Taxakeshwar

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Author: Laxman Burdak IFS (R)
Taxakeshwar temple
Location of Navali, Bhanpura, Mandsaur district

Taxakeshawar (तक्षकेश्वर) or Takhaji (ताखाजी) is a place of religious and historical importance with temple of Taxaka in Mandsaur district in Madhya Pradesh.

Location

It is situated at a distance of 22 km from Bhanpura town on Hinglajgarh road. [1]This is the site of serpent king taxak , where he is worshiped as Taxakeshawar but the local people call him Takhaji. Curiously enough he shares the worship of the country folk with Dhanvantri, the Indian Aesculapius. [2][3] The shrine in question stands on a most romantic spot from village Navali[4] situated on the table land at the foot of which Bhanpura lies. [5]

Temple of Taxak

Statue of Taxaka at Taxakeshwar temple

This place is very important from natural and scenic beauty. James Tod had visited this place in 1821 and was amazed to see its scenic beauty. [6] There is a grand natural water pool full of many varieties of fish. The source of water in it is a hot water spring which falls from a height of about 200 feet. [7] The river Takhali at a distance of about 10 km from Chambal River that flows to Jhalawar in Rajasthan falls into this water pool and forms the water fall (Fountain of the Amjar).

This place is probably the only site having a temple and a statue of nagaraja Taxak. Statue of Taxaka is shown with seven serpent hoods protecting from above. In one hand of Taxaka is shown a human head. On one side is shown his wife and his son on other side. The period of installing this statue is estimated to be 12th century. [8] [9] A fair is held on every purnima of baisakh month of Hindu Calendar. [10]

In front of the statue of Taxaka is installed the statue of Dhanvantari. The main temple has also the statue of Shiva, considered as swami of Taxaka.

Mythological legend

Image of the Snake King (Takhaji) at the Fountain of the Amjar

There is puranic mythological legend heard about nagaraja Taxaka and Dhanavantari in this part of Malwa region in Madhya Pradesh. Emperor Janamejaya ascended to the throne of Hastinapura upon the death of his father Parikshita. According to legend, Parikshita, the lone descendant of the House of the Pandu, had died of snakebite. He had been cursed by a sage to die so, the curse having been consummated by the serpent-chieftain Takshak. Janamejaya bore a deep grudge against the serpents for this act, and thus decided to wipe them out altogether. He attempted this by performing a great Sarpa satra - a sacrifice at Nagda that would destroy all living serpents. All the \nagas had been destroyed in this nagayagya except Taxaka, who is believed to have obtained boon from Lord Vishnu. Local tradition goes that Taxaka resides here.

On the other hand Dhanavantari along with his followers and medicines was going to save Parikshita. The Taxaka naga with the help of illusive powers took the form of wood-stick of chandan tree. When Dhanavantari took this wood-stick on his shoulder, the Taxaka bite him on back and Dhanvantari died. The local people believe that Dhanvantari stays here since that time as god of herbs and medicines. The local vaidyas first worship Dhanavantari here and then collect medicinal herbs for treatment.

Shivalinga at Taxakeshwar Temple

ऐतिहासिक प्रमाण

शिलालेखों और साहित्यिक ग्रंथों में इसके नाम हैं - तक्षकगढ़, तक्षकपुर, टोडापत्तन, इष्टिकापुर आदि इसकी प्राचीन इतिहास उपलब्ध नहीं है. उपलब्ध साक्ष्यों से पता चलता है कि ईसा की प्रथम शताब्दी के आसपास यह क्षेत्र मालवगण के अधीन था. जिनकी राजधानी कर्कोटक नगर थी जो नगर नाम से टोंक जिले की उणियारा आज भी विद्यमान है. पौराणिक मान्यताएं इस कसबे का सम्बन्ध नागवंशियों से जोड़ती हैं जो इसके तक्षकगढ़, तक्षकपुर नाम से भी स्पस्ट होता है जिनका राज्य यहाँ तीसरी-चौथी शताब्दी ई. के लगभग जाता है. इसके अरावली पर्वत माला के जिस पर्वतांचल में यह क़स्बा बसा है वह तक्षकगिरी कहलाती है. तथा अम्बासागर के उत्तरी छोर वाली नाग के फन की आकृति वाली पर्वतीय चट्टान ताख़ाजी के नाम से लोक उपासना का केंद्र है. [11]

Inscription No I: Kanswa Inscription of Maharaja Shalinder of year 409 AD

Translation of an Inscriptions in the Nail-headed character relative to the Takshaka (Jat) race

Inscription No I
English Text of Kanswa Inscription of Maharaja Shalinder of year 409 AD

Memorial of a Gete or Jit prince of the fifth century, discovered 1820, in a temple at Kunswa, near the Chumbul river, south of Kotah


May the Jit’ha be thy protector ! What does this Jit’h resemble? Which is the vessel of conveyance across the waters of life, which is partly white, partly red? Again, what does it resemble, where the hissing-angered serpents dwell ? What may this Jit’ah be compared to, from whose root the roaring flood descends? Such is the Jit’h : by it may thou be preserved 1.


The fame of Raja Jit I now shall tell, by whose valour the lands of SALPOORA 1 are preserved. The fortunes of Raja Jit are as flames of fire devouring his foe. The mighty warrior JIT SALINDRA 2 is beautiful in person, and from the strength of his arm esteemed the first amongst the tribes of the mighty; make resplendent as does the moon the earth, the dominions of SALPOORI.


The whole world praises the Jit prince. Who enlarges the renown of his race, sitting in the midst of haughty warriors, like the lotos in waters, the moon of the sons of men. The foreheads of the princes of the earth worship the toe of his foot. Beams of light irradiate his countenance, issuing from the gems of his arms of strength. Radiant is his array: his riches abundant; his mind generous and profound as the ocean. Such is he of SARYA 3 race, a tribe renowned amongst the tribes of the mighty; whose princes were ever foes to treachery to whom the earth surrendered her fruits, and who added the lands of their foes to their own. By sacrifice, the mind of this lord of men has been purified; fair are his territories, and fair is the FORTRESS OF TAK’HYA 4. The string of whose bow is dreaded, whose wrath is the reaper of the field of combat; but to his dependents he is as the pearl on the neck; who makes no account of the battle, though streams of blood run through the field. As does the silver lotos bend its head before the fierce rays of the sun, so does his foe stoop to him, while the cowards abandon the field.

From this lord of men (Narpati) SALINDEA sprung DEVNGLI, whose deeds are known even at this remote period.

From him was born SUMBOOKA, and from him DEGALLI, who married two wives of YADU race 5, and by one a son named VIRA NARINDRA, pure as a flower from the fountain.

Amidst groves of amba, on whose clustering blossoms hang myriads of bees, that the wearied traveler might repose, was this edifice erected. May it and the fame of its founder, continue while ocean rolls, or while the moon, the sun, and hills endure. Samvat 597.--- On the extremity of MALWA, this minister [MINDRA] was erected, on the banks of the river TAVELI, by SALICHANDRA 6, son of VIRACHANDRA.

Whoever will commit this writing to memory, his sins will be obliterated.

Carved by the sculptor SEVNARYA, son of DWARASIVA, and composed by BUTENA, chief of bards.

Translation of an Inscriptions in the Nail-headed character relative to the Takshac (Jit) race[12]

Notes by Col. James Tod[13]

[Note 1.]— In the prologue to this valuable relic, which superficially viewed would appear a string of puerilities; we have conveyed in mystic allegory the mythological origin of the Jit or Gete race. From the members of the chief of the gods ISWAR or Mahadeva, the god of battle, many races claim birth: the warrior from his arms; the Charun from his spine; the prophetic Bhat (Vates) from his tongue; and the Gate or Jit, derives theirs from his tiara, which, formed of his own hair, is called Jit’ha. In this tiara, serpents, emblematic of TIME (kal) and DESTRUCTION, are wreathed; also implicative that the Jits, who are of Takshac, or the serpent race, are thereby protected. The “roaring flood” which descends which descends from this Jit’ha is the river goddess, Ganga, daughter of Mera, wife of Iswara. The mixed colour of his hair, which is partly white, partly of reddish (panduranga) hue, arises from his character of ARDHNARI, or Hermaphroditus. All these characteristics of the god of war must have been brought by the Scythic Gete from the Jaxartes, where they worshipped him as the Sun (Balnath) and as XAMOLSCIS (Yama, vulg. Jama), the infernal divinity.

The 12th Chapter of the Edda, in describing BALDER the second son of Odin, particularly dwells on the beauty of his hair, “whence “the whitest of all vegetables is called the eyebrow of Balder, on the columns of whose temples there are verses engraved, capable of recalling the dead to life.”

How perfectly in unison is all this of the Jits or Jutland and the Jits of Rajasthan. In each case the hair is the chief object of admiration of Balnaath as Balder, and the magical effect of the Runes is not more powerful than that attached by the chief of the Scalds of our Gete prince at the end of this inscription, fresh evidences in support of my hypothesis, that many of the Rajpoot races and Scandinavians have a common origin—that origin, Central Asia.

[Note 2.]Salpoora is the name of the capital of this Jit prince, and his epithet of Sal-Indra is merely titular, as the Indra, or Lord of Sal-poori, ‘the city of Sal’, which the fortunate discovery of an inscription raised by Komarpal, king of Anhulwara (Neharwalla of D’Anville), dated S. 1207, has enabled me to place “at the base of the Sewaluk Mountains.” In order to elucidate this point, and to give the full value to this record of JIT princes of the Punjab, I append (No.V) a translation of the Neharwala conqueror’s inscription, which will prove beyond a doubt that these princes of SALAPOORI in the Punjab were the leaders of the Yuti from the Jaxartes, who in the fifth century, as recorded by De Guignes, crossed the Indus and possessed themselves of the Punjab; and strange to say, have again risen to power, for the Sikhs (disciples) of Nanuk are almost all of Jit origin.

[Note 3.]— Here this Jit is called of SARYA SAC’HA, branch of ramification of the Saryas; a very ancient race which is noticed by the genealogists synonymously with the SARIASPA, one of the thirty-six royal races, and very probably the same as the SARWAYA of the Komarpal Charitra with the distinguished epithet “the flower of the martial races” (Sarwaya c’shtrya tyn sar).

[Note 4.]— “The fortress of Tacshac.” Whether this TAKSHAC-NAGARI, or castle of the Tak, is the stronghold if SALAPOORI, or the name given to the conquest in the environs of the place, whence this inscription, we can only surmise, and refer the reader to what has been said of Takitpoora. As I have repeatedly said, Taks and Jits are one race.

[Note 5.]— As the Jits intermarried with the Yadus at this early period, it is evident they had forced their way amongst the thirty-six royal races, though they have again lost this rank. No Rajpoot would give a daughter to a Jit, or take one from them to wife.

[Note 6.]Salichandra is the sixth in descent from the first-named prince. JIT SALINDER, allowing twenty-two years to each descent=132- S.597, date of ins.= S.465-56= A.D. 409; the period of the colonization of the Punjab by the Getes, Yuti, or Jits, from the Jaxartes.


Wiki editors notes on Inscription No. I

1 Note byDrRajpalSingh : The identification of Salpoora, Salpoori has remained a big problem with the historians so far. Their speculation to identify this place with known power centre of Jats has led Tod and Cunningham to Syalkot but our discussion has led us to believe that we must concentrate our efforts to locate the place in the vicinity of the Kansawa as no big kingdom could be imagined in the period mentioned on the inscription itself i.e. it was the period when glory of the Imperial guptas was at the peak. It means, this ruling dynasty was founded by either some petty officer of the Guptas or some adventurer prince in the far off remote corner of the empire. The result of our efforts may be presented as follows.
2. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India (p.348) writes Takas were of Surya family. This gets confirmation from an inscription of Salindra king of Kansawa: We have come to know from inscription discovered by Col Tod (I.A.XIX p.55) from Kanaswa, which is situated at the bank of river Chambal, south of Kota that the King Salindra (409 AD, his capital was Salpur) of Sarya (Surya) family, was king of Takkas (Takhyas). These people of Sarya family were famous among other tribes too. (Tod James II, pp 914-17) Laxman Burdak (talk) 09:48, 12 January 2015 (EST)
3. Note by DrRajpalSingh - Alexander Cunningham also casts doubt on the accuracy of the translation of the Memorial of a Jit Prince of the Fifth Century viz Inscription I which is being discussed here. He does not accept the inclusion of the Jats in the list of 36 royal dynasties and, therefore, suggests an alternate reading of the two words. Why and what according to him should be alternate words, read the extract given below:
"Now, if any dependence could be placed on the perfect accuracy of Colonel Tod's translation, I would at once admit that this inscription proves Rajpoot origin of the Jats beyond all probability of doubt. But the low position which the Jats hold in the social scale is so well known that, without any hesitation whatever, I conclude that the published version must be inaccurate. Perhaps, the word which colonel Tod has read as Jith and Jit, should be Jin or Jina."[14] (Dr Rajpal Singh) 09:42, 13 January 2015 (EST)
5. Note by DrRajpalSingh - In literary sources we find that Word 'Jit' finds place in Komarpal Charit [Gujrati dialect-MSS] and also in the corrected list of Tod. [15]


Another interesting reference in this connection is the clan name i.e. Sarweya "Chatrya tym Sar in the Komar Pal Charit which seems to represent SARAYA of the inscription. [Gujarati dialect-MSS][16]DrRajpalSingh 01:43, 15 January 2015 (EST)
6. Salpuri capital of Jit Salendra = Salera - English Text of Kanswa Inscription of Maharaja Shalinder of year 409 AD mentions the capital of Jit Salendra at Salpuri. James Tod in his note-2 identified it with Salpuri in Punjab but has not given convincing evidence. My anticipation is that this Salpuri must be located some where in Malwa itself. I have come across a village named Salera in Chhoti Sadri tahsil in Chittorgarh district in Rajasthan. Its ancient name was Shalipura (शालिपुरा). This is clear from following description:
It is Mentioned in Chittor Inscription of Kumarapala year V. 1207 (1150 AD) and Dasharatha Sharma [17]] that Arnoraja attacked Kumarapala Chalukya but got defeated. This defeat of Arnorja and Ballala, his the Malwa ally, is mentioned in the Vadnagar prashasti, dated Thursday, the 5th of bright half of ashvina, V. 1208 and that of Arnoraja alone is in Chittor Inscription of V. 1207 which states that after having defeated the ruler of Shakambhari, Kumarapala reached Shalipura (modern Shalera) and fixing his camp there went to have the glorious view of the Mount Chitrakuta. (Lines: 10-13, EI,II,p.421ff) Thence he proceeded to Palari where, according to Tod he placed an inscription in the month of Pausha, V. 1207. Laxman Burdak (talk) 02:03, 27 January 2015 (EST)
7. Identification of Fortress of Takhya with Tokaspura or Takhaji - This Inscription of Jat prince Salendra of the fifth century, discovered by James Tod in 1820, in a temple at Kunswa, near the Chumbal river, south of Kotah.
Its capital was Salpuri which we have identified with Salera village in Chhoti Sadri tahsil in Chittorgarh district in Rajasthan. Its ancient name was Shalipura (शालिपुरा).
The Inscription mentions about a FORTRESS OF TAK’HYA that means Takshaka Fort or Takshakapura (तक्षकपुर).
James Tod writes [Note 4.]— “The fortress of Tacshac.” Whether this TAKSHAC-NAGARI, or castle of the Tak, is the stronghold of SALAPOORI, or the name given to the conquest in the environs of the place, whence this inscription, we can only surmise, and refer the reader to what has been said of Takitpoora. As I have repeatedly said, Taks and Jits are one race.
Our research has shown that this is not Takatpur as indicated by Tod but itis Tokaspura (टोकसपुरा) village in Indragarh Bundi tehsil of Bundi district in Rajasthan. PIN:323614. Nerby villages are Nawalpura and Nayagaon. Nearby railway station of Tokaspura is Bundi. Its location in south Bundi near the border of the Chambal matches with the description of Tod. Laxman Burdak (talk) 05:03, 8 February 2015 (EST)
8Note by --DrRajpalSingh (talk) 07:18, 9 February 2015 (EST) If these identifications may be accepted as correct, then this follows that this Jat kingdom which flourished in the Malawa region for about one and half century [c. AD 405 to 540 AD onward when the inscription was established] played an important role in the affairs of the region of Kota-Bundi in those days. It is remarkable that this ruling dynasty came into existence at a time when the Gupta Empire was at the peak of its glory under Chandragupta II Vikramaditya. Another important point emerges that since no other information concerning this dynasty has come to light, it may be presumed that after the death of King Salichandra, it might had been replaced by other ruling dynasty. When did this event happen, is shrouded in the darkness in the absence of any data on the issue.

Takha village

Takha Jat clan

Takha (ताखा) gotra Jats live in Mandsaur and Nimach districts in Madhya Pradesh. The Jat villages in Mandsaur district where they live are: Nataram (Sitamau) The Jat villages in Nimach district where they live are: Fatehnagar (9), Khadawda (1), (See-Takha)

Taxak Jat clan

Taxak (तक्षक) Takshak (तक्षक) Tokas (तोकस) is Jat Gotra descended from Nagavansh king named Taxaka. Takshak gotra of Jats live in India, Pakistan and Central Asia get their gotra after him. (See -Taxak)

Gallery

References

  1. Usha Agarwal:Mandsaur Zile Ke Puratatvik samarakon ki paryatan ki drishti se sansadhaniyata - Ek Adhyayan, Chirag Prakashan Udaipur, 2007, p. 35
  2. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p. 27
  3. J.P.H. Vogel:Indian Serpent lore, p.206
  4. http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/0/Navali.html
  5. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p. 27
  6. L.D.Dhariwal (Ed): Indore State Gazetteer, p. 66
  7. Usha Agarwal:Mandsaur Zile Ke Puratatvik samarakon ki paryatan ki drishti se sansadhaniyata - Ek Adhyayan, Chirag Prakashan Udaipur, 2007, p. 36
  8. Usha Agarwal:Mandsaur Zile Ke Puratatvik samarakon ki paryatan ki drishti se sansadhaniyata - Ek Adhyayan, Chirag Prakashan Udaipur, 2007, p. 36
  9. Chandra Bhusahan Trivedi:Dashpur, p. 15
  10. Usha Agarwal:Mandsaur Zile Ke Puratatvik samarakon ki paryatan ki drishti se sansadhaniyata - Ek Adhyayan, Chirag Prakashan Udaipur, 2007, p. 36
  11. Dr. Raghavendra Singh Manohar:Rajasthan Ke Prachin Nagar Aur Kasbe, 2010,p. 59
  12. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, pp. 621-22
  13. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, pp. 622-23
  14. Archaeological Survey of India. Vol II, 919720, Indological Book House, Varanasi, pp. 58-59
  15. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, p. 69.
  16. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, p. 69.
  17. Early Chauhan Dynasties by Dasharatha Sharma, p. 60.
  18. Thakur Deshraj Jat Itihas, Delhi, 1992, p.149

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