Taxak

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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क
Taxakeshwar temple in Mandsaur district in Madhya Pradesh
Statue of Taxaka at Taxakeshwar temple in Mandsaur district in Madhya Pradesh

Taxak (तक्षक)[1] [2] Takshak (तक्षक) Tokas (तोकस)[3] [4] Tokas (टोकस)[5] [6][7] Togas (तोगस) Taksham (तक्षम) is Jat Gotra, who are found in India, Pakistan and Central Asia. They are found in Delhi, Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan[8] states in India. James Tod places it in the list of Thirty Six Royal Races.[9] The Takshaks or Takiuks of Scythia, invaded India about six centuries before Christ. [10]

Origin

James Tod [11] writes that The Indo-Scythic tribes were designated by the names of animals. The Barahas are the hogs ; the Numries, the foxes ; Takshaks, the snakes ; Aswas or Asi, the horses, etc.

Genealogy of Suryavansha

They are said to be descended from Nagavanshi king named Taxaka (तक्षक). [12][13]


Branches of Nagavansha are - 1. Vasati/Bains 2. Taxak 3. Aulak 4. Kalkal 5. Kala/ Kalidhaman/ Kalkhande 6. Meetha 7. Bharshiv 8. Bharaich[14]


Regarding the origin of the Taxak Jats various theories have been propounded by the authors of history. They are summarized herein under. Alexander Cunningham states:

“According to the Mahabharata and the Puranas, the Takshakas were the descendants of the Takshaka, one of the many sons of Kasyapa by his Naga wife Kadru. Other sons were called Naga, Karkotaka, Vasuki, Sesha, Mahapadma, &c., all of whom were equally regarded as kings of the serpents, while their names are used quite indiscriminately to designate the ophite race. Thus Nagas Karkotakas, and Takshakas are all names of but one and the same people. As descendants of Kadru, they are also called Kudravas and Kadraveyas. This name I find upon three very old cast coins in my own possession, given in its pali form as Kadasa. The coins are of two different types, but in all the specimens the name is accompanied by the figure of a snake. This pictorial illustration of the name seems to me quite sufficient to prove that these coins must belong to the ophiolatrous race of Kadravas, and as the coins were obtained in the Western Punjab, while the characters are similar to those of Asoka’s inscriptions, they may be attributed with much confidence to the early Takkas of Takka-desa.” [15]

History

Ram Sarup Joon[16] writes ... Many names in the Genealogical tables of Yayati are associated with present Jat gotras. Some examples are Ushinar, Shishu Bhadra, Tak or Takshak, Satoti, Krishan or Kushana from the Yadhu branch; Dushyanta, Bharat, Bhardwaja, Hasti, Ajmirh, Kaushik, Gadh and Vishwamitra of Puru branch; Seth, Arh, Gandhi, Gaindhu and Gandhar of the Ardas branch.


Ram Swarup Joon[17] writes In the Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48, while describing various Kings who attended a ceremony in the Durbar (court) of Maharaja Yudhisthira, seventeen names are mentioned which are today found as Jat gotras. These are Malhia, Mylaw, Sindhar, Gandhar, Mahity, Mahe, Savi, Bath, Dharan, Virk, Dard, Shaly, Matash, Kukar (Khokar) Kak, Takshak, Sand, Bahik (Bathi) Bije (Bijenia), Andhra, Sorashtra (Rathi) Mann, Ar, Sohat, Kukat, Othiwal (Othval).

The Shavi dynasty

Ram Sarup Joon[18] writes....One branch of Shavi Gotra is Takshak. Before the Mahabharat, they ruled the area of present Delhi, which was then known as Khanduban. Their capital was known as Khand Prastha. When Dharat Rashtra divided his kingdom into two, Yudhishtra selected Khand Prastha as his capital, named it Indraprastha and started constructing palaces and forts. Takshaks opposed this project, refused to vacate the area and tried to demolish the buildings at night. This led to war. Pandavas defeated the Takshaks, destroyed their villages and drove them out of this area. Consequent upon this incident in the Mahabharat, Takshaks joined Duryodhana’s army and fought against the


History of the Jats, End of Page-30


Pandavas. A Takshak warrior killed king Parikshit, a grandson of Yudhishtra. These facts are mentioned in Adi Parva of Mahabharat.

At present, there are five villages of Takshak Jats in this area viz. Mohammed Pur, Manirka, Shahpura, Haus Khas and Katwaria.

On being driven out of Khanduban, the Takshaks drifted North west and made their new capital at Takshala or Taxila, This view is confirmed in ‘A Guide to Taxila’. The Takshaks also founded Takshkand later known as Tashkand or Tashkent and Takshasthan later known as Turkistan. The Takshaks of Taxila later adopted the abbreviated title of Taki and are still found in that area as Muslim Jats of Taki Gotra or clan. When Mudrak Raja Subhagsen of Ghazni was driven east by the Iranians, he also had to fight a battle with Takis of Taxila.

The rulers of Magdha of the Shesh Nag Dynasty were Takshak Jats. Todd writes that they ruled Mugdha for six hundred years.

Todd writes that Chittor, then known as Jattor was the capital of Mori branch of Takshaks. Gehlot Jats later occupied it.


Ram Swarup Joon[19] writes that Shavi was the son of the king Ushinar. He was a Yogi and an ascetic. He was married to, Sati the daughter of king Daksha. After her death he married Parvati. His seat of tapasya was on the Gangotri Mountain. He had two sons, Smokartik and Ganpati (Ganesh).

The Shavi dynasty prospered well. The Descendants of his dynasty are famous as Takshak, Bachak, Bharhaich, Nags etc. Shavi founded the country of Shavisthan (Siestan) in Iran and also the Island of Jatoli. They also founded kingdoms of Turkistan and Scandinavia.

The Shavi rulers constructed the Shorkot fort in Jhang.

In Iran there is a Mausoleum of prophet Shish. Hieun T-sang and Fahien have also called Iran as Shavi country.


Ram Swarup Joon[20] writes about Takshak, It is mentioned in the "Vishnu Purana' that before the Pandavas, the Takshaks ruled the earth. Takshaks belong to the Shavi dynasty. In the 29th generation of king Shavi, one of the six sons of king Sototi was Takshak. According to genealogical tables of the Yayati dynasty King Satoti is considered by the Tartars to be their ancestor. Takshak, Bachak etc. are also called the Nags. There are ample references to these people in local and foreign histories. According to Mahabharata 'Adi Parva', before the Pandavas, Khandoban (Indraprastha) was the capital of the Takshak rulers. They created obstacles in the way of construction of the capital by Pandavas. Finally, these people were defeated, rendered homeless and driven out.

They went and settled down in Taxila (Taksila). In the battle of Mahabharata they joined the Kauravas and killed king Parikshit. They founded Takshakkhad (Tashkand) and Takshaksthan (Turkistan).

At present Takshal and Tokas gotras are found among the Jats in five villages near Delhi. The Takshak Jats is found spread all over Northern India, Pakistan and Central Asia. ( Tokas is found also in Romania)

Tartar and Naga connection

King Satoti is considered by the Tartars to be their ancestor. Takshak and Bachak are also called the Nagas (the "serpent people" of Hindu and Buddhist mythology).

The Takshak of Punjab

There is a description of seven Mahanagas in Mayashilpa. They are : Basuki, Takshak, Karkotak, Padam, Mahapadam, Sankhpaul and Kulika. [21]In Skanda Purana, Takshak Nag has also been called Mahanag (77/17,18;106/5,6,7). These Takshak, or Takkhas were of Taka family, since the words Takkhas or Takka or Taka are corrupt forms of Takshaka and in Sanskrit language, Takshak means Nag or serpent, hence they were Nagas.

As a matter of fact, totem tradition was a peculiarity of indigenous people of ancient India. As such these Takshakas or Nagas used to worship serpents and at certain occasions wore artificial hoods of cobra on their heads, hence were called serpents or Nagas. These people, in origin were inhabitants of Panjab or Indus Valley. Still three parts of this land are known as Taka, Majha (Madra) and Malava, which were ruled by three royal families or blood relatives of the same names. Malava is Southern part of Satluj river, land between Beas and Jhelam in general, is known as Majha and whole North-Western part beyond Jhelam or present Pakistan is known as Taka. This Taka is named after the name of royal family of Taka. One province of Afghanistan is still called Takhar. Name of their tribe was Andhra. [22]

The name of Takshak Nag first appears in the Mahabharata as opponent of Pandavas. Hence, this seems to be one of the most ancient royal families of Naga race, who gave birth to the most of the Naga royal families of ancient India. Their capital was Taka-shar (Taki or Takka-war) near Sialkot. Cunningham mentions other names of this city as Taki and Asurar (of Assyrians). [23]Their ancient traditional capital was Takshila. H. L. Kosare after Mahabharata informs that Arattas had their three branches Takka, Vahika and Jertika. [24] [25]

In Mahabharata, the family Gotra of Takas has been given Karpati [26]and among them, along with the Malavas of Rajasthan and Panjab, Panch-karpatis also have been included. These were people of republic society. It seems that they were relatives of their nearest neighbourers, the Malavas. These Malavas used to worship Karkota Nag, hence Takas were also believed to be worshipers of above deity. They later shifted from Panjab to Rajasthan and settled there in the east. [27] It is clear that Takas were republicans or guild or Sangha people. They had their two other families or blood relatives Malavas and Madras and their Gotra was Karpati. [28]

Madras were called Vahika and Jertika. [29] Hemchandra, in his Abhidhan Chintamani (lV-25) has equated Vahikas [30] with Takas. These Takas were Vahika Nagas, therefore Vahikas, Jertikas and Madras were also Nagas and all the four Naga tribes were blood relatives of Arattas . There was a tribal confederacy of Taka Nagas in Panjab that is why the Panjab was known as Taka-Mulka or Taka-country [31] as mentioned by Hieuntsang. It is obvious that Vahikas were from Taka family. [32]

Some scholars think these Jertikas were Jats. Taka or Takshakas and Vahikas appear in the Mahabharata period (950 B.C.) where as Kushanas, the progenitors of Jats appear on the horizon of history about 1000 ears later, as invaders from North. On the other hand Jat is the name of a gotra of Taka kshatriyas. Dr Naval Viyogi hence on this basis concludes that above Jat is not related to Jat caste or Kushanas but Takas. [33] Jat in the Nagavansha were already there on the Indian soil. This is also confirmed from presence of large number of Jat Gotras originated from Nagavansha.

It has been observed [34] , that ancient inscriptions in the Pali or Buddhist character have been discovered in various parts of Rajasthan of the race called Tastas , Takshak and Tak relating to the tribes, the Mori (or Maurya) Parmar their descendants. Nagas and Takshakas are synonymous appellation in Sanskrit for the snake, and the Takshak is the celebrated Nagavansha of the early heroic history of India. The Mahabharata describes in its usual allegorical style the war between the Pandavas of Indraprastha and the Takshaka [35]of the North. The assassination of Parikshita by the Takshak and the exterminating warfare carried on against them by his son and successor, Janmejaya, who at last compelled them to sign tributary engagements, divested of its allegory, is plain historical fact . [36]Their warfare lasted for a longer period, ultimately progeny of Pandavas had to leave Hastinapur while the city was washed away in a terrible flood of the river Ganga at about 800 B.C. Later on it was taken over by the Nagas . [37]


"In the Bhavishya Purana." According to James Tod [38]"Prince Sahasra-Arjuna is termed as Chakravartin or paramount sovereign. It is said that he conquered Karkotaka of the Takshak, Turushka or snake race and brought with him the population of Mahishmati and founded Hemnagara in the North India, on his expulsion from his dominions on the Narbuda. Traditional legends of this prince yet remain on the Narbuda, where he is styled "Sahasrabahu or with a thousand arms," figurative of his numerous progeny. The Takshak or snake race, here alluded to, will engage our attention. The name of animals in early time, planets and things inanimate, all furnished symbolic appellations for various races." [39]


It is evident that race of Takshak, being at the entry gate of India in North West not only suffered at the hand of invaders from North and West but also those from South. [40]


From the Mahabharata account, Son of Takshak was Ashwasena who was saved by Indra, while Khandavavana was put into flame by Pandava Arjuna (1000 BC-950 BC). [41]


It seems that there was also possession of Nagas over Gandhara country in the time of Parshvanath, because Nagjit or Naget, the king of Gandhara, has been said to be the follower of Parashwanath. Perhaps this Naga king Nagjit would have been related to Takshaka since country of Gandhara or Takshila was their main centre of rule from remote past. We know that the primogenitor of Naga, according to Mahabharata was Rajrishi Kashyapa, who was national guru of Parswanath also. [42]


During the life time of Buddha (567-487 BC), Takshila was the capital of Gandhar country or the modern Kandhar. Then, the king of Gandhar was Pukkusati, who is said to have sent an embassy and a letter to king Bimbisara of Magadha. [43]He was a follower of Buddha. He died in his old age on his first and last trip to Magadha, a week after his meeting with Buddha . [44][45]


Like Nanda dynasty, Taka family also suffered at the hands of Puranic Chronicles. Contemporary Puranas have ignored pedigree and chronology of this family in general. However we have traced out a very handful names from different sources; when Alexander invaded India (325 BC) he found the Paraitakai, the mountain (Pahar) Tak, inhabiting the Paropamisos range; nor is it by any means unlikely that Taxiles [Arrian says that his name was Omphis (Ambhi)]. Hence, perhaps (from Tak), the name of Indus Attok, not Atak or forbidden according to modern signification the ally of the Macedonian king, was the chief of the Takas; and in the early history of the Bhatti prince of Jaisalmer, when driven from Zabulistan, they dispossessed the Takas on the Indus, and established themselves in their land the capital of which was called Salivahanpura. It is by no means unlikely that Salivahana or Salbhan (who was a Takshaka) the conqueror of the Tuar Vikrama, was of the very family dispossessed by the Bhattis who compelled them to migrate to the South. [46] [47]

These Takas or Takshakas, whose chief was Omphis or Ambhi, was a snake worshiper tribe as noted by the Greek historian M.C. Crindle. [48] He reproduces as such,

"They found in many of them besides other animals, a snake, which the Indians regarding as sacred, kept in a cave and worshiped with much devotion. The Indians accordingly with every kind of entreaty implored Alexander to let no one molest the animal, and he consented to this (Strabo XV-1-28). Now when the army was marching past the cave the snake heard the sound that arose (that kind of animal being very sharp both of hearing and sight) and hissed so loud and emitted such gusts of rage that everyone was terrified and quite confounded. It was said to be seventy cubits long, and yet the whole of it was not seen, except its head that projected from the cave its eyes, moreover are reported to have equaled the size of the large round Mecedonian shield."

It shows these Naga worshipers were of Naga race whose chief Ambhi was of Takshak race. [49]


The ancient inscriptions in the Pali Buddhist character have been discovered in various parts of Rajasthan of the race of Taxak or Tak, relating to the tribe Mori and Parmara are their descendants. Taxak Mori was the lord of Chittor from very early period. [50][51]

The Huna Kingdom of Sialkot (of Mihir Kula 515-540 AD), destroyed by Yashodharman, was subsequently seized by a new dynasty of kshatriyas called Tak or Taxaka. The Taxak Mori as being lords of Chittor from very early period and few generations after the Guhilots supplanted the Moris, this palladium of Hindu liberty was assailed by the arms of Islam. (725-35) we find amongst the numerous defenders who appear to have considered the cause of Chittor their own the Tak from Asirgarh. This race appears to have retained possession of Asirgarh for at least two centuries after this event as its chieftain was one of the most conspicuous leaders in the array of Prithvi Raj. In the poems of Chandar he is called the "Standard, bearer, Tak of Asir." [52]

Tokas in world history

Tokas is found also in Romania. Takshak Jats ruled Alexandria in Egypt. Their title was Asi. The Takshak Jats are found spread all over Northern India, Pakistan and Central Asia.

In Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[53] writes that..... The prime minister Changkuna built in another place a vihara with a chaitya; and Ishanachandra the physician and brother to the wife of Changkuna, having obtained wealth through the favor of Takshaka, built a Vihara. The king Lalitaditya further caused a permanent asylum for the poor to be built at Parihasapura, to which he presented one lac and one plates filled with food. He also caused a town to be built in a barren place that thirsty men might find water, there. He invited prudent men from other countries, and brought Changkuna brother of Kangkanavarsha, an alchemist, from Bhuskhara. The king exchanged with this man a statue of Buddha which he brought from Magadha for certain jewels of mysterious properties. This statue Changkuna placed in the monastery which he built, and can be seen to this day, surrounded by iron railings. (Book IV,p.73)

Taxak and Jats

James Tod[54] writes that the tribes here alluded to are the Haihaya or Aswa, the Takshak, and the Jat or Getae; the similitude of whose theogony, names in their early genealogies, and many other points, with the Chinese, Tatar, Mogul, Hindu, and Scythic races, would appear to warrant the assertion of one common origin.


Ram Sarup Joon[55] quotes Todd, who writes that the Chauhan King Anhal I, who ruled 39 generations before Prithvi Raj was a Takshak.

James Tod on Taxak

James Tod as a pioneer historian on Jats has to his credit that he thoroughly scrutinized the bardic tales of Rajasthan and Gujarat and also brought to light over a dozen inscriptions on the Jats as well as translated many of them into English. Both of his volumes of Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan reflect his efforts to illuminate the dark patches in History of Jats and as such shed light on our community’s historic contribution in those times in the area of his study. We reproduce the Chapter Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races from Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, Publisher: Humphrey Milford Oxford University Press 1920, pp. 123-127

Tak or Takshak

Takshak appears to be the generic term of the race from which the various Scythic tribes, the early invaders of India, branched off. It appears of more ancient application than Getae, which was the parent of innumerable sakha. It might not be judicious to separate them, though it would be speculative to say which was the primitive title of the races called Scythic, after their country, Sakatai or Sakadwipa, the land of the great Getae.

Abulghazi makes Taunak1 the son of Turk or Targetai, who appears to be the Turushka of the Puranas, the Tukyuks of the Chinese historians, the nomadic Tokhari of Strabo, who aided to overturn the Greek kingdom of Bactria, and gave their name to


1 Abulghazi [Hist, of the Turks, Moguls, and Tartars, 1730, i. 5 f .] says, when Noah left the ark he divided the earth amongst his three sons : Shem had Iran : Japhet, the country of ' Kuttup Shamach,' the name of the regions between the Caspian Sea and India. There he lived two hundred and fifty years. He left eight sons, of whom Turk was the elder and the seventh Camari, supposed the Gomer of Scripture. Turk had four sons ; the eldest of whom was Taunak, the fourth from whom was Mogul, a corruption of Mongol, signifying sad, whose successors made the Jaxartes their winter abode. [The word means ' brave ' (Howorth, Hist, of the Mongols, i. 27).] Under his reign no trace of the true religion remained : idolatry reigned everywhere. Aghuz Khan succeeded. The ancient Cimbri, who went west with Odin's horde of Jats, Chattis, and Su , were probably the tribes descended from Camari, the son of Turk.

[p.124]: the grand division of Asia, Tokharistan1 or Turkistan : and there is every appearance of that singular race, the Tajik,2 still scattered over these [104] regions, and whose history appears a mystery, being the descendants of the Takshak.

It has been already observed, that ancient inscriptions in the Pali or Buddhist character have been discovered in various parts of Rajasthan, of the race called Tasta, Takshak, and Tak, relating to the tribes, the Mori or Maurya], Pramara, their descendants.

Naga and Takshak are synonymous appellations in Sanskrit for the snake, and the Takshak is the celebrated Nagvansa of the early heroic history of India. The Mahabharata describes, in its usual allegorical style, the wars between the Pandavas of Indraprastha and the Takshaks of the north. The assassination of Parikshita by the Takshak, and the exterminating warfare carried on against them by his son and successor, Janamejaya, who at last compelled them to sign tributary engagements, divested of its allegory,3 is plain historical fact.


1 Tacash continued to be a proper name with the great Khans of Kharizm (Chorasmia) until they adopted the faith of Muhammad. The father of Jala], the foe of Jenghiz Khan, was named Tacash. Tashkent on the [Jaxartes]], the capital of Turkistan, may be derived from the name of the race. Bayer says, " Tocharistan was the region of the Tochari, who were the ancient Tάχαρoι (Tochari), or Tάχαρoι (Tacharoi)." Amraianus Marcellinus says, " many nations obey the Bactrians, whom the Tochari surpass " (Hist. Beg. Bad. p. 7).
2 This singular race, the Tajiks, are repeatedly mentioned by Mr. Elpliinstone in his admirable account of the kingdom of Kabul. They are also particularly noticed as monopolising the commercial transactions of the kingdom of Bokhara, in that interesting work. Voyage d'Orenbourg a Bokhara, the map accompanying which, for the first time, lays down authentically the sources and course of the Oxus and Jaxartes. [The term Tajik means the settled population, as opposed to the Turks or tent-dwellers. It is the same word as Tazi, ' Arab,' still surviving in the name of the Persian greyhound, which was apparently introduced by the Arabs. Sykes (Hist, of Persia, ii. 153, note) and Skrine-Ross {The Heart of Asia, 3, 364 note) state that the Tajiks represent the Iranian branch of the Aryans.]
3 The Mahabharata describes this warfare against the snakes literally : of which, in one attack, he seized and made a burnt-offering (hom) of twenty thousand. It is surprising that the Hindu will accept these things literally. It might be said he had but a choice of difficulties, and that it would be as impossible for any human being to make the barbarous sacrifice of twenty thousand of his species, as it would be difficult to find twenty thousand snakes for the purpose. The author's knowledge of what barbarity will inflict leaves the fact of the human sacrifice, though not perhaps to this extent, not even improbable. In 1811 his duties called him to a survey

[p 125]: When Alexander invaded India, he found the Paraitakai, the mountain (pahar) Tak, inhabiting the Paropamisos range ; nor is it by any means unlikely that Taxiles,1 the ally of the Macedonian king, was the chief (es) of the Taks ; and in the early history of the Bhatti princes of Jaisalmer, when driven from Zabulistan, they dispossessed the Taks on the Indus, and established themselves in their land, the capital of which was called Salivahanpura ; and as the date of this event is given as 3008 of the Yudhishthira era, it is by no means unlikely that Salivahana, or Salbhan (who was a Takshak), the conqueror of the Tuar Vikrama, was of the very family dispossessed by the Bhattis, who compelled them to migrate to the south.

The calculated period of the invasion of the Takshaks, or Nagvansa, under Sheshnag, is about six or seven centuries before the Christian era, at which very [105] period the Scythic invasion of Egypt and Syria, " by the sons of Togarmah riding on horses " (the Aswas, or Asi), is alike recorded by the prophet Ezekiel and Diodorus. The Abu Mahatma calls the Takshaks " the sons of Himachal," all evincing Scythic descent ; and it was only eight reigns anterior to this change in the Lunar dynasties of India, that Parsvanath, the twenty-third Buddha [Jain Tirthankara], introduced his tenets into India, and fixed his abode in the holy mount Sarnet.2


amidst the ravines of the Chambal, the tract called Gujargarh, a district inhabited by the Gujar tribe. Turbulent and independent, like the sons of Esau, their hand against every man and every man's hand against them, their nominal prince, Surajmall, the Jat chief of Bharatpur, pursued exactly the same plan towards the population of these villages, whom they captured in a night attack, that Janamejaya did to the Takshaks : he threw them into pits with combustibles, and actually thus consumed them ! This occurred not three-quarters of a century ago.

1 Arrian says that his name was Omphis [Ambhi], and that his father dying at this time, he did homage to Alexander, who invested him with the title and estates of his father Taxiles. Hence, perhaps (from Tak), the name of the Indus, Attak ; [?] not Atak, or ' forbidden,' according to modern signification, and which has only been given since the Muhammadan religion for a time made it the boundary between the two faiths. [All these speculations are valueless.]
2 In Bihar, during the reign of Pradyota, the successor of Ripunjaya. Parsva's symbol is the serpent of Takshak. His doctrines spread to the remotest parts of India, and the princes of Valabhipura of Mandor and Anhilwara all held to the tenets of Buddha. [As usual, Jains are confounded with Buddhists. There is no reason to believe that the Nagas, a serpent-worshipping tribe, were not indigenous in India.]

[p.126]: Enough of the ancient history of the Tak ; we will now descend to more modern times, on which we shall be brief. We have already mentioned the Takshak Mori (or Maurya) as being lords of Chitor from a very early period ; and but a few generations after the Guhilots supplanted the Moris, this palladium of Hindu liberty was assailed by the arms of Islam. We find amongst the numerous defenders who appear to have considered the cause of Chitor their own, " the Tak from Asirgarh." 1 This race appears to liave retained possession of Asir for at least two centuries after this event, as its chieftain was one of the most conspicuous leaders in the array of Prithwiraja. In the poems of Chand he is called the " standard-bearer, Tak of Asir." 2

This ancient race, the foe of Janamejaya and the friend of Alexander, closed its career in a blaze of splendour. The celebrity of the kings of Gujarat will make amends for the obscurity of the Taks of modern times, of whom a dynasty of fourteen kings followed each other in succession, commencing and ending with the proud title of Muzaffar. It was in the reign of Muhammad,3 son of the first Tughlak, that an accident to his nephew Firoz proved the dawn of the fortunes of the Tak ; purchased, however, with the change of name and religion. Saharan the Tak was the first apostate of his line, who, under the name of Wajihu-1-mulk, concealed both his origin and tribe. His son, Zafar Khan, was raised by his patron Firoz to the government of Gujarat, about the period when Timur invaded India. Zafar availed himself of the weakness of his master and the distraction of the times, and mounted the throne of Gujarat under the name of [106] Muzaffar.4 He was assassinated by the hand of his grandson, Ahmad, who changed the ancient capital, Anhilwara, for the city founded by himself, and called Ahmadabad, one of the most splendid in the east. With the apostasy of the Tak,5 the name appears to have


1 This is the celebrated fortress in Khandesh, now in the possession of the British.
2 In the list of the wounded at the battle of Kanauj he is mentioned by name, as " Chatto the Tak."
3 He reigned from a.d. 1324 to 1351.
4 'The victorious' [see p. 118 above].
5 The Miratu-l-Sikandari gives the ancestry of the apostate for twenty-three generations ; the last of whom was Sesh, the same which introduced the Nagvansa, seven centuries before the Christian era, into India. The author of the work gives the origin of the name of Tak, or Tank, from tarka, ' expulsion,' from his caste, which he styles Khatri, evincing his ignorance of this ancient race.

[p.127]: been obliterated from the tribes of Rajasthan ; nor has my search ever discovered one of this name now existing.

Inscriptions about Takshak and Jats by Col Tod

James Tod discovered many Inscriptions related with Takshak and Jats. You may see them here - Inscriptions about Jats by Col Tod

तक्षक नागवंश

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[56] लिखते हैं -

तक्षक जाटों ने कई अन्य जाटवंशों के साथ मिलकर एक नागवंश नामक संघ बनाया। तक्षक लोग नागवंश की शाखा हैं। ले० रामसरूप जून, जाट इतिहास अंग्रेजी पृ० 104 पर लिखते हैं कि “तक्षक लोग चन्द्रवंशी हैं। सम्राट् ययाति के पुत्र अनु की दशवीं पीढी में प्रतापी सम्राट् शिवि हुए। शिवि की 29वीं पीढी में राजा सतौति के एक पुत्र का नाम तक्षक था। तक्षक की प्रसिद्धि के कारण उनके नाम से तक्षक वंश चला।” पाण्डवों के खाण्डव वन को जलाकर इन्द्रप्रस्थ अपनी राजधानी बनाने से पहले वहां पर तक्षक राजाओं का राज्य था। तक्षक जाटों ने अर्जुन एवं श्रीकृष्ण के विरुद्ध भयंकर युद्ध किया। अन्त में ये लोग हार गये और तक्षक राजा सहित तक्षशिला में जाकर आबाद हो गये।


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-246


इसी द्वेष-भाव के कारण तक्षक सेना दुर्योधन की ओर से पाण्डवों के विरुद्ध महाभारत युद्ध में लड़ी थी। तक्षकों ने अर्जुनपौत्र परीक्षित का उसी के महलों में वध किया। उसके पुत्र जनमेजय ने तक्षशिला पर आक्रमण किया। किन्तु जन्मेजय ने ऋषि आस्तीक के परामर्श से तक्षकराज को क्षमा कर दिया1। यही तक्षकवंश शनैः शनैः भाषाभेद से टांक, ताखा, टक, तक्खर, तोकस, तक्क के नाम पर लोकप्रसिद्ध हुआ। कश्मीरी कवि कल्हण ने टक्कराज्य का उल्लेख करते हुए उसे गुर्जर देश का भाग लिखा है। ये लोग प्रसिद्ध बलशाली थे। सारा पंजाब इनके प्रताप से दग्ध था। चीना नदी के समीपवर्ती इनके राज्य को इनके राजा अलखान ने विवश होकर सन् 883 से 901 ई० के बीच विर्कवंशी जाट लोगों को दे दिया था। इसके पूर्व सिकन्दर अपने साथ तक्षशिला से तक्षक वैद्य ले गया था। ह्यूनसांग ने टक्क लोगों के राज्य तक्षशिला के विद्या वैभव की प्रशंसा करते हुए वहां के निवासियों को चतुर और गर्म प्रकृति वाला लिखा है। टॉड साहब ने 14वीं 15वीं शताब्दी में यमुना के किनारे काठानगर में तक्षकों की सत्ता लिखी है। ‘मदन पारिजात’ ने इस स्थान के रत्नपाल, वरहप, हरिश्चन्द्र, साधारण, सहस्रपाल, मदनपाल नामक नरेश लिखे हैं। इस राजा मदनपाल ने आयुर्वेद के सुप्रसिद्ध ग्रंथ ‘मदनपालनिघण्टु’ की रचना की। टॉड ने तक्षकवंश की गणना 36 राजकुलों में की है और चित्तौड़ एवं असीरगढ़ का शासक तथा एशिया के ऊंचे प्रदेशों में बसने वाला और सुप्रसिद्ध वीर लिखा है।

टोंक रियासत पर तक्षक जाटों का राज्य था। इससे 5 मील उत्तर में पहाड़ के नीचे एक गांव पिराणा है। उसमें इन जाटों का एक प्रजातंत्री ढ़ंग का राज्य था (जाटवीर वर्ष 8, अंक 42, लेखक रिछपालसिंह)। ये लोग अपने प्रदेश से गुजरने वाले व्यापारियों से टैक्स वसूल करते थे। एक बार उधर से बादशाह जहांगीर की बेगमें गुजरीं। पिराणा के सरदारों ने उनसे टैक्स लेकर जाने दिया। ज्ञात होने पर बादशाह ने अपने सेनापति मलूकखां को बदला लेने के लिए भेजा। जाटों के पराक्रम को सुनकर वह पिराणा के निकट के गांव शेरपुर में ठहर गया। पिराणा के जाटों के डूम (डोम) ने लोभ में आकर मलूकखां को बताया कि “भादों बदी 12 को बच्छवारस का मेला (उत्सव) होगा। उस दिन सब नर-नारी निरस्त्र और निर्भय होकर झूलते हैं।” इस उत्सव के दिन मलूकखां ने बच्छवारस को घेर लिया। पिराणा के जाटवीरों के सरदार जीवनसिंह और रायमल ने निरस्त्र होते हुए भी पचासों शत्रुओं के सिर तोड़ डाले। ये दोनों वीर लड़ाई में काम आए। इस युद्ध में लड़ती हुई कुछ स्त्रियां भी मारी गई थीं। इस तरह यह जाटों का प्रजातन्त्री राज्य नष्ट हो गया। (जाट इतिहास पृ० 600-601, लेखक ठा० देशराज), जाटों का उत्कर्ष, पृ० 326-327, लेखक योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री।

तक्षक जाटों के हरयाणा में सोनीपत में 12 गांव हैं जिनमें राठधाना, बयांपुर, हरसाना, लिबासपुर, कालुपुर, लोलहड़ा, जटहेड़ा आदि प्रमुख हैं| देहली के तक्षक जाट टोकस कहलाते हैं जो कि खाण्डवदाह से बचकर यहीं पर बस गए थे। इनके मुनीरका मोहम्मदपुर, हुमायूंपुर, हौजखास आदि विशेष सम्पन्न गांव हैं। जि० बीकानेर में 15 गांव टांक जाटों के हैं। जिला भिवानी में दादरी तहसील में भागी गांव तक्षक जाटों का है।

ये लोग पंजाब के जालन्धर जिले के कई गांवों में हैं जो सिक्खधर्मी हैं। पाकिस्तान में ये लोग


1. महाभारत आदिपर्व अध्याय 226वां।


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-247


मुसलमान हैं। (जाटों का उत्कर्ष पृ० 326-327, लेखक योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री)।

इतिहास: जाट समाज पत्रिका

भाट ग्रन्थ की पुस्तक के अनुसार टोकस जाटों का वंश - चन्द्रवंश, कुल-यदुकुल, मूल गोत्र-अत्री, शाखा-टोकस, किला-तहन गढ़ (राजस्थान), तख्त (मुख्यस्थान) - मथुरापुरी , निशान-पीला, घोड़ा-मुद्रा , कुल देवी- योगेश्वरी , देवता-कृष्ण, मन्त्र - पंचाक्षरी, पूजन व शस्त्र-तलवार, नदी-यमुना, वेद-यजुर्वेद, उपवेद-धनुर्वेद, वृक्ष-कदम्ब, निकास - टांक टोडा से और पहला पडाव रावलदी (हरयाणा) है. [57]

चरखी दादरी के पास रावलदी की भागा/भागवती नाम की कन्या बहरोड़ ब्याही थी. बहरोड़ में भागा को वहां के बहुसंख्यक समाज के लोग तंग करते थे. भागा ने रावलदी से अपने भाई राजा उदय सिंह टोकस व राजा रुद्ध सिंह टोकस को बुलवाया. उन्होंने बहुसंख्य तंग करने वाले समाज को परास्त किया. भागा के नाम से अलग गाँव बसाया. जो आज भांगी बहरोड़ के नाम से प्रसिद्द है. [58]

अपनी बहन भागा की रक्षा के लिए टोकस वंश के लोग भागी में रहने लगे. तबसे गाँव भागी में टोकसों का खेड़ा आबाद हुआ.

कुछ समय पश्चात चौधरी उदय सिंह और चौधरी रुद्ध सिंह की पत्नियों ने कहा कि आपकी बहन अब सुरक्षित है और सुख से रह रही है. अतः अब हमें बहन के घर से प्रस्थान करना चाहिए. बहन के पास कुछ आदमी छोड़कर वे वहां से निकले. रस्ते में चले जा रहे थे की उनकी गाड़ी का धूरा टूट गया. उन्होंने वहीँ पड़ाव डाला

पंडित चन्द्रभान वैद्द्य (भट्ट) के अनुसार छोटी रानी (रुद्ध सिंह की पत्नि) के यह कहने पर कि जेठ जी को थोडा हटकर आगे डेरा डालने के लिए कहदें तो राजा उदय सिंह ने इस बात को ताना मानकर पीलीभीत चले गए. वहां से पुछवाया कि छोटी रानी से पूछो कि क्या और आगे जाऊं . इस तरह राजा उदय सिंह पीलीभीत में बस गए.

रुद्ध सिंह अकेले रह गए. वहां से नाहरपुर आकर बसे. वहां की जमीन ख़राब होने के कारण बाबरपुर आकर बसे, जिसे हार्डिंग ब्रिज कहते हैं. यहाँ से चलकर रुद्ध सिंह टोकस स्थाई रूप से मुनीरका में आकर बस गए. भट्ट ग्रन्थ के अनुसार विक्रमी संवत 1503 सन 1446 वरखा सावन सुदी नवम तिथि दिन सोमवार को रुद्ध सिंह ने मुनिरका गाँव बसाया. रुद्ध सिंह टोकस का गाय, भैंस का दूध का कारोबार था. और वे मनीर खां नामक पठान से भी दूध का कारोबार करते थे. मनीर खां पठान रुद्ध सिंह का कर्जदार था. वह कर्जा नहीं पटा पाया. इसलिए मनीर खां ने वीरपुर, रायपुर, उजीरपुर तीनों पट्टियां रुद्ध सिंह को दे दी. इस तरह से वे इस जागीर के मालिक बने. मनीर खान को ये जागीरें बादशाह मुबारक शाह ने इनाम में दी थी. [59]

उस समय मुनीरका गाँव की जमीन 7000 बीघे थी. जिसमें आज आर. के. पुरम, जे. अन. यू, डी. डी. ए. फ्लेट , बसंत कुञ्ज, बसंत बिहार आबाद हैं. सन 1675 विक्रम संवत 1732 में रुद्ध सिंह के वंशज रूपा राम/रतिया सिंह टोकस मुनिरका से हुमायूंपुर गाँव जा बसे और उसके पश्चात् 1715 विक्रम संवत 1772 में तुला राम टोकस मुनीरका से मोहम्मदपुर गाँव जा बसे. [60]

आज मुनिरका गाँव में टोकस वंश के 200 परिवार हैं जिनकी आबादी 20 से 25 हजार के बीच है. अरावली पर्वत के अंचल में बसा मुनिरका गाँव प्राकृतिक नालों के बीच स्थित है. पहले यहाँ बीहड़ जंगल हुआ करते थे. मुनिरका गाँव में सिद्ध मच्छेन्द्र यती गुरु गोरख नाथ सिद्ध बाबा से सम्बद्ध गाँव के इष्टदेव मुनिवर बाबा गंगनाथ जी का प्राचीन मंदिर है. बाबा गंगनाथ जी ने यहाँ वर्षों तपस्या करके जिन्दा समाधी ली थी. बाबा गंगनाथ जी की समाधी, इनका भव्य मंदिर और इनकी धूनी आज भी गाँव का हृदय स्थल है. मंदिर के पास एक प्राचीन भव्य तालाब है. [61]

Taxak Khap

Taxak khap has 12 villages in Haryana in Sonipat district. The main villages are : Rathdhana (राठधना) , Baiyapur (बैयापुर) , Harsana (हरसाना) , Libaspur (लिबासपुर) ,Kalupur (कालूपुर). 15 villages of this khap are in Bikaner janapada and 4 villages in Delhi, one village Bhagvi (भागी) in Bhiwani district in Haryana. [62]

Tokas Bhat

Distribution of Taxak Gotra

Distribution in Delhi

At present Takshal and Tokas gotras are found among the Jats in five villages near south Delhi namely Humayunpur (हुमायूंपुर), Mohammadpur (मोहम्मदपुर), Ambarhai (अम्बरहाई), Dhool Siras, Mukhmailpur (मुखमैलपुर). Rawata,

Munirka (मुनिरका) is the biggest village of Tokas Gotra.

Distribution in Haryana

The village Bhagvi tehsil Charkhi Dadri District Bhiwani Haryana is inhabited by Takshak gotra jats. Choudhary Nihal Singh Takshak was a great freedom fighter of village Bhagvi. He started Paraja Manal Freedom movement in Jind state. He was elected first MLA from Dadri area in Jind State, who was elected in the election held for the first time in 1937.

He was also an Education Inspector with Birla Institute Pilani. He starting Basic Education Schools with help of Birla Trust in every village of Luharu- Jind state now parts of new district Bhiwani.

He was Education minister in PEPSU Patiala State in Sardar Gyan Singh Radewala Ministry. He done a great job in the field of Rural Education. He founded Birhi teacher training school and Art craft teacher training in Arya Hindi Maha Vidyalaya Charkhi Dadri.

Takshak or Tokas also live in village Chhapar (छापर) teh. & distt. Jhajjar.

They are also in Silanigaon (सिलानीगांव), Lahiki Hasanpur (लहिकी हसनपुर) (Near Hodal) on Palwal to Sohana Road. They are in villages Tawadu (तावडू ), Gudda-Guddi (Nihalgarh), Shekhpura (शेखपुरा), Vasi (वसी), Pataudi Goyala (पटौदी गोयला) , Rawata (रावता), Ambarhai (अम्बराही) , Galampur (गालमपुर) , Munda (मुण्डा), Kheda (खेड़ा), Jhad Setli (झाड़ सेतली), Dhul Siras (धूल सिरस), (Nazafgarh Kharkhadi Raund), Safiabad (सफिआबाद), Kharkhauda, Sonipat.[63]

Villages in Jhajjar District

Villages in Palwal District

Likhi,

Villages in Mewat District

Taoru,

Villages in Sonipat District

Baiyanpur, Harsana, Jathedi, Kalupur, Kharkhauda Sonipat, Lalheri, Libaspur, Raath Dhana, Sanfedaa, Shekhpura, Sonipat,

Villages in Rewari District

Tokas clan live in villages: Teekla

Villages in Bhiwani District

Taxak Jats live in villages: Bhagvi,

Distribution in Rajasthan

Villages in Jaipur district

Ambabari (Jaipur), Murlipura Jaipur,

Villages in Alwar district

Alwar, Jat Behror (Alwar), Kalsara,

Villages in Jodhpur district

Jodhpur,

Villages in Bharatpur district

Bharatpur,

Villages in Bundi district

Tokaspura (tahsil:Indragarh Bundi),

Villages in Nagaur district

Togas Gotra found in :-

Khur Khura Kalan, Kurdaya, Marwar Mundwa,

Villages in Pali district

Togas Gotra found in :-

Digarna (200),

Notable persons

  • Raja Hasti (326 BC) was Takshak clan Jat Ruler of Sindh in Pakistan.
  • Maharaja Shalendra (409 AD) - Taxak Jat ruler of Salpura (Sialkot)
  • Ch. Abhai Singh Taxak, Retd. Headmaster and Social activist, Bhagvi.
  • Dr. R. S. Taxak - Div. Manager United India Assurance, 6, South City Enclave, Moti Vihar, Near Silokhra, Gurgaon Haryana, Ph: 011-23278793/23278886, 0124-2381018/ 238053 (PP-873)
  • Nihal Singh Takshak - Ex. Minister.
  • Sanjay Taxak - Leading Businessman in USA at Very Small Age he owns Companies worth over 10 Millions...www.zaykafoods.com
  • Balwant Takshak -A leading Hindi journalist at Chandigarh from Behror.
  • Lt Col Fateh Singh Taxak from Village Bhagwi,Bhiwani.
  • Manvendra Choudhary (Takas) - Central Excise & Customs , Date of Birth : 6-May-1962, Permanent Address : 40, Moti Dungri, Alwar, Present Address : 3/9, Agerwal Farm, SFS Mansarovar, Jaipur, Phone Number : 0141-2397159, Mob: 9414483965
  • Nilima Taksham - RAS, Asstt.Coll.& Exe.Magistrate, Date of Birth : 15-March-1977, Home District : Bharatpur, Mob: 9414892892
  • Khajan Singh Tokas
  • Rajat Tokas
  • Ch. Jhandu Singh Tokas - A great philanthropist (first half of the 20th Century)
  • Jagdish Chander Tokas
  • Anita Tokas - (Now Anita Dalal) being an international Judo player has represented India in many International Judo events including Commonwealth Games. She has also provided Judo coaching to the India Lady Judokas.
  • Col Ved Raj Tokas -
  • Ranveer Singh (Tokas) - A.En. Panchayat Samiti, Date of Birth : 22-October-1967, Present Address : Plot No.71,Rameshwerdham, Murlipura, Jaipur - 302013, Phone Number : 0141-2420501, Mob: 9414841237, Email Address : gajendrachoudhary20@yahoo.co.in
  • L. R. Choudhary (Togas) - RIL Security Officer, Date of Birth : 26-June-1984, Ramnagar, Pl-10, Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Present Address : RIL Township, Relience Green, Mothikhavadi Jamnagar (Gujarat), Mob: 9662052145, Email: likma.choudhary@ril.com
  • Narayan Lal Togas- RPS, SP, Date of Birth : 10-June-1971, Home District : Pali, Present Address : 49, Pancholi Vihar, New Sanganer Road, Sodala, Jaipur, Raj. Mob: 9414116123
  • Mr. Vishva Dev Tokas - Govt. Service DIG CRPF, Group Center, CRPF, Pharoda Kalan, Delhi Ph: 011-25016404 (PP-450)
  • Mr. Niranjan Singh Tokas - AAI, 283/1, Munirka Village, New Delhi Ph: 011-26192348 (PP-800)
  • Mr. Prateek Tokas - S/O Ch. Bhagwan Singh 10-Sep-66, OFFICER(P&A) Pawan Hans Helicopter, Civil Aviation, C-14,PAWAN HANS TOWERS, SECTOR-1, NOIDA, 59, Munirka Village, New Delhi-110067, Ph: 011-24627296/24631256, 011-26109109, 9971295877 (PP-868)
  • Ramesh Taxak - Purva Chhatrasangh Upadhyaksh, Alwar.[64]
  • Pratibha Taxak - Sarpanch, Grampanchayat Jat Behror, Alwar w/o Ramesh Taxak, Purva Chhatrasangh Upadhyaksh, Alwar.[65] She made Jat Behror as first village in district free of defecation in open. She is originally from Dadri, Bhiwani, Haryana. [66]
  • Shahid Surendra Singh Taxak - From Jat Behror, Alwar, Martyr of militancy in October 2015. [67]
  • Narayan Togas: RPS 1997 batch, Add SP Security n intelligence. Jaipur, M: +919414116123

Gallery of Taxak/ Tokas people

References

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. त-2
  2. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p.42,s.n. 1099
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. त-2
  4. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p.42,s.n. 1099
  5. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. ट-5
  6. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.302
  7. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p.41,s.n. 981
  8. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter IX,p.695
  9. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races, pp. 123-127
  10. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, James Todd Annals/Chapter 6 Genealogical history of the Rajput tribes subsequent to Vikramaditya,p. 69 fn.3
  11. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, pp.209, fn-5
  12. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p. 252,253
  13. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.19
  14. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III,p.242
  15. Alexander Cunningham, Archaeological Survey of India Report, 1863-64, p. 10.
  16. History of the Jats/Chapter II,p. 28
  17. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter II,p. 32-33
  18. History of the Jats/Chapter II,p. 29-30
  19. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V, p. 101
  20. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V, p. 104
  21. Gopinath T A Rao:Elements of Hindu Iconography, Vol II Part II, 1968, pp.556-557
  22. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.144
  23. A Cunningham:Ancient Geography of India, pp148ff
  24. H. L. Kosare P-253
  25. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.144
  26. K P Jayaswal:History of India, p.39
  27. K P Jayaswal:History of India, p. 38-39
  28. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.144
  29. K P Jayaswal:History of India, p.115
  30. K P Jayaswal:History of India, p.33 foot note no. 2
  31. A Cunningham: Ancient India, pp.125,129
  32. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.144-145
  33. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.145
  34. James Todd:Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, I, p.124
  35. In the Mahabharata and Laxicon of Hemchandra the Vahikas are said to be the same as Taka BAHIKASHTAKKANĀMĀNA foot note no.1 Cunningham p.125-126
  36. James Todd, I, p.124
  37. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.145
  38. James Todd Vol I, p.43, foot note no.3
  39. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.145
  40. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.145
  41. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.145
  42. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.146
  43. Davids Rhys T W, p.15
  44. D D Kosambi, p.120
  45. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.146
  46. James Todd Vol I, p.125
  47. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.146
  48. M C Crindle:Ancient India as described in classical literature, p.145
  49. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.146
  50. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, p.126
  51. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.171
  52. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.148
  53. Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book IV,p.73
  54. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,, James Todd Annals/Chapter 6 Genealogical history of the Rajput tribes subsequent to Vikramaditya
  55. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/ChapterVIII,p. 136
  56. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ.246-247
  57. Jat Samaj Patrika, Agra, October-November 2001, p.9
  58. जाट समाज पत्रिका:आगरा, अक्टूबर-नवम्बर 2001, पृष्ठ 9
  59. जाट समाज पत्रिका:आगरा, अक्टूबर-नवम्बर 2001, पृष्ठ 9
  60. जाट समाज पत्रिका:आगरा, अक्टूबर-नवम्बर 2001, पृष्ठ 9
  61. जाट समाज पत्रिका:आगरा, अक्टूबर-नवम्बर 2001, पृष्ठ 17
  62. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania, Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p. 17
  63. Jat Samaj Patrika, Agra, October-November 2001, p.9
  64. Jat Gatha, January-2016,p.7
  65. Jat Gatha, January-2016,p.7
  66. Jat Gatha, 3/2016, p.33
  67. Jat Gatha, January-2016,p.18

Further reading

  • Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats, Rohtak, India (1938, 1967)
  • Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998
  • Shri Yogesh, Mob:08930138710 Bhat of both Tokas & Phogat clans

External links


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