Bayana

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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क
Location of Bayana in Bharatpur District
Bhim Lat or Bijayagadh Stone Pillar Inscription at Bayana

Bayana (बयाना), also known as Bijayagadh, is a historical town in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan in India. Shripatha (श्रीपथ) was its name in ancient times.

The Founders

Bayana is a historical city founded by Bana clan Jats who were the first rulers in this area. Bayana was their capital.

Location

Bayana is located in a small plain, between two hill ranges running more or less parallel to each other near the left bank of the Gambhiri river, at a distance of 36 km from Bharatpur.

Villages in Bayana tahsil

Adda, Agawali, Ajnoli, Alapuri, Arauda, Bachhaina, Bagren, Baisora Bharatpur, Bajna, Bajoli, Bamoori, Ban Kookra, Bangaspura, Bansroli, Baori, Barkhera, Baroda, Bastrawali, Bayana ( Rural ), Bayana (M), Beerampura, Bhagori, Bhaja Moroli, Bidyari, Birhata, Biskhori, Brahmawad, Budhawar, Chahal, Chainpura Bayana, Chak Balrampur, Chak Beechhi, Chak Nawli, Chak Samantgarh, Chaukhanda, Cheekhru, Damdama, Dar Barahna, Dehgawan, Dewasarai, Dhadren, Dhurairi, Dumariya, Encholi, Etmadpur, Farso, Gajnua, Gazipur, Ghunaini, Gurdha Dang, Gurdha Nadi, Harnagar, Imliya, Intkhera, Jaisora, Jarwar, Jaspura Moroli, Jaswant Nagar, Jhamri, Jhatola, Kachaira, Kair, Kakalpura, Kalsara, Kanawar, Kani, Kapoora Dahar, Kapoora Malooka, Karwari, Katariyapura, Katkar, Khan Khera, Khareri, Khatnawali, Kheri Dang, Kheriya, Kherli Gadasiya, Khohra, Khoot Khera, Khulawali, Kot, Kothi Khera, Lahchora Kalan, Lahchora Khurd, Lohatwara, Madanpur, Mahloni, Mahmadpura, Mahrawar, Malipura, Mangren Kalan, Mangren Khurd, Milakpur, Moodiya, Mor Talab, Muawali, Murki, Nadi Gaon, Nagla Bahaduriya, Nagla Chheetariya, Nagla Chimman, Nagla Hota, Nagla Jhamra, Nagla Khatka, Nagla Khushaliram, Nagla Khushfaham, Nagla Kishan Vallabh, Nagla Kurwariya, Nagla Medsingh, Nagla Nabariya, Nagla Nirbhan, Nagla Purohit, Nagla Roopram, Nagla Sewa Kurwariya, Nagla Shyolal, Nagla Tirkha, Nahroli, Naroli Bayana, Nawli, Nayagaon Kalan, Nayagaon Khurd, Nithari, Palidang, Parua, Patti Shahjad, Peeloopura, Peeparra, Peepli, Pidawali, Popalpura, Purabai Khera, Puraharlal, Raroda, Raseri, Reechhauli, Sadhpura, Salabad, Samantgarh, Samogar, Samri, Santokpura, Sarai Bhamboo, Seedpur, Seopura, Sewla, Shahpur, Shekhpur, Shergarh, Sikandara, Singhan Khera, Singhaniya, Singhara, Singhrawali, Sookha Seela, Soopa, Sultanpur, Talimpur, Tarbeejpur, Tarsooma, Thana Dang, Thikariya, Turtipura,

History

The ancient name of Bayana was Shripatha or Shriprashtha. It is a curious mixture of Hindu and Mohammad relics. Ruled by stalwarts like Mohammad Ghori, Sikandar Lodhi and Humayun, Bayana held a special place in history. According to Abul Fazal: "this town is the burial place of many illustrious men". It can be adjudged that various important battles were fought here. Ain-e-Akbari mention that in former times Bayana was the capital of a province of which Agra was merely a dependent village.

Bayana is famous for Bijaigarh (Vijaygarh) fort which was built by Jadon Raja Bijai Pal in 1040 A.D. The Bijaigarh fort contains several old temples and a red sandstone pillar bearing an inscription of Vishnuvardhan, a feudatory of Samudragupta. The fort was described as one of the most famous forts in India by Babur himself. Besides this there is a monolithic sandstone pillar, a curious combination of Hindu and Mohammedan styles, which bears many inscriptions.


Another important place is Usha temple, which was built during the reign of Raja Laxman Sen, by his wife.

James Tod[1] writes that The warriors assembled under Visaladeva Chauhan against the Islam invader included the ruler Dahima. The renowned Dahima was lord of Bayana ; also called Druinadhar.

Sultan Bahau-d din Tughril and Bayana

Sir H. M. Elliot[2] writes about Bayana:

Malik Bahau-d din Tughril was a man of kindly disposition, just, charitable, and polite. He was one of the oldest servants of Sultan Ghazi Mu'izzu-d din, who with his favour had made him a great man. When the Sultan conquered the fort of Thankar1 in the country of Bhayana2 after fighting with the Rai, he consigned it to Bahau-d din, and he so improved the condition of the country that merchants and men of credit came thither from all parts of Hindustan and Khurasan, He gave all of them houses and goods, and also made them masters of landed property, so that they settled there. As he and his army did not like to reside in the fort of Thankar, he founded the city of Sultan-kot,3 in the territory of Bhayana and made it the place of his residence. From this place he constantly sent his horsemen towards Gwalior. When Sultan Ghazi retired from that fort


1 ["Bhankar" or "Bhangar" in other places, see p. 296. A note in the text gives the preference to " Thankar," but no reason is assigned,]

2 Bayana or Biana, fifty miles S.W. of Agra.

3 [See Firishta I. 195. A note in the text says " Sialkot," but this is impossible.]


[p.305]: he told Bahau-d din that he ought to secure it for himself. Upon this hint Bahau-d din, posted a division of his army at the foot of the fort of Gwalior, and at two parasangs distance he constructed a fortification, where his cavalry might picket at night and return in the morning to the base of the rock. A year passed and the garrison being reduced to extremities sent messengers to Kutbu-d din and surrendered the fort to him. There was a little misunderstanding; between Bahau-d din and Sultan Kutbu-d din (r. 1206-1210). Malik Bahau-d din Tughril was a man of excellent qualities, and he has left many marks of his goodness in the territory of Bhayana.

Bijayagadh Stone Inscription of the Yaudheyas

  • Perfection has been attained! Of the Mahârâja and Mahâsênâpati, who has been made the leader of the Yaudhêya tribe, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .and having asked the settlement, headed by the Brâhmans, as to the health of (their) bodies &c., writes "There is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .[3]

Bijayagadh Stone Pillar Inscription of Vishnuvardhana S. 428 (372 AD)

From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 254.[4]

The Bijayagadh Stone Pillar Inscription of Vishnuvardhana, locally known as Bhīm kī Lāţ, was erected at Bayana in Bharatpur district for having perfection been attained in samvat 428 on the fifteenth lunar day of the dark fortnight of (the month) Phâlguna. Bijayagadh Stone Pillar Inscription of Vishnuvardhana reads as[5]:

English translation

Perfection has been attained! Four centuries of years, together with the twenty-eighth (year), (or in figures) 400 (ana) 20 (ana) 8, having been accomplished; on the fifteenth lunar day of the dark fortnight of (the month) Phalguna;-on this (lunar day), (specified) as aforesaid: -

(Line 3.)-On the ceremony of the pundarīka-sacrifice (having been performed), this sacrificial post has been caused to be set. up by the Varika, the illustrious Vishnuvardhana whose royalty and name are well established,-who is the excellent son of Yashovardhana; (and) the excellent son s son of Yashôrâta; (and) the excellent son of the son s son of Vyâghrarâta, - for the purpose of increasing (his) splendour, sacrifices, religion, welfare (in the other world), prosperity, fame, family, lineage, good fortune, and enjoyment.

(L. 4.)-Let there be success! Let there be increase! Let there be tranquillity! Let there be the condition of (his) having a son who shall live! Let there be the attainment of desires that are wished for! May there be faith and wealth!

Source - Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 254.

The Bijayagadh Stone Pillar Inscription of Vishnuvardhana shows that Yasodharman, the father of Vishnuvardhana, was a king of Virk gotra. [6] [7]Thakur Deshraj and CV Vaidya apparently believe that the inscription of Bijaygarh and Mandsaur "prove" that Yasodharman, the ruler of Malwa, was a Jat king of the Virk gotra (clan). [8][9]

Comments by Dr SS Rana

The name of the father of Vishnuvardhana as given in the above inscrition is Yashovarmarman not Yashodharman of the Mandasor Inscriptions. We know now that he was from the family of Aulikaras of Mandsor about whom the Risthal Inscription gives rich information. [10]--Drssrana2003

Bayana Inscription of Mahipaladeva V. 1012 (955 AD)

The relevant inscription recording the fact is incised on a slab in the pavement of the Ukha mosque at Bayana, now transformed into the Ukha mandir.

The temple was constructed by Mahipaladeva in ca. 950 or sometime before AD 955 as the Bayana inscription dated VS 1012 (AD 955) suggests that Sripatha was the seat of Mahipala Deva.


The Bayana inscription of Chitralekha (955 AD)74 refers to the collection of three drammas for a deity at the mandapika of Shripatha and of a similar sum at the mandapika of Vasavata. Both the mandapikas appear to have been noted for trade in horses, as the local queen donated in favour of a Visnu temple .

An inscription found at Bayana in Rajasthan, dated VS 1012=955 AD, refers to one Maharajadhiraja Mahipala. The Bayana region must have been within the Pratihara dominions, for Rajor, lying further to its north-west.

Up to V. 1012 (955 AD), Sripatha appears to have been ruled by the Surasena dynasty.


Bayana inscription of queen Chitra-lekha (dated 955 AD) mentions prostitutes attached to temples.


Bayana formed part of the kingdom of Kanauj in Vikrama year 1012 = 955 ad, the date of the epigraph, nobody would probably ... and this supposition is doubtless to some extent strengthened by the evidence of the Rajor inscription...

Arrival of Sultan Muhammad Ghori in Hindustan

Sir H. M. Elliot[11] writes that When Kutbu-d din Aibak (r. 1206-1210) heard of the Sultan Muhammad Ghori's march from Ghazna, he advanced as far as Hansi to meet him. In the year 592, H. (1196 A.D.), they marched towards Thangar,(Bayana) and strong castle was taken, which had hitherto remained closed to all the sovereigns and princes of the world.


[p. 227]: " Kuwar Pal, the Rai of Thangar, who had prided himself on the numbers of his army and the strength of his castle, suffered the loss of his kingdom, was content that his life was left to him. The Musulmans, and harbis, and zimmis entered into conditions for paying revenue. The government of Thangar was conferred on Bahau-d din Tughril.


दलीप सिंह अहलावत लिखते हैं

चूड़ामन ने अपने पिता ब्रजराज के जीवनकाल में रूपवास, बाड़ी, बसेडी, सिरमथरा, बयाना तथा कठूमर के बीहड़ जंगल तथा पहाड़ों में शरण लेकर नवीन छापामार दल संगठित कर लिए थे। इन दलों ने पांच-छः वर्ष तक आगरा, दिल्ली तथा रणथम्भौर मुगल सरकारों के मध्य भाग में लूटमार करके अराजकता को फैलाया। मुगल सरकारों के सूबेदार तथा परगनों के फौजदार क्रान्तिकारी समूह की गतिविधियों को नियन्त्रित रखने में पूर्णतः असफल रहे। अपने पिता ब्रजराज तथा ज्येष्ठ भ्राता भावसिंह की मृत्यु के बाद वह अपने लड़ाकू जाट सैनिकों के साथ कठूमर परगना को छोड़कर अपनी जन्मभूमि (सिनसिनी परगना) में वापिस लौट आया। इस समय समस्त गांवों के सिनसिनवार जाट मुखियाओं की एक पंचायत बैठी और उस पंचायत ने फतेसिंह (सुपुत्र राजाराम) को अयोग्य समझकर चूड़ामन को सिनसिनवार जाट पंचायत का प्रधान निर्वाचित किया। यह पंचायत 1702 ई० के आस-पास हुई थी।[12]


External links

References

  1. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II,Annals of Haravati,p.414-416
  2. The history of India : as told by its own historians. Volume II/VIII. Tabakat-i Nasiri of Minhaju-s Siraj, Sir H. M. Elliot Edited by John Dowson, 1867 pp.304-305
  3. From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 252.
  4. http://www.mssu.edu/projectsouthasia/history/primarydocs/Epigraphy/Gupta-Era/bijayagadh_stone_pillar.htm
  5. Bijayagadh Stone Pillar Inscription of Vishnuvardhana
  6. Bijayagadh Stone Pillar Inscription of Vishnuvardhana
  7. Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 254.
  8. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 (Page 707)
  9. CV Vaidya, History of Medieval Hindu India
  10. K.V. Ramesh and S.P.Tiwari, Journal of Indian Epigraphical Society, Vol.10.
  11. The history of India : as told by its own historians. Volume II/V. Taju-l Maasir of Hasan Nizami: Sir H. M. Elliot Edited by John Dowson, 1867, p.226-227
  12. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter VIII (Page 641)

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