History of the Jats/Chapter VI

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History of the Jats

Ram Sarup Joon


1967 (Eng Tr by Lieutenant Colonel Dal Singh)

Printed at the Jaitly Printing Press, 147, Lajpat Rai Market,Delhi-6

Chapter VI: Offshoot Communities of the Jats

It has already been mentioned in the previous chapters that 'Yayati Vanshi' Indo Aryans did not mix up themselves with the aborigines because they did not advance towards Eastern India. They maintained strict purity of their race. By virtue of their respective occupations 'Bania', Barber, Carpenter, Blacksmith and 'Chamar' etc. emerged from Jats as separate castes. They have a very close resemblance with Jats in their countenance, habits and customs. There are other castes also which either immigrated to the Jat country according to their need from South and South East or remained intact at their places at teh time of Aryan advance. These castes started menial work with Aryans and can be easily recognised by appearance, stature and colour.

Ahirs

The Ahirs are of Yayati Ji’s Yadu Branch. They are the descendants of Yadu’s second son Satjit where as all the gotras, who are the descendants of Yadu’s elder son Krishna, are found amongst the Jats. In other words Jats and Ahirs are very closely related. Including their gotras, the total number of Jat Gotras rise to 700. The North Western Ahirs have only 97 Gotras which also include 20 percent Jat Gotras.


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The Ahirs are divided in two dynasties i.e. ‘Yadu Bansi’ and Gowal Bansi.

Ahirs migrated in large numbers to Yunan (Greece) and Southern parts of India and got merged in other communities. The Ahirs of Southern and Eastern India adopted the profession of tending cattle and selling milk and came to be known as Gawalas or Gawal Bansi. The Ahirs of Northern India who are agriculturists, started looking down upon their milk selling brethern and even refused to recognise them as Yadu Vanshi. Therefore, Ahirs. inspite of being an ancient race are found in comparatively small number.

The number of their known gotras is also small because most of them prefer to be known as Yadav rather than by their gotras which thus got gradually forgotten. Ahirs are found in almost all present States

Their population is dense in districts Mirzapur, Khandesh and Badayun and on this account that part is called Ahir Vati. With the passage of time these Ahirs have lost trace of their actual Gotras.

In the olden days Gujarat was ruled by Ahirs and due to this reason the Ahir Lord Krishna made his kingdom Dwaraka a strong hold of Ahirs to save them from the onslaughts of Raja Jarasanda of Magadha, father-in-law of Kansa. After that Gujars succeeded in ousting the Ahirs from Kathiawar, they changed the name of Lath Desh to Gujarat. Several tribes of Ahirs also settled in Greece where Hercules (Balarama) is worshiped. According to Herodotus, Hercules (Balarama) called himself an Indo-Aryan of Atre Vansa because Atre was the predecessor Satjit. In 2000 B.C. Jat and Ahir tribes are said to have been found in Iran. An Ahir officer was in the Army of Samudra Gupta. Most of the Ahir ‘Gotras’ have been derived not from the names of their ancestors but by the names of place where they lived. Some of these marked J in the list are purely Jat Gotras. A list of Ahir gotras is given below :


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List of Ahir gotras

Panwalia, Bahama, Pirt wa, Raralia, Rabad, Roswalia, Ilberia, Ilberia, Shovalia, Sisoviya, Pisan, Silgi, Sabakwal, Sunaria, Sanwalia, Sisodhia, ®

Khoia, Kandhla, (J) Lahotia, Loachas (J) Madh Rama, Mohakhan, Matahia, Maniwala, Nuniyal, (J) Niani, Chhoria, Bchhiklni (J), Dharam (J), Deva, Dagar (J), Dharntarta, Dhaliwal (J), Dilchar, Dhamiwal, Dumarwal, Dhahdla,

Ahir Gotras of UP

Rowat Sunaya, Kaih (Katheria), Sikarva, Thukrila, ( J ) Sikarva, Malhi(J): Bhind, Chaura, Chhunkaiya {J}, Burotha, Majwar, Rughiniya, Landi, Jhinwar, Saimaryhhula, Nara (Nehra), Bhogta (Bhagat), Bar (Bargiya), Khanko, Harkhiya, Bais (Beswar), Raesor, Majhroha, Bura(J), Gangoriya, Kusmariya, Kathiya, Munda (J), Atri, Budh, Tahk, Parwaes, Biati, Yadu, Puar (J), Yadav (J), Krishana, Sat Jit, Boye, Hahe, He,

Ahir Gotras

Apharia, Bachick (J), Bhabria, Badm, Bachuwal, Bhakulaish, Hodanwal, Bhasil, Binmoria, Bathuthia, Harlla, Bharial, Bagoria, Churia, Badun, Bhagroilia, Balaudhia, Chitaria, Bodkdal, Banjir, Madhgtri, Chitosia, Harivel, Sharia,


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Khadoia, Chhiralwal, Kharolia, Kirwal, Vidharia, Khaiao, Kaniawal, Karewia, Deshwal (J), Kharwaria, Kingas (J), Kharania, Gogar, Khormba, Kothwal, Nainwal, Gamwal, Rhola, Karoti, Nanu, Gangania, Kakria, Kharwalia, Nakhnia, Kurar, Khartania, Kasoran (J), Punbwar, Kulhad, Koslia, Kathet, Dahaiya (J),


The Ahir Brahmin. Ahir Sunar, Ahir Sweeper and Ahir Koli castes are found in Khandesh. Ahirs in North Western parts of India have similar customs to the Jats. Widow marriage is practiced by them. In this area, Rao Tula Ram of Kosli in Rewari Tehsil has been a prominent figure in the days of War of Independence, 1857. He fought a fierce battle against the British.

Ahirraj in Rewari

A majority of Ahirs occupy the Rewari Thesil of Gurgaon district. This area is known as Ahirwal. When Shershah Suri fought against Mughal chief, Humayun, the Ahir ‘Khap’ helped Humayun under the leadership of Rao Rura Singh. When Humayun occupied the throne of Delhi again he made Rao Rura Singh the Chief of a Pargana and the Head Quarters of the Pargana was named Rewari. During the reign of Mughals the Ahir State remained as their trust-worthy friend and Rao Tej Singh made a name with them. In 1803 Lord Lake reduced the power and position of the Mughals and captured the Ahirs State which was at that time ruled by Puran Singh.

Rao Tula Ram was born in 1825. When he was thirteen, Rao Puran Singh passed away. Rao Tula Ram was very courageous. He increased his power and territory. Bahadur Shah Zafar was a fast friend of Rao Tula Ram. Raja Nahar Singh of Balabgarh was the administrator and defender of Delhi during the mutiny of 1857. Rao Raja Tula Ram was very active in


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the area of Rewari and Narnaul and inflicted a crushing defeat to the Britishers.

When the forces of Jaipur, Patiala, Jind and Kapurthala arrived to the help of Britishers, Rao Tula Ram had to leave Rewari, Kanund, and Narnaul. But he did not lose heart and made an alliance with Scindia and Tatiya Tope to continue fighting. A conference of the revolutionaries was called and Rao Raja Tula Ram was appointed to seek help from foreign countries. Rao Tula Ram reached the shore in disguise. He went Basra to by sea and met the Russian envoy and Khaddiv(?) and then reached Iran.

He was given a royal reception but was refused help. After that he came to Kabul and struggled for six years. raising the united army of Pathans and the Indian revolutionaries. Luck and life did not favour him and he passed away. The Amir of Kabul sent his ashes to Rewari with two Sardars.

Rao Balbir Singh was made the chief of the Ahir Khap. Rao Birendra Singh, one time Chief Minister of Haryana, is the grandson of Rao Tula Ram.

Gujar

The Gujar Community is a martial community of India. Till now Historians have not been able to say exactly as to what is the origin of word Gujar, Gurjar, Gaocher, Kosar, Khosa or Khijar.

The Gujars are also described in modern history books as descendants of Huns. The theory is that Hun tribes used to keep on moving but their base was in the country near Bahre Khijar (Black Sea). From here they went to Europe and Central Asia. Their main occupation was grazing cattle and sheep. They used to call themselves Khujar. Khujar got converted to Gujar


Although Huns were shepherds,they were brave warriors. They were from pure Aryan stock they


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invaded India in about 400 AD. When defeated and driven out by king Yashodharman they concealed themselves in the mountains. A large number settled down in these countries. But amongst Indian Gujars only five gotras are after the name of Hun Sardars. The rest of the Gujars are from Jat Gotras. Some of them are from Rajputs also.

Dr. Huthi of Georgia paid a visit to India in 1967 and studied the Gujars living in Northern India. He has stated that there are Georgian tribes too among the Gujars because the accent of the Indian Gujars, their dress and their bullock carts resemble that of the Georgians. Dr. Huthi is of the view that they came to India when Timur let loose a reign of terror over them and consequently they settled here. They came here to protect their lives and religion and called themselves "Georgian", "Jorjars",. Later this word was changed into Gujjar. The "Khetana" caste of the Gujjars is also a proof of the fact that they came from Khotan.

The Gujar Gotras are divided into three groups.

  • The third and largest group Gujars of gotras are the same as Jat Gotras.


Gujars force ascendancy arose after the death of King Harshavardhana and they undertook the task of protecting the Hindu religion and checking the advance of Islam on the Western frontiers of the country.


Jats accepted Gujar leadership because Gujars were Buddhists and had arisen for a noble cause. The Jats who joined the Gujar force also came to be known as Gujars by and by. Kings of Solankhi Gotra,


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Panwar or Partihars established two kingdoms named Bhinmal, and Tira (Achalgarh) in the area of Mount Abu.

The proof ofParmars and Pratihars being Gujars or Huns is that there was a town named Jablapuri which both these kingdoms claimed as their heritage. Jabila (Hun) was the chief of the tribe.

Kasana or Kasvan is a Jat Gotra in Rajasthan at present. King Kanishka was a foreign Yuchi (Yati Jat and Khathans were Khotani or Turkish Jats. Turkistan has been a pure Jat country and the ancestors or Turks were of Takshak Ghorsi (Ghosi) (Ghorzay), the Zablastanis of Kabul were Indians.

Gorzai a big tribe of Pathans in Ghazni (Zabilastan) claim their origin from Gazni.

The Gaur Jats and Rajput had their kingdoms in Rajasthan also.

This was because Afghanistan was a province of India and tribes often shifted from one province to another.


The Arab historian Suleman Nadvi in his book Tarikhe-Tibri writes that in 900 A. D. there was a powerful Jat king of Balhara Gotra. He ruled on the Western frontiers of India and was a fast friend of Arab Kings.

Jat Gotras who joined Gujar force

On the other hand the Gujar was a bitter foe of Arab and Islam. The Gujar rule had that time spread over most of India.

About 70 Jat Gotras joined the Gujar force and started calling themselves Gujars. Some of these Jat Gotras are given below.

Bhind, Bhoria, Bhatti, Babar, Bagiar, Bar, Bhilaut, Bhadan, Chalukya, Chaura, Cirwar, Changas, Dulesra, Duhal, Dehru, Goraya, Jarija, Jinder, Kitcher, Kataria, Khokkar, Khirya, Khare, Kharal, Punia, Rathi, Rawasia, Phalswal (Poruval), Sindher, Singal, Sargu, Lamba, Midhan, Matsara, Medh, Puni, Sandal, Thakrela, Titarwal, Tanwar, Thand, Gomat, Girwar, Gaherwal, Jamgal, Jaglain, Bander, Birru, Chandal, Chandel, Chhonker,


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The Gujars were Buddhists. After the death of King Harsha , the Puranic Mat eclipsed Buddhism. The Brahmin priests did not admit Gujars as 'Akshatriyas' calling them foreigners. This point was an obstacle for them in winning over the public faith and establishing a firm Gujar rule- With this policy, the Brahmins succeeded in converting Gujars from Buddhism to the Puranic Mat. Later the Gujars in power were named as 'Rajputs', after the ceremony of 'Agni Kund Yagya' and granted the privileges to be classified as 'Aksahtriyas'

Chamar

The community known as Chamars is spread out in the whole of Northern India and West Pakistan and is found in almost every village. Traces of Buddhism exist alike in Hindu as well as Sikh Chamars. At present they are followers of Saints like Rai Dass, etc. In West Pakistan they are followers of Islam. They are mainly labourers, and they also utilise their spare time in weaving and leather work. Their physical features are Aryan. Most of them are originally Jats and some are Ahirs, Gujars and Rajputs who adopted Hinyan faith of Buddhism.

In the days of Kumar Gupta (? it must be read as Kanishka), Budhism split in two. The Mahayan sect forbade meat eating but the Hinyan Sect permitted eating the meat of those animals which died accidentally. After the decline of Budhism the Brahmins used this custom to condemn this sect and brand them as a religiously degraded lot. They were persecuted and oppressed. Most of them were driven out to other countries. Those who stayed back or returned later were looked down upon,


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deprived of their landed property and forced to do menial work. This is one reason why 'Chamars' inspite being from the same stock as other people in the are do not own any land. Because some of them had to resort to leather work the whole community was given the 'Chamar' contemptuously.

Brahmins have condemned these people for ever as untouchable because they do leather work and eat the meat of dead animals. Both these reasons are however unjustifiable. Firstly not all people of this community do leather work. A large number subsist on labour and weaving. Secondly, there is nothing low about working with leather. Leather goods have been in use since time immemorial. In the absence of a separate Chamar community these goods must have been made by the Aryans themselves and they did not become untouchables, because of that. Even Rishis used to tear deer skins with their own hands, wear them and use them to sit on and meditate.

As regards meat eating, it is a well known fact that early Aryans ate meat and hunted animals for it. Not all Brahmins are non meat eaters. It is given in "Ramayan Uttrakand" that Raja Pratap Bhanu served beef to Rishis and Brahmins in a Yagya by mistake and the rishis cursed him to remain a Rakshash for many generations. Raja Dashratha shot Sarwankumar mistaking him for a deer while he was collecting water for his blind parents. On another occasion Dashrath is said to have killed one of a pair of cranes and other other died of sorrow. It is mentioned in the Valmiki Arnya Kand that one day during his exile Shri Rama Chandra ji killed eleven deer and sent one of these to the rishis. Manu Sumariti has described the benefits feeding the meat of buffalo, goat and sheep to priests during 'Shradhs.'

Before the advent of Buddhism animals were offered to gods and slaughtered in the temples by the


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priests themselves. once, Mahatma Budh appealed to a priest thus:'O Brahmin, leave the ear of that goat, hold mine and if you think what you are trying to do is right then slaughter me.'

Even during the Buddhist era, when Ahinsa Pramo Dharma was the order of the day, Brahmins stubbornly kept eating meat. Even today, except Gaur Brahmins who were at one time influenced by Buddhism, most of the Brahmins eat meat.

Even now in Tibet and other countries, well to do and staunch Buddhists pay a high price for animals which die accidentally. So, Chamars are not the only people who eat the meat of dead animals. They are, therefore, not untouchables. Most of them are original Jats who adopted professions other than agriculture.

A part of the community is known as Jatyas. When they were separated from Jats they started calling themselves Jatyas. All gotras from this party are not Jat. They say that Jatyas are from Jat, Gujar, Ahir, Meo and Rajputs. Some of their gotras are Raj Vanshi Gahlot, Chohan and Kathi etc. They Jatyas insist they are Yaduvanshi, Khatries.

But to avoid the name Chamar, most of these people adopted titles like Rahdasi, Ramdasiye. Koli Megh, Meghwal, Kori, Bhalia, Raj Bhalai. Kuramjansiya, Channor, Chandore Dhumiya, Nandiya Panthi, Kothani, Deuli, Mochi, Satyanami, Sortri etc.

Gots of Chamars and their Castes

Gots of Chamars Caste Area
Ahlavat Jat Haryana, UP
Ahrodhia Ahir Punjab, Haryana
Apharia Ahir ----
Bhundwal or Bodhan Jat Haryana, UP

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Gots of Chamars Caste Area
Bargujar Rajputs Haryana, Bagar
Jalandhi Jat Haryana, Punjab

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Gots of Chamars Caste Area
Jakhar Ahir-Jat Haryana, Pakistan
Sial Jat West Pakistan

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Gots of Chamars Caste Area
Sang Jat Sikh Punjab
Sandhariya Jat Haryana Bagar
Saharavat Jat Haryana
Sandhar Jat Haryana
Tobarya Jat Haryana Bagar

Arrah or Arora

Arora is a business community which is found from Punjab to Afghanistan.They are the descendants of Raja Ar who has been described in the account of Jat Gotras. Ar was the son of Raja Seth Chandravanshi and was the ruler of Afghanistan. His son Gandhar founded Gandhar or Qandhar. Todd has described his name as Arvis. In spite of being businessmen they are a brave and hardy people and always stuck to their religion in spite of living under Muslim pressure.

Vaish or Bania

Vaish was the third Varna of the Aryans. Akshariyas who took the business also came to be known as Vaish. Originally their number was small but increased with the increase in trade between various countries. Vaish community includes a large number of Jat Gotras. Gupta Banias are from Jat Gupta dynasty. Agarwal originated from Agroha city which lies in ruins about 16 miles from Hisar on the road to Sirsa. It was founded by Raja Ugrasain Yaduvanshi. His kingdom comprised 18 Jat Principalities. Agarwals claim to be the descendents of Uggrasain. They are therefore Jats, word Dassa Banias are originally Dahiya Jats. It is mentioned in Jati Bhaskar that six other Bania Gotras viz. Devpuria, Amrans, Oswal, Dad, Vak and Chochani originated from Dahiyas. Kotaria and Rathi Banias are akin to Jats of the same gotras.

Brahmins

A number of Jat gotras are found amongst the


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Brahmins. Kaushik, Badgil, Bhardwaji, Kirayan Brahmin Gotras originated from Bhatti Jats. Badgi Brahmins and Biji, Baje and Bajrania Jats are all descendants of Rishi Bishwamitra son of Raja Kusl Kirayana and Mudgil Brahmins claim common origin and both of them are kin of Gill Jats. The ancestors of Bhardwaj Brahmins was Raja Bhardwan grandson of Raja Dushyant and son of Bharat. Rajputs of this gotra are also found in Kashmir.

Barbers (Nai)

Most of the Barbers living in the Jat territory have Jat gotras. Some of them call themselves Kulin Brahmins, whose profession was to shave pilgrims at sacred places. They are however small in number. Most of the Barbers in Jat area on the basis of their gotras, are Jats who took to this profession.

Bairagi

Most of the Bairagis also have Jat gotras. There are several villages in which Jats and Bairagis are of the same gotra and possess landed property at par with each other. After the downfall of Buddhism and rise of Puranic Mat, a large number of Jats became followers of Sadhus. The descendants of Jats who themselves became Sadhus came to be known as Bairagi, meaning those who have renounced worldly affairs.


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End of Chapter VI

References


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