Chauhan

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Chauhan (चौहान)[1] [2] Chuhan (चुहान) Chohan (चोहान) Chhuhan (छुहान)[3] [4] Chauhan (चौहान)/Chavan (चवान)[5] gotra Jats are found in Haryana, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh and Pakistan. The Chauhan gotra is found among the Rajputs, Jats and Gujars. They were the main Kshatriyas out of four Agnikula kshtriyas created in mount Abu. They had capital at Ajmer and their rishi was Atreya (आत्रेय).[6] The Harsh Inscription reveals that Chauhans considered themselves as Suryavanshi Khsatriyas in 10th century AD. The Hammir Mahakavya of 1400 AD also writes Chauhans as Suryavanshi Ksatriyas. [7]

Pulota, Harsh and later Sambhar and Ajmer had become power centres of Chauhans. Due to the importance of Sambhar lake they had been called 'Shakambharishwar'. [8]

Contents

The original habitat of the Chauhans

Source - Source of this section is mainly "Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, pp. 11-13

With regard to the original habitat of the Chauhans we have the following information -

  • (1) Inscriptions as well as old historical chronicles connect them with Jangaladesha and Sapadalaksha. [9]
  • (2) Tradition maintains that they moved northwards and conquered Delhi from the Tomaras, which is a fact corroborated by epigraphic evidence. [10]
  • (3) The description in the Prithvirajavijaya puts Vasudeva's capital a little to the east of Sambhar. Vasudeva is made to start from the western extremity of the lake Sambhar, to have the town of Sambhar on the way, and to proceed from there to his capital, an anonymous city, which may have been in the Ananta district of Sapadalaksha.
  • (4) The Harsha inscription (V. 1030) shows that Ananta province (the tract situated near Sikar in the Jaipur division of Rajasthan) was the Chauhans' old seat of power. It was here that Tantrapala Kshmapala tried to attack Vigraharaja II's grandfather Vakpati, and it was here that the Chauhans had the temple of their family deity, Harshadeva.
  • (5) The Bijolia inscription regards Samanta as an Ananta samanta, which in the light of the description in the inscription can only mean that he was a samanta of the Ananta province. The words of the Bijolia inscription are: "सामन्तोनन्तसामन्त: "

These can be interpreted in two ways,

  • (1) Samanta, a samanta or chief of Ananta.
  • (2) Samanta who had ananta or innumerable samantas.

In view of the statements in the Harsha inscription, we have adopted the first sense, though the second one is not impossible: and the poet might have intended to convey that too in addition to its primary sense. A third interpretation, Samanta who was known as Ananta, suggested by Dr. H.C. Ray, can be regarded as incorrect.

  • (6) The Bijolia inscription mentions also his being originally at Ahichchhatrapura, a name not inappropriate for the capital of Ananta-gochara, i.e., the land of Ananta, the lord of Nagas. For one more indication in the Bijolia inscription see the last two sentences of the chapter.
  • (7) The Prithvirajavijaya, Hammiramahakavya and the Surjanacharita give Pushkar as Chahamana's birth-place.

No part of this evidence will go against us, if we conclude that their cradle-land was in the tract extending approximately from Pushkar in the south to Harsha in the north. It had every right to be called Jangaladesha on account of abounding in pilu, karira and shami trees, the characteristic vegetation of such a tract, [11] and was also included in the territory which, according to the Skanda Purana was known as Sakambhara-Sapadalaksha. The Kumarikhanda of the Skanda Purana which mentions a few other Sapadalaksha, i.e., territorial units supposed to have 1-1/4 lac villages. The Chauhans belonged to the Sakambhara-sapadalaksha which probably is the territorial unit meant by Wasaf who writes that "Siwalik contains 1,25,000 towns and villages." (ED., III, p. 31.) . It has been mentioned as Siwalikh by Minhaj-us-Siraj. [12]

The Harsha inscription regards the region as Chauhans' land; and it was so also according to the Bijolia inscription, if my interpretation of the term, Ananta-Samanta is correct. No Ahichchhatrapura is to be found there at present. Dr. G.H. Ojha and Dewan Bahadur H.B. Sarda, however, think that Ahichchhatrapura still exists in the form of Nagor, a town in the Jodhpur Division. Their chief arguments for identifying the towns are:--

The synonimity, however, is doubtful, because not only Ahichchhatrapura is not an exact equivalent of Nagor or Nagapura, the exact equivalent being Ahipura, but also because Nagapura or Nagor, in spite of being a well-known Jaina tirtha, is never mentioned as Ahichchhatrapura in any Jain work. Even more unsound is the argument from the Prithvirajavijaya. The description there shows that Vasudeva passed the night in the temple of Sakambhari. (See the last verse of Canto IV.) Early in the morning, he started from there for his capital which he reached a little after sunrise. So naturally Vasudeva's capital could not have been at a hard day's ride from Sambhar, at least according to the Prithvirajavijaya. But that it could have existed in this tract alone can be inferred from the fact that Vasudeva, the earliest Chauhan ruler known to us, is connected with the Sambhar lake, and another very early ruler, Nripa or Naradeva, the successor of Samanta of Ahichchhatrapura, is described as reigning at Purnatalla or Puntala in the Jodhhpur Division of Rajasthan. In verses 11 and 12 of the Bijolia inscription, Vishnu in verse 11 equals Vasudeva.

Ahichchhatrapura may have been somewhere between Puntala and Sambhar; at least it could not have been very far from them, for we have no evidence what so ever to put the early Chauhans in any area except that indicated in the beginning of this paragraph.

History

They are mentioned in the Jat history because historians have proved that the Chauhan belong to the Takshak dynasty and some Jat gotras do belong to the Chauhan dynasty.

According to Colonel Todd's Rajasthan, the ancestor of the Chauhan dynasty was Anhal Raja, who was a Takshak, an old gotra of the Jats.

Bhim Singh Dahiya[13] writes that Vayu Purana mentions a people called Chahuka (चाहुक) for Chauhans. The Sanskrit name Chahmān must have been given at the time of the fire sacrifice. D C Sirkar quotes Puranic authority to say:[14]

कलूताश्च चाहुकाश्चैव ऊर्णा दार्वस्तथैव च।
एते देशा उदीच्यास्तु प्राच्यान् देशान् निबोधत।।

It means that the countries of Kalutas, Chahukas, Urnas and Darvas are considered eastern ancient ones. Becuase they themselves were in the far north-west, and in their countries the north of India becomes east. The Chahukas are the Chauhans. The inscription dated 842 of Chahuvānas ruling in Dholpur[15] speaks of "Chahuvana vara bhupati, Charuvansha", i.e. the goodly race of the eminent 'landlords' Chāhuvāna. [16]

Chahamanas Dynasty

Main article: Chahamanas Dynasty

There were many branches of the Chahamanas. The first of these braches lived in the kingdom of Mahishmati situated at the bank of river Narmada. In the tenth century A.D. when Pratiharas became weak the Chahamanas established its kingdom in Sambhar area. The Harsh Inscription of s.v.1030 (973) tells us that they were rulers of the area. Shakambhari was their capital, and hence this dynasty was actually called Chahamanas dynasty of Sakambhari. The early branch of Chauhans ruled in Lat Pradesh and second branch was in Shakambhari.

The chronology of Harshanath Inscription of Chauhan rulers is supported by their Bijolia Inscription of v.s. 1226 (1169 AD). As per record of Bards the place of origin of Chauhans is Mahishmati on the banks of Narmada River.Ahichhatrapur and Shakambhari were their first and second capitals.Their state was known as Sapadalaksha which included one lakh villages. As per Ojha Sapadalaksha was the name of Nagaur. Shakambhari was the ancient name of Sambhar.[17]

Till the middle of 8th century Chauhans were the rulers of Sambhar. Guvaka I was probably the first independent ruler. Chauhans were Shaivas and Harshadeva was their kuladevata.[18] In other inscriptions of Chauhans we get information about a place named Purnatallakapura (पूर्णतल्लकपुर), a very well developed and rich city. Shakambhari inscription of s.v. 1155 which mentions terms like 'पूर्णतल्लकपुर: प्रथित: पृथ्वीव्याम्' & 'वेश्मजालै:'. It appears that Purnatallakapura, which has been identified with village Pulota or Pundlota near Degana, has been the capital of Chauhans. Probably the line of rulers starting from Vasudeva to the predecessor of Guvaka were rulers here in Pulota. Later when their state expanded Chauhans made Harsh as their capital or sub capital and Guvaka was the first ruler of Harsha. This is probably the reason for Harshanath inscription starts Chauhan line of rulers from Guvaka. [19]

Chauhan religion

See Main article: Chauhan religion

Of religions, the chief ones now represented in Rajasthan are Jainism and various systems of orthodox Hinduism; and this seems to have been the case in our Chauhan period also. But the sect that found the greatest acceptance throughout the Chauhan dominions was Shaivism in some form or other.

Samantas of Chauhans

See in detail at Samantas of Chauhans

Chauhan Administration

Main article: Chauhan Administration

Chauhan Khap

Chauhan khap has 5 villages in Uttar Pradesh in Baghpat district. Jat gotra is Lakda. Ramala (रमाला) is head village. The 5 villages constituting this khap are : Ramala (रमाला), Kirthal (किरठल), Lumba (लुम्बा), Tugana (तुगाना) and Asara (असारा). [20]

Sub divisions of Chauhan

Bhim Singh Dahiya[21] provides us list of Jat clans who were supporters of the Chauhan when they gained political ascendancy. The following clans supported the ascendant clan Chauhan and become part of a political confederacy: Bhakar, Khonga, Lakhlan, Sawanch, Sohu, Chahal, Ghel, Rao, Nahra, Pankhal, Luni, Jaglan, Bhanniwal, Legha, Janawar, Bedwal, Mahlu, Wiha, Mehran, Raparia, Bhariwas, Bohla, Mor, Sinhmar, Mahil, Goyat, Lohan, Sheoran, Lobhawat, Somaddhar, Dohan, Hela, Lohach, Rammpuria, Sedhu, Hoda, Samin, Rojia, Bhana, Chotia, Bhattu, Rar, Lomadh.[22]

Common gotras with Jats

Dr Ompal Singh Tugania in his book Chahuan vanshi Lakra Jaton ka Itihas (Chapter 32) has provided some common Jat gotras arising out of Chahmans or Chauhans. The following list includes such Gotras from Dr Tugania's book and also other sources:

Achra, Ahlan, Anjane, Bachaya, Bachda, Bachra, Badhak, Badwal, Balecha, Behede, Beherewal, Beniwal, Betlan, Bhadwar, Bharne, Bharwar, Bharwas, Bhattu, Bhikara, Bhukar, Bijarnia, Biloda, Bola, Brahyan, Budhwar, Burdak, Chahal, Chawra, Chhikara, Chopda, Chophe, Chopra, Dabas, Dahana, Dahiya, Dalal, Dhayal, Deora, Deshwal, Dhaka, Dhandhi, Dhaya, Dhull, Duhoon, Gahal, Garbarya, Gathwal, Geela, Ghant, Ghayal, Girawadia, Godhaay, Godhi, Gohala, Gohar, Goriya, Gothwal, Hooda, Jasrana, Jhotda, Jhotra, Judana, Jujada, Khanna, Khapra, Kharat, Khetlan, Khichi, Khugga, Kundu, Lakdam, Lakhlan, Lakra, Legha, Loch, Lohaan, Lohiya, Loodi, Loori, Ludhan, Luhach, Lulah, Luni, Maan, Makar, Mela, Meran, Nabiya, Nahowar, Nara, Narwal, Narwari, Nimma, Nimriya, Noora, Nyol, Ohlan, Padhyan, Panghal, Pilania, Rai, Raibidar, Rapria, Ratha, Rau, Roda, Rojiya, Sahu, Sambharwal, Sangriya, Sangwan, Saunkhda, Sayad, Sayanh, Sheoran, Shivah, Sihag, Sihibagh, Sindhad, Soori, Suhag, Suriya, Talwar, Thakran, Thalor, Tharra, Thur, Tikara, Totiyan, Veerpal, Velawat, Venipal,

Given their same roots, Hindu jats of Jaglan, Bhayan, Khunga and Chauhan do not intermarry.

According to H.A. Rose[23] Jat clans derived from Chauhan are: Bedwal, Bhakar, Bhana, Bhanniwal, Bhariwas, Bhattu, Bohla, Chahal, Chotia, Dohan, Ghel, Goyat, Hela, Hoda, Jaglan, Janawa, Khonga, Lakhlan, Legha, Lobhawat, Lohach, Lohan, Lomadh, Luni, Mahil, Mahlu, Mehran, Mor, Nahra, Pankhal, Rampuria, Rao, Raparia, Rar, Rojia, Samin, Sawanch, Sedhu, Sheoran, Sinhmar, Sohu, Somaddhar, Wiha,

Distribution in Punjab

Villages in Hoshiarpur district

Villages in Patiala district

Villages in Jalandhar district

Distribution in Delhi

Villages in Delhi with Lakra chouhan Jats are: Mundka, Nangloi Jat

Distribution in Haryana

Villages in Palwal district

Aurangabad, Chhajjunagar, Khedi Kalan, Mitraul,

Villages in Rohtak district

Baland, Mor Khedi,

Villages in Sonipat district

Badwasni, Sandhal,

Villages in Karnal district

Nilokheri,

Distribution in Rajasthan

Locations in Jaipur city

22 Godam, Airport Colony, Bajrang Vihar, Sethi Colony,

Villages in Sawai Madhopur district

Gangapur City,

Distribution in Uttar Pradesh

Villaage in Meerut district

Sujatpur,

Villages in Muzaffarnagar district

Athai, Bachhaur, Banat, Muzaffarnagar,

Villages in Bagpat district

There are 05 villages of Chauhan Jats in Bagpat district. These are:

Ramala, Kirthal, Lumba, Tugana and Asara (Mula Jats).

Villages in Ghaziabad district

Bhadsyana,

Villages in Mathura district

Kotwan

Distribution in Madhya Pradesh

Villages in Ratlam district

Villages in Ratlam with population of this gotra are:

Ratlam 1,

Distribution in Pakistan

Chohan/Chauhan is a unique Jat and Rajput clan that originated from the ancient Chauhan Rajputs of North India. Chauhan Jats are descendents of ancient Chauhan Rajputs whose ancestors chose farming and family over the sword. Most Chohan Jats follow the Sikh Faith.

According to 1911 census it was the principal Muslim Jat clan in following districts:

  • Lahore District - Chauhan (393)
  • Montgomery District (Sahiwal District) - Chauhan (517)
  • Gujrat District - Chauhan 726,
  • Lyalpur District (Faisalabad District) - Chauhan (629)
  • Multan District - Chavan (775),
  • Dera Ghazi Khan District - Chauhan (1,026)
  • Bahawalpur State - Chauhan (567)

Notable persons

  • P. M. Chouhan - Addl. Dir. ( Retd. ) Agriculture, Date of Birth : 30-January-1949, Home District : Bharatpur, Present Address : 1212/A-2, Barakat Nagar, Tonk Phatak, Jaipur, Raj. Mob: 9799496122
  • Mr. Vinay Kumar Chauhan - Retd. AGM NSC Agriculture, EG-21, 2nd Floor, Inderpuri, New Delhi-110012 Ph: 011-25835120, 9899660577, (PP-106)
  • Mr. Babu Ram Chauhan - Area Manager NFL, 9/79-A, Sec 3, Rajinder Nagar, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad, UP. (PP-851)

See also

External links

References

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. च-38
  2. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.300
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. छ-14
  4. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.300
  5. B S Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), p.237, s.n.36
  6. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p.242
  7. रतन लाल मिश्र:शेखावाटी का नवीन इतिहास, मंडावा, १९९८, पृ.38
  8. रतन लाल मिश्र:शेखावाटी का नवीन इतिहास, मंडावा, १९९८, पृ.38
  9. See Indian Antiquary , 1912, p. 196; ASR, VI, Plat e. XXI
  10. See JPASB. XLIII, p. 108 and my paper on the Tomaras of Delhi in the Rajasthan Bharati, III, parts 3-4. Prithvirajaraso also speaks of the Chauhans having reached Delhi from Ajmer.
  11. आकाशशुभ्र उच्चश्च स्वल्पपानीयपादप: | शमीकरीर बिल्वार्कपीलूकर्कन्धुसंकुल: ||हरिणैणर्ष्यपृषदगोकर्णखरसंकुल : |सुस्वादुफलवान् देशो वातल: जांगल: स्मृत: || (Shabdarthachintamani p.991
  12. Read for instance the following :-
    • (a) "Again, he (Muhammad Bahlim) rebelled, and founded the fortress of Naghawr, in the territory of Siwalikh" (p. 110).
    • (b) "This Taj-ud-din was in the service of Malik Karim-ud-din hamzah at Naghawr of Siwalikh." (p. 200).
    • (c) "The seat of territory, Ajmir, with the whole of the Siwalikh (territory), such as Hansi, Sirsuti; and other tracts were subjugated." (pp. 468-469) .
    • (d) A year subsequent to this. in 624 A.D., he marched against the fort of Mandawar within the limits of the Siwalik territory (p. 11). Raverty's translation of the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri.
  13. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 249
  14. Studies in Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1963
  15. Epigraphic Indica, V, No. 12, JGOS, XI, 39
  16. Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1905, p. 21
  17. रतन लाल मिश्र:शेखावाटी का नवीन इतिहास, मंडावा, १९९८, पृ.36
  18. श्री हर्ष: कुलदेवोस्या तस्मादिव्यकुलक्रम:
  19. रतन लाल मिश्र:शेखावाटी का नवीन इतिहास, मंडावा, १९९८, पृ.37
  20. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania, Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p. 15
  21. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Appendices/Appendix I,p.316-17
  22. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/J,p.375-76
  23. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/J,p.375-376
  24. History and study of the Jats. B.S Dhillon. p.126

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