afghanistan and these people are also mentioned by Herodotus in the West, at that time. MBT mentions a country of Uttara and a king named Uttara.198

73. Virk/Vrik - It is one of the most important clan. It is mentioned by Panini and V.S. Agrawal's identification with the Virk Jats, has already been mentioned. The same identification has been mentioned by Buddha Prakash.199 Mahabhashya mentions Vrika and its derivative Varkenya, the Varkan of the Persians, and Hyrcan of the Greeks. The Caspian sea was once called the Sea of Vrkans (Hyrcanian). The identification of Hyrcan With Varkan has also been mentioned by Rawlinson in his History of Herodotus.200; he mentions that even in the thirteenth century, their country in Central Asia was mentioned as Urkanich in Yakut. According to Herodotus they fought in the battle of Thermopylae under their leader named Megapanus, who was after wards Satrap


194. Vol. I, pt. 11, p. 426 ff.
195. ibid., p. 428, note 3.
196. MBT, VI, 9,65.
197. The Heritage of Persia, 1962, p. 50.
198. P&SMp. 105.
199. ibid.,p.251.
200. Vol. IV, p. 163.


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of Babylonia.201 They are one of the earliest clans to enter India, and up to the sixth century A.D. at least they were ruling in Malwa under their king Visnu Vardhana, Vrik. This history is given under the chapter on Harsha and is not repeated here. The Vriks are remembered in the Brahmna, Vaman and Markandeya Puranas. Their antiquity goes very much deep in the past. A country called Uruk/Wark is mentioned in Sumeria, alongwith a country called Gutium. In fact, Trigan, the last Gutian king in the twenty-second country B.C. was defeated by Utu-Khegal, the ruler of Wark country. It is possible that this country has been named after them. The word Vrik in Sanskrit means a wolf, the same as Russian Volka, which also means the same. The river Volga is named after them.202 In the Kusana]] period an officer of Vima Kadphises was a Vrika, according to K.P. Jayaswal.203

Description of more Jat clans A-M

74. Attri - Satapatha Brahmana mentions them as a people. Mahabharata mentions them . Indradamana, an Attri king, gave various charities to the Brahmans.204

75. Atavika/Ataval - Mahabharata mentions them.205 The phrase Prithvi Sarva Smlecchatvika, shows that they were associated with the Mlecchas from the west.206

76. Abra - A country called Abarnium, along with another called Gutium was known in Sumer and Babylon. Abars or Avars are known in Central Asia. Aberia was their country in India. The Abara Jats of Multan (Pakistan) are now Muslims by faith.

77. Andar - This name of a tribe is given in Gana Bhrishadi as Andara. They are the Andara of West Asia (Assyria) and the present Jats of Pakistan.


201. ibid., bk. YII, ch. 62.
202. P&SM, p. 102.
203. JBORS, Vol. XVI, p. 258.
204. MBT, 12/234/18; 13/137/3.
205. ibid., 9/32/4.
206. ibid., Ram Kumar Rai, part I (Hindi).


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78. Aulana'/Ohlan - This is the name of Santanava, as per Rigveda where he is given this patronym of Aulana, as descendant of Ula. The present Oghlan clan of Central Asia are the same as Ohlan Jats in India.

79. Aulakh/Aulukya - They are descendants of Uluka.207 MBT mentions a country called Uluka.

80. Aujhlan/Aujjihan - They are the descendants of Ujjihana, as per Panini. They are to be compared with the Aujhlan clan of Jats.

81. Bhangal/Bhangu - This clan finds mention by the Greeks, at the time of Alexannder's Invasion and it is mentioned under the name, Phegelas or Phegeus. It is well known that the Indian 'B' was termed into 'P' by the Greeks, and the suffix'S' is to be ignored as a Greek peculiarity. Keeping these facts in mind the name that remains is Bhagal or Bhagu. Under both these forms, this clan is known even today. Panini mentions them under the name Bhagala. They were a self-governing clan, ruled by an aristocracy, with justice and moderation.209 Kaka, son of Kotal, grandson of Bhandargu Bhangu was ruling at Siwistan when the Arabs attacked Sindh.210 Bhangu is given as tht name of a demon, as well as the name of a mountain. SED also mentions a Bhangasura.211

82. Bana - The word Bāṇeya is used for the adherents of Banasura.212 The present Bana clan may be identified with them.


207. Panini, IV, I. 105.
208. op. cit., 2/27/5-11; 8/54/1.
209. Mc Crindle, op. eit., p. 121.
210. Elliot and Dawson, Vol. I.
211. p. 744. See also Levi, in JA, 1890, p. 239.
212. See Sanskrit English Dictionary, M. Williams, 1960.


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83. Bassi - These people are mentioned by Ait. Br. as Vasha.213 They are the same as Basae of Herodotus and Vaisi of Assyria, one of the Median tribes. Bassis are now a Jat as well as Khatri clan. Aitereya Brahmana places them in Madhyadesha. Kaushitaki Upanishad places them with Matsyas; Gopatha Br. shows them with the Ushinaras (Sibiyas).

84. Chebuk - Pargitar in his Markandjeya Purana translation notes a people called Chibuka or Chivuka in the north of India.214 They are the modern Chebuk Jats. They are mentioned in the MBT.2l5

85. Dabas - Perhaps they are the same as the Dropice of Herodotus and Derbice of other authors. They were settled in the south-east of Caspian sea in sixth century B.C. Perhaps they are the Darvas of Indian literature.

86. Dahiya - "The Dahi were spread over the whole country (Persia) from the Caspian sea to the Persian Gulf and the Tigris. They are mentioned in the scriptures, 216 among the Samarian colonists, being classed with the men of Archoe Erech (Orkan) of Babylonia of Susa and of Elan."

Strabo says that Arsaces, a king of the Dahi, conquered Parthia.217 In 224 A.D., the Sassanids superseded, the Arscid Empire of Iran founded by him. Here the Orkan are the same as Varkan or Virks. "The Armenians still call the Georgians by the name of Virk, which is pronounced with a guttural termination".218

SED defines a people named Dadhika as a princely race.219 They are also stated to be the same as Daha, a name (of a people)


213. ibid.
214. op. cit., p. 378 note 44.
215. See. SED, p. 398.
216. Ezra, IV. 9.
217. Rowlinson, op. cit., p. 520.
218. ibid., p. 530, note 4.
219. p.475.


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which is taken as Varia Lectio, for Vaideha in Vayu Purana.220 The sea of the Dahae (Dadhi Sagar) is also mentioned as Dadhiimanḍoda. a sea (Caspian) around Sakadvipa. In second centurv B.C., a Hindu settlement was established in Armenia under the patronage of king Valarasaces of the Arsacid (Dahiya) dynasty. The temples of Lord Krishna built by these Hindus were destroyed by St. Gregory in fourth century A.D.221.

87. Dahima - They are closely connected with the Dahiya clan and both arc mentioned together. In Rajasthan they are mostly Rajputs. The Dahima Jats are now settled in Khekara and nearby villages of Meerut district (UP). They are one of the thirty six-royal races of India, alongwith the Bains, Salar, etc.

88. Dhal - They are the Dahala of Indian history and literature. Their king Dahaladhisa (king of the Dahalas) is mentioned in Bilhan's Vikramanka Deva Charita.222

Dallan was the name of a scholiast on Susrauta.223 Delhi is called the capital of Saka emperor (Sakadhipa Rajadhanl).224

See also Dhillon.

89. Gaur - G.H. Ojha, has brought to light the inscription on the temple of a goddess near Chhotisadri (Udaipur) which was inscribed on Magha Sudi 10th, Samvat year 547, by Yashavapusha Gaur, granddson of Rajyavardhana, in memory of his parents.225

Gaur is the name of a people in Brihal Samhitii of Varahamihira. The MBT mentions them under the name of Ghoraka, same as the later Ghori/Gauri.226 It is the same name born by Mohammad Ghori.


220. ibid., p. 477.
221. A.S. Altekar, Indo-Asian Culture. Oct., 1958, pp. 120-21.
222. XVIII, 93-95.
223. See SED, p. 430.
224. ibid., p. 1045.
225. Nagari Pracharini Patrika, Vo. XIII, pt. 1.
226. MBT, II, 1870.


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90. Gabar - They are mentioned in the Markandeya Purana as Gabalah.227 Gabar or Zabar in Persian means high or superior.

91. Gallan - They are mentioned in the Markandeya Purana as Galava. The original name is Gall, and the suffix 'an' or 'va' is added to it. The Gauls of Europe are their brothers.

92. Guliya - They are the same as Kulya/Kuliya of the Puranas. The Mark. Purana mentions them alongwith the Matsyas in Central India. Matsya Purana mentions a people named Kuliya.

93. Ghuman/Gumar - A people named Kuman are mentioned in the Matsya Purana. But they are shown in the south, perhaps erroneously. A person named Gomana, an architect, is mentioned in a Kushana inscription.228 Ptolemy mentions a people called Khomar, and their country called Khomaroi.229 They are ancient Gumer or Gimri, the Cimmerians of ancient Greek. It seems, the Gumar and Ghuman are the same.

94. Jaglan - This clan is named as Jangala in the Vayu Purana, alongwith Bodhas and Bhadhrakars.230 Matsya Purana says that the river Indus flowed through the country of Jangalas. MBT also mentions them.

Jaguda -MBT says that they were a saffron growing people.231 That places them in the north of Kashmir or beyond, further in the north, i.e. in Central Asian region of Balkh, famous for its saffron since ages. They are the Jakhad clan people.


227. op. cit., LVII, 36.
228. CII, Vol, II, pt. I, p. 151.
229. Ptolemy, Outline of Geography, pp. II, p, 6-9. See also Ancient India as described by Ptolemy, pp. 268-69.
230. XLV, 109, 110.
231. MBT, III, 1991.


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95. Jenjuan - They are the Jujuan of the Chinese. In the first century B.C., the Shanyu (emperor) of the northern Huna kingdom is called Jiji by the Chinese. The Hiangs (Henga Jats) "a section of the Great Yue-che" were in subjection to the Jenjuans, prior to that period. How they drove away the other tribes from Mongolia and how this caused the avalanche of the "white Hunas" on the countries from China to Rome is part of history and need not be repeated here. They now style themselves as Jenji/Jenjua as well as Jenjuan, and are found among the Jats and Rajputs.

96. Khuntal - They are mentioned in the Markandeya Purana. Mahabharata also refers to them as in the West. Upendra Thakur quotes authorrity which mentions the Khuntals alongwith Hunas.232 D.C. Sarkar mentions them as Kuntalahuna.233 As per Muir's Sanskrit texts their country is mentioned as Pisacha. He is right. The people mentioned in the Puranas as Kuntalas are the present Khuntel Jats. This is amply proved by their association with the Hunas as well as by Muir's quotations. They are mentioned in the Mahiabharata and SED as Kunthaka.

97. Johal - They have been already discussed in Chapterl. Possibly, these people have been mentioned in the MBT234 alongwith the Khasa, Kuninda (Kundu) Tangana (Tangal) clans; under the name of Jyoha are the ancestors of the later Johla/Johl Jats. Their location on botn sides of the river Shailoda lying between the Meru (Pamir) and Mandar mountains, where bamboos grow in abundance, justiifies this identification.

98. Kher - They are the Chorasmians of the ancient writers, the Khairsao of Avesta. Their king, Khera Khan is mentioned in Mricehitika, already referred to in the beginning of the chapter.


232. The Hunas in India, p. 55, note 2.
233. Studies in Geography ... , p. 71.
234. Sabha Parva, 48/2-3. खशा एकाशनाज्यॊहाः परदरा दीर्घवेनवः ।

पशुपाश च कुणिन्दाश च तङ्गणाः परतङ्गणाः ||(II.48.3)


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99. Kalkil - This is yet another important clan of the Jats which founded an empire in Central India which was later on called by the name of Vakataka. Under Pravarasena I, they were ruling from Bundelkhand to Hyderabad in the south. Some historians are of the view that this was a Brahman dynasty because Vindhyashakti, the founder of this kingdom was a Brahmana.235 This is entirely wrong. The evidence of the Puranas is definitely against it. Bhau Daji has shown that the Vakatakas were foreigners.236 Vishnu Purana expressly says that "when they (Pauras) art destroyed, the Kailakila Yavanas will be kings, the chief of whom will be Vindhyashakti" .237 The Brahmanda Puranas says, "Tatah Kilakiledhyascha Vindhyashakti Bhavishyati".

Here Paura stands for the Por clan of the Jats who are earlier mentioned in the Puranas as ruling in India. Both these Puranas expressly say that Vindhyashakti belonged to Kilkil or Kalkil clan. The Vayu and Matsya Puranas say that these people were Yavanas in institutions, manners, and policy. This is because the Greeks held sway in Bactria area for 200 years. Otherwise, also, the word Yavana is used for any foreigner from West.238

This Kalkil clan of the Jats is still existing. The fact that the race of Vindhyashakti was of the Jats is further proved by their marriage alliances which were with the Dharan/Guptas and the Bharashivas/Tank Jats. The fact that these kings were supporters of traditional Hinduism or that they performed horse sacrifices does not prove anything. We know that these foreigners were among the first to use Sanskrit language in their inscriptions. The horse sacriifice also cannot be called as peculiar to India because the sacrifice of a horse, especially a white horse, was the traditional custom of the Central Asian people right up to the Tatars. Another custom of these Central Asian people, i.e., worship of a sword, was scrupuulously followed even by Chenghiz Khan. The worship of the arms on festival days, called Shastra Puja on Dushera days, even among the later Rajputs and other Kshatriyas comes from that very source.


235. R.C. Majumdar, Ancient India, 1962, Hindi Edition, p. 253.
236. JBBRAS. vol. VII, p. 69.
237. Wilson, Edition, p. 380.
238. D. P. Singhal, India and World Civilisation, Vol. I, p. 385.


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A small state of Yadnagar in Meerut was of the Kalkil Jats who are now settled in that area. MBT mentions a people and a country called Kalkala in the south.239

100. Kale/Kalon/Kahlon - This clan name is known today under all the three forms. They are mentioned in the MBT, as Kaleya. 240 कालेय इति विख्यातो गणः परम दारुण: (i.e. the people famous under the name of Kaleya are most terrible !). It is called an Asura Jati with eight kings241 and they defeated the gods.242 The MBT expressly makes the prophecy that the Mlecchas from Kamboja country will be kings (in India) in the Kali Age.243

101. Kaka - A country is mentioned in MBT (6/9/64) as Kaka.

102. Kathia and Gathwal - It is possible that these are two different clans and not one. About the Kathia clan, The Tribes and Castes says, "After much enquiry on the subject, I have come to the conclusion that the Kathias of the present-day have a strong claim to be considered the descendants of the same "Kathaioi" who so gallantly resisted the Macedonian conqueror.244 Their own account of their origin is, of course, far different. Like all Jats, they take a particular pride in tracing their descent from a Rajput prince about the time of their conversion to Islam under Emperor Akbar. But an examination of their alleged pedigree shows that, like many other popular traditions of this kind, this account of their origin must be altogether fictitious.

The Gathwals on the other hand, are possibly the Gada/ Gadavahara of the pre-Kushana and early Kushana period. Gadavahara or Gadvar is simply changed into Gadval/Gathval by replacing the last 'R' with its sibilant interchangeable 'L'.


239. SED, p. 262.
240. MBT,3/103/7.
241. ibid., 1/67/47.
242. ibid., 3/101/6.
243. ibid., 3/188/36.
244. op. cit., vol. II, p. 482.


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103. Kohad - They are the descendants of Kohada. Vamsa Brahmna mentions a person, Mitra Vinda Kohada.245 Shravana Datta is also called a Kohada, whereas Gobhila Grihasulra speaks of a tradition of the Kohadas.246 The Kohadas are now a Jat clan.

104. Malik/Malak - They are mentioned in the Markandeya Purana as people of the Central region of India.247 The Gathwals are now designating themselves as Maliks, which is a title.

105 Man & Kahlon - They are mentioned in the Markandeya Purana together as Mana, Kalaha, Kohalakas (Kohlis) and Mandavyas (Mandas).248 The onginal name is Kahl, the German Kohl.

106. Mana/Hala - Varahamihira mentions them together in his Brihat Samhila the name of a people.249 But these are two different clan names. The Mana and the Hala/Hala. The Mana are separately mentioned as a people in Mark. Purana and so are the Hala and their country in the North.250 Mana was also supposed to be the name of Agastya's father; and consequently his family is called Mana.251 But it is doubtful, to say the least. Rig Veda mentions a Mana, and also Sons of Mana. 252 (सूनवे मानेन मानस्य सुनवः )

107. Malla - They are mentioned in the Harivamsa and as usual a Mallasura, (name of an Asura) is mentioned.,253 Amarakosa defines Asura as Purvadeva, i.e. a former god; obviously this must have been before the schism among the Aryans.254


245. Weber, Indische Sludien. 4, 372, 332.
246. HVI, (R.K. Rai), vol. 1, p. 216.
247. LVII, 33
248. ihid., LVIII, 46.
249. SED, p. 806.
250. ibid., p. 809 and p. 1293.
251. ibid.
252. Rig Veda, 1/117/11.
253. See SED, p. 793.
254. cf. Rig Veda, VIII, 25, 4.


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108. Mander/Mandrya - Rig Veda mentions a person named Mandarya. This is derived from Mandara, the modern Mander clan of the Jats.255 A Mandara mountain is known to MBT.

109. Mardha/Mirdha - They are the same as the Mardi of Herodotus and Amardi of Strabo. The word Mardi means 'Heroes'. Alexander defeated them in 330 B.C. between Persepolis and the Persian Gulf. 256

They are also to be compared with Mridi (a man) after whom the city of Mardeyapura is named257 MBT mentions Amartha, as a Janaparda (country.)258

110. Mahel - It is given as a patronym in SED.259 A people called Mahika and also a people called Maheya are mentioned in the MBT.

111. Mor/Maur - See chapter on Mauryas. The Mor kings of Chittore in Rajasthan are named Maheshwar, Bhima, Bhoja and Maan Mor. In the eighth century A.D. they were ruling at Kota also. A ruler named Dhaval Maur is named in an inscription of 738 A.D.260

112. Mor/ Nara - They are mentioned as Mura and Naraka-two powerful 'Yavvana' kings, who were ruling over the Mura and Naraka alongwith Varuna in the western countries.261 Also compare Maru and Nairi of Assyrians inscriptions.

113. Machhar/Matsya - The identification of Matsya with Machhar clan finds support in MBT which mentions Machella, the great Charioteer king,


255. SED, p. 810.
256. Rawlinson, op. cit., vol. I, p. 338.
257. Panini, VI, 2, 101.
258. MBT, 6/9/94.
259. p. 815; Bhishma Parva, IX/46. 49.
260. IA, vol. XIX, pp. 55-57.
261. MBT, Sabha Parva, 13/13.

Description of more Jat clans N-Z

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named Virata, showing thereby that these people were located closely, near the Jaipur/Mathura/Alwar region.262 The Machella and Machhar have only the difference of suffix 'al' or 'ar'. A place called Machhari in Alwar-Jaipur area is supposed to be their traditional city.

114. Nahra/Nara - The Markandeya Purana mentions them as Niharas.263 Nahra and Nara are treated as different clans although they may be one.

115. Nasir - It is defined as the van of an army, a champion who advances before the line.264 They are a Jat clan. (cf. Mount Nisir of Assyrians).

116. Nahla - The name of a barbarous tribe as per SED.265

117. Pallawal - They are the Pallavas of literature; the Pahlavi of modern Iran, the Pallava of Indian history. They are a Jat clan.

118. Panghal - They are mentioned in the Satapatha Br. as Paingya.266 This is from Pinga, the original word of Pingal or Pangal clan. Bri. Samhita mentions them as Pingalakas, along with Ailavats.

119. Paura/Phor - A Paura is mentioned in the Rig Veda as descendant of Puru.267 See also under Poras and the Mauryas.

120. Sapra - They are the same as Sapiri of Herodotus.268 They are mentioned with the Alarodians, the Alarod or Aroda of today's


262. Sabha Parva, 31/13.
263. op. cit., p. 534.
264. SED. p. 538.
265. ibid.
266. See G.P. Upadhyayas Edition, vol. I, p. 33.
267. HVI, vol. II, p. 29.
268. Rawlinson, op. cit., p. 534.


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Khatris. It is significant that when they came to India and settled in Sindh, they named their city as Alror. It was conquered by Mahmud Bin Kassim in 712 A.D. Arodas are now a Khatri clan and the Sapras are found among the Jats as well as Khatris of Punjab.

121. Sibia - As already described, the Buddhist Sibi Jataka (No. 499) contains their history and legends, and Vessantara Jataka, is named after a son of Sibia king of Jattaraur (Chittore). Their capital in Punjab was Sibipura (modern Sharkot).269 Rig Veda mentions the Sibi people, and Baudhayana Srauta Sutra mentions, their king, Usinara, whom Indra saved from foreign aggression. They are the Sibai of Arrian and Siboi of Deodorus.270

122. Salar - The word means a prince, a chief or a leader, as per PED.27l The Salar dynasty of Indian history is well-known.272

123. Sheoran - They are the Shura of Indian literature,273 and Shor of present day Central Asia. MBT mentions a Suryasura and obviously not for the sun (Surya) but for the Sura people.274 Darada (the Darar clan people) a king of Bahlika was born from Surya.275 The Shura kings came for Yudhishthira's sacrifice.

124. Sahota - Mentioned as Sahodara, a people, alongwith the Shura, Bhadra (Madra) Bodha, Salva clans in MBT.276 These people are stated to have taken refuge in the west for fear of Jarasandha of Magadha. Again Suhota was the name of a famous king, grandson of Bharata.


269. EI, 1921, p. 16; also Panini, IV/2/l09.
270. Indica. 5, 12.
271. Persian-English Dictionary, p. 642,
272. See Tod's Annals.
273. MBT,2/l3/26.
274. ibid., 1/67/58.
275. ibid.,2/44/8.
276. ibid., 2/13/26:


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125. Sangheda - They are to be compared with the (Utsava) Sanketa of MBT, 277 where Arjuna conquers them, alongwith the Suhma and Chola in the North. The Suhma are the Summa of Sindh at th the time of Arab invasion, and the Chola/Chahla clan, respectively. The Sanketas were in the west also.278 SED defines Sanketa, as the name of a people.

126. Sarangha/Saranha - The Satapatha Brahmana mentions them under the name of Sringaya as well as Srinjaya the former being more correct.279 Interestingly, a person named Sulpan Saranjya is mentioned to have changed his name into Sahadeva Saranjya after a sacrifice. The form, Sringaya, is the same as Sarangha; and the Avestan Zrayanh is the same as Saranha.280 Satapatha Br. also mentions a kingdom of Shrigayas which lasted for 10 generations, when it was overthrown, to be re-established by Chakra Satbapati, a minister of Saramgha king, Dusnṭaritu, in spite of opposition from Piatipiya, king of Balkh. A king of the Sarangaya's named Daivata became victorious over the Turvashas and Vrichivantas.281 Somaka was the son of Sahadeva, alias, Suplan, and sages Narada and Parvata consecrated him on the throne. 282 Rig Veda speaks of a Prastoka Sringya and his charity. Atharva Veda says that they annoyed the Bhrigus and, therefore came to trouble perhaps referring to the dethronement of Dusntaritu, mentioned above. But it was a temporary decline and was soon mended by recapturing the kingdom.283

127. Tangal - They are mentioned as Tangala in the Puranas. The Markandeya Purana and the Vayu Purana mention them. Sabha Parva (MBT) mentions the Tangana and Paratangna, i.e., the nearest and farther sections of these people.


277. ibid., Sabha Parva 24/15
278. ibid., 2/29/8.
279. XII, 9, 3, 8, 2, 3, 13.
280. HVI, vol. II, p. 519/520
281. Rig Veda, 6/27/7.
282. Ait. Br., 7/34/9.
283. HVI, vol. II, p. 519-20.


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128. Tandi - They are now called Thandi, a Jat clan. Samavidhana Br. speaks of a dynasty of Tandis.284

129. Tataran - They are the Tatars of Central Asia, (Tatren in German), and, perhaps, the Tittira of MBT, who were fighting on the side of Pandavas. 285

130. Ujhlan - In Central Asia these people are still called Ujh and the Markandeya Purana mentions the people named Ujjihanas. Possibly there is a connection between the two people.

131. Vatdhana - This is yet another very ancient clan among the Jats. Although mentioned in the ancient period, their history of the later period is unknown. In the eighteenth century Sikh Jats of this clan founded the state of Rasulpur. Sardar Bahadur Sir Joginder Singh, Member Viceregal Council Delhi and Minister in the Punjab Cabinet from 1926 to 1935 was from this clan.

132. Vena/Vainya - He is the ancestor of Prithi/Prithu Vainya who is called the first consecrated king of the earth. Taitteriya Br. and Satapatha and Kathaka Samhita repeat this claim. He was the inventor of agriculture as per Atharva Veda.286 As usual, Manu denounces him as irreligious and wanting in respect and submission to the Brahmans; he is further represented as having caused the confusion of castes.287 Obviously, because he must have tried to unite the castes by mixing with each other. The Vainka of present Central Asia, and the Venhval/Benhival Jats are their descendants,


284. ibid., vol. I, p. 340,
285. MBT, 6/50/51; 6/90/95.
286. HVI, vol. II, p. 19.
287. Manu Smriti. VII, 4l; IX, 66, 67,


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133. Varaich/Varaish - They are mentioned in the MBT alongwith the Chhinas, Odhrans, Hara Hunas, etc. as Varsheya, a people.288 Satapatha Br. mentions them as Vārśṇa. They are also mentioned as Varisha. Sabha Parva mentions a sea near the country of Varisha. We have taken Varaish and Varaich as one clan, though Tribes and Castes mentions them separately. Atharva Veda mentions them as a people and Chhandogya Upanishad says that a place called Raikkaparna is situated in the land of Mahavrishas. Jaiminiya Upanishad Br. mention a king Hritsvashya, a king of the Mahavrishas. Rig Veda mentions a king Daivata, of Sarangya clan, who was victorious over the Varichirichi (Vantas).

134. Sasi/Sansi - Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjab) is believed to be from this clan. A country called Sasika and its people are mentioned in the MBT in the north. 289


288. MBT, 2/47/19.
789 ibid., Bhisma Parva, IX, 46.


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