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Gopat (गोपत) Gopata (गोपत)[1] Gopta (गोप्त) Goptri (गोप्त्री) Gupti (गुपती) Gupte (गुपते) [2] [3] Gopati (गोपती) is gotra of Jats.



Hukum Singh Panwar [7] tells us: What about the Imperial Guptas? Were they Jats? Gupta, as the last name of the homonymous dynasty, has been quite controversial among historians. Latest researches have, however, shown that the last name, used by the members of that dynasty, was Gopata, "meaning thereby defender of the life, prestige; property and faith[8] and was obviously adopted by them as their title[9]. It was certainly not Gupta as we generally find in history. Their ethnonym was either Karaskar[10] or as Prabhavati, princess of Chandragupta Vikrmaditya-II, informs us was Dharana[11]. Evidence from other sources corroborates the assertion of the princess.K.P. Jayaswal, on the authority of the Aryamanjusri-Mulakalpa, a history of India in Sanskrit and Tibetan, Written before 8th century A.D., firmly holds that the so-called Guptas were Jats.[12]

The word 'Gupta'

Bhim Singh Dahiya[13] writes: Before proceeding further, let us deal with the word 'Gupta'.

The first notice of this word was taken by Panini in the fifth cenntury B.C. when two words are mentioned, viz., 'Goptri' and 'Gupti'. V.S. Agarwala in India as Known to Panini defines 'Gupti' as 'defence' and 'Goptri' as the art or science of military arrangements. On this basis, the person who was in-charge of defence, was called 'Gupta' or 'Gopta'.

In the Rajatarangini of Kalhana, the word appears as 'Goptri' and is defined as "Guardian of the Earth" or defender of the realm.[14] Even in the eighteenth century this was the meaning attached to this word. Evidence for this is available in a book which gives the Sanskrit equivalent of all the words and posts and titles which were in the use during the Mughal times. The name of the book is Yāvanaparipāti written by Dalapati Raya, in 1764 A.D., under the patronage of Prince Madhava Simha of Jaipur. In that book there are two titles mentioned, "Nagara Gauptika" which is translated as city Kotwal. The other word is "Sima Gauptika" which is translated as "Faujadar." Even during the 'Gupta' period this word was used in the same sense of military governor. Skandagupta wrote in his inscription that he had "appointed military governors in all provinces."[15]

सर्वेषु देशेषु विधाय गोप्त्रीन

In the Mandsor inscriptions of Bandhu Varman, his ancestor, "Vishva Varman is called a 'Gopta', a term which, according to Junagarh Rock inscription of Skandagupta, means a military governor."[16] Thus we find that this word 'Gupta' means a military governor and was used in this sense right from the fifth century B.C. to the eighteenth century A.D. and the so-called 'Guptas' themselves used this word in the same sense. The mere fact that the word 'Gupta' is a part and parcel of the names of the emperors, should not, and cannot, give any other meaning to this word. It is to be borne in mind that the word 'Gupta' is not used as a surname-it is

Notable persons


External links


  1. डॉ पेमाराम:राजस्थान के जाटों का इतिहास, 2010, पृ.299
  2. डॉ पेमाराम:राजस्थान के जाटों का इतिहास, 2010, पृ.299
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I,s.n. 63.
  4. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Empire of the Dharan Jats, Misnamed Guptas,p.176
  5. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998 p. 241
  6. And next, on the left horn (of that array), was that best of men, viz., he who had for his protector (Gopta), Janardana--that protector of the whole Universe. 17 ततॊ ऽभूथ थविपथां शरेष्ठॊ वामं पार्श्वम उपाश्रितः। सर्वस्य जगतॊ गॊप्ता गॊप्ता यस्य जनार्थनः।। Mbt (VI.52.17)
  7. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/An Historico-Somatometrical study bearing on the origin of the Jats,p.137
  8. Monier-Williams, Skt.-Eng. Dic., pp. 358-368
  9. Bhim Singh Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Empire of the Dharan Jats, Misnamed Guptas, p.176
  10. Mukerji, RK., Gupta Emp. 1950, p. 14, Jayaswal, JBORS, XIX, 1933, pp. 115f.
  11. Majumdar, RC. and Altekar, A.S.; Vakataka-Gupta Age-, p. 131, IRO. Vol XI,1935, pp. 326f. EpLInd., Vot. XV, p. 39, Sharma, Dasharatha,JBORS, Vol. XXII, p. 227.
  12. An Imperial History Of India/Gauda and Magadha Provincial History, P. 52-53.
  13. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Empire of the Dharan Jats, Misnamed Guptas,p.176
  14. Rajat., VIII, 341 and 339. Stein's Edition.
  15. J. P. Fleet, CII, Vol. III, No. 14.
  16. Studies in Indian History and Civilisation by Buddha Prakash, p. 405.

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