Thailand

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Author: Laxman Burdak IFS (R)
Map of Asia

Thailand (थाईलैंड) formerly known as Siam, is a country at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. The capital and largest city is Bangkok.

Variants of name

Location

Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest.

Etymology

The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens.

By outsiders prior to 1949, it was usually known by the exonym Siam (Thai: สยาม RTGS: Sayam, pronounced [sajǎːm], also spelled Siem, Syâm, or Syâma). The word Siam may have originated from Pali (suvaṇṇabhūmi, “land of gold”) or Sanskrit श्याम (śyāma, “dark”) or Mon ရာမည(rhmañña, “stranger”). The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word.

Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century. The Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." [1]

A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves 'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula.


Etymology of "Thailand" - According to George Cœdès, the word Thai (ไทย) means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".[2] A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai (ไท) simply means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" (คน) for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai (or Thay/Tay) would have evolved from the etymon *k(ə)ri: 'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA (Proto-Southwestern Tai) > tʰajA2 (in Siamese and Lao) or > tajA2 (in the other Southwestern and Central Tai languages classified by Li Fangkuei).[3] Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for the most part by William H. Baxter (1992).[4]

While Thai people will often refer to their country using the polite form prathet Thai (Thai: ประเทศไทย), they most commonly use the more colloquial term mueang Thai (Thai: เมืองไทย) or simply Thai; the word mueang, archaically referring to a city-state, is commonly used to refer to a city or town as the centre of a region. Ratcha Anachak Thai (Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย) means "kingdom of Thailand" or "kingdom of Thai". Etymologically, its components are: ratcha (Sanskrit राजन्, rājan, "king, royal, realm") ; -ana- (Pali āṇā "authority, command, power", itself from the Sanskrit आज्ञा, ājñā, of the same meaning) -chak (from Sanskrit चक्र cakra- "wheel", a symbol of power and rule). The Thai National Anthem (Thai: เพลงชาติ), written by Luang Saranupraphan during the extremely patriotic 1930s, refers to the Thai nation as prathet Thai (Thai: ประเทศไทย). The first line of the national anthem is: prathet thai ruam lueat nuea chat chuea thai (Thai: ประเทศไทยรวมเลือดเนื้อชาติเชื้อไทย), "Thailand is the unity of Thai flesh and blood."

Places of interest

Prehistory

There is evidence of continued human habitation in present-day Thailand dated to 20,000 years before present.[5] Earliest evidence of rice growing was dated 2,000 BCE.[6] Bronze appeared during 1,250–1,000 BCE.[7] The site of Ban Chiang in Northeast Thailand currently ranks as the earliest known center of copper and bronze production in Southeast Asia.[8] Iron appeared around 500 BCE.[9] Kingdom of Funan was the first and most powerful South East Asian kingdom at the time (2nd century BCE).[10] Mon people established principalities of Dvaravati and kingdom of Hariphunchai in the 6th century. Khmer people established Khmer empire centered in Angkor in the 9th century.[11] Tambralinga, a Malay state controlling trade through Malacca Strait, rose in the 10th century.[12] Indochina peninsula was heavily influenced by the culture and religions of India, starting with the Kingdom of Funan to the Khmer Empire.[13]

Thai people are in Tai ethnic group, which were characterized by common linguistic roots.[14] Chinese chronicles first mentioned Tai peoples in 6th century BC. While there are many assumptions regarding the origin of Tai peoples, David K. Wyatt, a prominent historian on Thailand, argued that their ancestors which at the present inhabit Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, India and China came from Điện Biên Phủ area around 5th and 8th century.[15] Thai people began migrating into present-day Thailand around 11th century, which Mon and Khmer people occupied at the time.[16] Thus Thai culture was influenced by Indian, Mon and Khmer cultures.[17]

According to French historian George Cœdès, "The Thai first enter history of Farther India in the eleventh century with the mention of Syam slaves or prisoners of war in" Champa epigraphy, and "in the twelfth century, the bas-reliefs of Angkor Wat" where "a group of warriors" are described as Syam.[18]

History

Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century; the oldest known mention of their presence in the region by the exonym Siamese dates to the 12th century.

Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.

European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign (1656–88), gradually declining thereafter until being ultimately destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin quickly reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom. He was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century.

Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but nevertheless it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's historically influential role in politics. Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid 1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta.

स्याम

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[19] ने लेख किया है ... स्याम (AS, p.1002) थाईलैंड का प्राचीन भारतीय नाम है। स्याम में भारतीय हिंदू उपनिवेश ई. सन् की प्रारंभिक शतियों (संभव है इससे पूर्व भी) स्थापित किये गये थे। भारत से संबंधित सर्वप्राचीन अवशेष भारतीय शिल्पियों की बनाई मूर्ति है जो प्रापाथोम नामक स्थान पर मिली है। वह द्वितीय शती ई. या उससे कुछ पूर्व की बताई जाती है। इस देश में हिंदू राज्य का उत्कर्षकाल 13वीं शती तक बना रहा। इस शती में यहाँ के निवासियों या थाई लोगों ने देश पर अपना प्रभुत्व जमा लिया। स्याम का एक महत्त्वपूर्ण हिंदू राज्य द्वारावती नामक था जिसकी राजधानी लवपुरी (लोपबुरी) में थी।


11 मई, 1949 तक थाईलैण्ड का अधिकृत नाम 'स्याम' था। 'थाई' शब्द का अर्थ थाई भाषा' में 'आज़ाद' होता है। 'थाई' शब्द 'थाई नागरिकों' के सन्दर्भ में भी इस्तेमाल किया जाता है । इस कारण से कुछ लोग, विशेष रूप से यहाँ बसने वाले चीनी लोग, थाईलैंड को आज भी 'स्याम' नाम से पुकारना पसन्द करते हैं।[20]

थाईलैण्ड

थाईलैण्ड का प्राचीन भारतीय नाम 'स्याम' है। थाईलैण्ड दक्षिण पूर्वी एशिया में एक देश है । इसकी पूर्वी सीमा पर लाओस और कम्बोडिया, दक्षिणी सीमा पर मलेशिया और पश्चिमी सीमा पर म्यांमार है। 11 मई, 1949 तक थाईलैण्ड का अधिकृत नाम 'स्याम' था। 'थाई' शब्द का अर्थ थाई भाषा' में 'आज़ाद' होता है। 'थाई' शब्द 'थाई नागरिकों' के सन्दर्भ में भी इस्तेमाल किया जाता है । इस कारण से कुछ लोग, विशेष रूप से यहाँ बसने वाले चीनी लोग, थाईलैंड को आज भी 'स्याम' नाम से पुकारना पसन्द करते हैं। थाईलैण्ड की राजधानी बैंकॉक है।[21]

थाईलैण्ड के केन्द्रीय प्रदेश में 'अमरावती' नामक एक हिन्दू राज्य की स्थापना की गई थी। जिसने द्रुत गति से प्रसार करते हुए सम्पूर्ण देश पर अपना प्रभाव स्थापित किया। इसके पड़ोसी देश 'कम्बोडिया' में पहले ही बौद्ध धर्म विकसित हो चुका था। भारतीय संस्कृति और कला का इस देश में विशेष प्रभाव दृष्टिगोचर होता है। हिन्दू और बौद्ध धार्मिक साहित्य तथा कला ने स्याम देश की भाषा, कला, साहित्य और सामाजिक संस्थाओं को अत्यधिक प्रभावित किया। यहाँ अमरावती शैली, गुप्तकालीन कला और पल्लव लिपि में अंकित बौद्ध धर्म के सिद्धान्तों के अवशेषों की प्राप्ति हुई, जिनसे भारतीय संस्कृति के प्रसार का परिचय प्राप्त होता है। वहाँ के शासक का राज्याभिषेक वर्तमान काल में भी ब्राह्मण पुरोहित द्वारा ही सम्पन्न किया जाता है। [22]

Jat History

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[23] writes .... When the Saka people moved still further in the far eastern countries, they founded a city named Vaisali[24] in Burma, which became the capital of Arakan, ruled over by the Hindu dynasty of


The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations: End of p.196


Dhanyawati from 8th century AD. to 11th century A.D., and which is now identified with Vaithali village, surrounded by monuments ancient Vaisali. It is further interesting to note that the ancient Kambuja[25] (modern Cambodia and Cochin-China, or Kampuchia Kambojia, Thailand-Dahiland?) and Ayuthya = Ayodhya, which was made capital by a chief of Utong, who assumed the title of Ramadhipat in 1350 A.D. in Siam (Thailand or Dahiland) are unmistakably reminicent of the migrations and settlements of the Sakas, Kambojas and probably Manvas (Manns) [26] also in those countries in olden times[27] (For ancient Indian Literature in Java and Bali islands, see Weber, 1914; 189 195, 208,229, 271, 280). Jitra or Jatra, a place name in the plains of Malaya, may well be attributed to the old Saka Jats (Mall or Malli from ancient Malloi) in that peninsula, probably known as Malaya after them.


Korat (कोरट) is a gotra of Jats. Korat is village in Hoshiarpur Tahsil. Korat is town in Thailand.

References

  1. Baker and Phongpaichit, A History of Thailand, 8
  2. Cœdès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.p. 197.
  3. Ferlus, Michel (2009). Formation of Ethnonyms in Southeast Asia Archived 19 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. 42nd International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics, Nov 2009, Chiang Mai, Thailand. 2009, p.3.
  4. Pain, Frédéric (2008). An Introduction to Thai Ethnonymy: Examples from Shan and Northern Thai Archived 19 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Journal of the American Oriental Society Vol. 128, No. 4 (Oct. – Dec., 2008), p.646.
  5. Barbara Leitch LePoer (1989). Thailand: A Country Study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.p.4
  6. Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk (2017). A History of Ayutthaya. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107190764. p.4
  7. Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk (2017). A History of Ayutthaya. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107190764.,p.4
  8. Higham, Charles; Higham, Thomas; Ciarla, Roberto; Douka, Katerina; Kijngam, Amphan; Rispoli, Fiorella (10 December 2011). "The Origins of the Bronze Age of Southeast Asia". Journal of World Prehistory. 24 (4): 227–274.
  9. Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk (2017). A History of Ayutthaya. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107190764.,p.5
  10. Barbara Leitch LePoer (1989). Thailand: A Country Study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.p.5
  11. Barbara Leitch LePoer (1989). Thailand: A Country Study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.p.7
  12. Barbara Leitch LePoer (1989). Thailand: A Country Study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.p.5
  13. Thailand. History Archived 2 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Encyclopædia Britannica
  14. Wyatt, David K. (1984). Thailand: A Short History. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300030541.p.2
  15. Wyatt, David K. (1984). Thailand: A Short History. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300030541.p.6
  16. E. Jane Keyes, James A. Hafner; et al. (2018). "Thailand: History". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  17. Charles F. Keyes (1997), "Cultural Diversity and National Identity in Thailand", Government policies and ethnic relations in Asia and the Pacific, MIT Press, p. 203
  18. Cœdès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1. pp. 190–191,194–195.
  19. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.1002
  20. भारतकोश-स्याम
  21. भारतकोश-थाईलैण्ड
  22. भारतकोश-थाईलैण्ड
  23. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The Scythic origin of the Jats, p.196-197
  24. Mathur op.cit., p. 883. Radha Kumud Mukerji, Anc.Ind. Allahabad, 1966, pp. 489f
  25. Radha Kumud Mukerji, op.cit., p. 492.
  26. Ibid. Mathur, op.cit., p. 37. Takakusu, A record of the Buddhist Religion as practised in Ind. and the Malay Archipelago, Delhi, 1966, p. 41. Chaturvedi, Vimalkant: Bankok City of Buddha Temples. in 'The Suman Sauram' (Hind i), Jhandewala Estate, Rani Jhansi Marg, New Delhi, May 1988, p. 49. The city was destroyed by the Burmese army.
  27. Ency. America, No, 28, p.107. about 100,000 Indians [of Jat tribes of Dahiya (Dahae) and Mann?) migrated to Vietnam in prehistoric time. (within brackets mine).