|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)|
Tungabhadra (तुंगभद्रा) is a river in India that starts and flows through the state of Karnataka during most of its course, before flowing along the border between Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh and ultimately joining the Krishna River near Alampur village in Mehaboobnagar District of Telangana. In the epic Ramayana, the Tungabhadra River was known by the name of Pampa.
- Tunga Bhadra/Tunga-Bhadra (तुंगभद्रा)
- Tungabhadra River (तुंगभद्रा नदी) (AS, p.406)
- Tunga Bhadra River (तुंगभद्रा नदी)
- Tungavena (तुङ्गवेणा) (=Tungabhadra, in Mahabharata) (VI.10.26)
- Tungavena (तुंगवेणा) = Tungaveni (तुंगवेणी) (AS, p.407)
- Pampa (पंपा) (=Tungabhadra, in Ramayana)
The Tungabhadra River is formed by the confluence of the Tunga River and the Bhadra River at Koodli which flow down the eastern slope of the Western Ghats in the state of Karnataka. The two rivers originate in Mudigere Taluk of Chikmagalur District of Karnataka along with the Netravati (west-flowing river, joining the Arabian Sea near Mangalore), the Tunga and the Bhadra rise at Gangamoola, in Varaha Parvata in the Western Ghats at an elevation of 1198 metres (near Samse Village).
After emerging from the Source, The Bhadra river flows through Kudremukh mountain region, Tarikere Taluk and the industrial city Bhadravati. Where as, Tunga River flows through Sringeri Taluk, Thirthahalli Taluk and Shimoga Taluk.
More than 100 tributaries, streams, creeks, rivulets and the like contribute to the two rivers. The journey of the 'Tunga' and the 'Bhadra' is 147 km ( and 171 km respectively, till they join at Koodli, at an elevation of about 610 metres near Holehonnur, about 15 km from Shivamogga, areca granary of the country. Though both Tunga and Bhadra rivers start at same source (Gangamoola), they flow separately for some distance and then they later unite with each other at Koodali village. Hence from there, Collective name "Tunga-Bhadra" was given.
From there, the Tungabhadra meanders through the plains to a distance of 531 km. After confluence, The mighty Tunga Bhadra river flows through Honnali, Harihara and Harapanahalli taluks of Davangere district. Then It flows through Hoovina Hadagali, Hagaribomannahalli, Hospet and Siruguppa Taluks of Bellary district.
In Siruguppa Taluk of Bellary district, It receives its tributary Vedavati River. The river forms natural boundary between Bellary and Koppal districts and then between Bellary and Raichur districts along its course.
After entering Andhra Pradesh State, It flows through temple town of Mantralaya and then through Kurnool City. It receives its tributary Handri river near Kurnool City. Then It mingles with the Krishna River near Alampur Village of Mehaboobnagar district of Telangana state. The Place of confluence of Tunga Bhadra and Krishna River is a holy pilgrimage site. The Sangameshwara temple and Jogulamba temple(dedicated to Lord Shiva and Goddessess Devi respectively) are present near Alampur village.
The Varada flowing through Shimoga, Uttara Kannada and Haveri districts and Vedavathi in Chikkamagalur, Chitradurga and Bellary districts in Karnataka and the Handri in Kurnool district of Andra Pradesh are the main tributaries of the Tungabhadra. Many rivulets and streams join these tributaries. There is a popular saying in Kannada "Tunga Paana, Ganga Snana", which means "Drink Tunga River water, which is tasty & sweet and Bath in Ganga River, which is holy".
There are many holy places all along the rivers: primarily temples of Saiva Cult on the banks of the Bhadra and all the cults on the banks of the Tunga. Sringeri, Sarada Petham established by the Adi Shankaracharya is the most famous one on the left bank of the Tunga, about 50 km downstream of its origin. Manthralayam Sree Raghavendra Swamy Muth in Kurnool District and Alampur in Mahaboobnagar District, Jogulamba is the presiding deity, known as Dakshina Kashi are the other important pilgrimage centres. There is a cluster of Nava Brahma temples constructed by the early Chalukyas.
In this setting the ruins of Vijayanagara and Hampi, the seat of power of the Vijayanagar empire, overlook this holy river, creating a mythological landscape merging sacred traditions about a multitude of significant divinities.
The granite outcrops slowly disappear as the river flows south and the land opens into a long, broad plain ending at the rising slopes of the Sandur hills, rich in iron and manganese, beyond which is the town of Hosapete. The Tungabhadra Dam was constructed at Hosapete in the middle of the 20th century to harness the river water, aiding the growth of agriculture and industry in the region.
The Tungabhadra River then flows east, joining the Krishna in Andhra Pradesh. From here the Krishna continues east to empty into the Bay of Bengal. The wedge of land that lies north of the Tungabhadra River, between the Tungabhadra and the Krishna, is known as the Raichur Doab.
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...तुंगभद्र (AS, p.406) मैसूर में तुंगभद्रा नदी के तट पर बसा हुआ एक प्राचीन स्थान है। तुंगभद्र से नौ मील दूर राघवेंद्र स्वामी का मंदिर है। जनश्रुति है कि श्री रामचंद्र जी वनवास काल में यहाँ कुछ समय तक रहे थे।
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...तुंगभद्रा (AS, p.406) - दक्षिण भारत की प्रसिद्ध नदी है। यह पश्चिम घाट से निकलती है और रायपुर के निकट कृष्णा नदी में मिलती है। कर्नाटक (मैसूर) राज्य में स्थित तुंग और भद्र नामक दो पर्वतों से निस्सृत दो श्रोतों से मिलकर तुंगभद्रा नदी की धारा बनती है। उद्गम का स्थान गंगामूल कहलाता है। तुंग और भद्र श्रृंगेरी, श्रृंगगिरी या वराहपर्वत के अंतर्गत हैं और ये ही तुंगभद्रा के नाम के कारण हैं।
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...Tungavena (तुंगवेणा) = Tungavena (तुंगवेणी) (AS, p.407) - महाभारत भीष्म पर्व 9,27 में वर्णित एक नदी जो सम्भवतः तुंगवेणा है-- 'उपेनद्रां बहुलां चैव कुचराम अम्बुवाहिनीम्, विनन्दींपिञ्जलां वेणां तुङ्गवेणां महानदीम्' (VI.10.26)
Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Tungavena (तुङ्गवेणा) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.10.26). ...of Upendra, and Vahula, and Kuchira, and Ambuvahini: of Vinandi, and Pinjala, and Vena, and the great river Tungavena;....
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.406
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.406
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.407
- उपेनद्रां बहुलां चैव कुचराम अम्बुवाहिनीम, वैनन्दीं पिञ्जलां वेण्णां तुङ्गवेणां महानदीम (VI.10.26)