Junagarh

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.), Jaipur
Junagadh district map

Junagadh (जूनागढ़) is a city and a district in Saurashtra region of Gujarat. Literally translated, Junagadh means "Fort of Joons" or Yavanas. It is also known as "Sorath", the name of the earlier Princely State of Junagadh.

Location

The city is located at the foot of the Girnar hills. Girnar is historically also known as Ujjayanta or Raivata or Revata.

Origin of name Junagarh

Tej Ram Sharma, while discussing Names of the Rivers and the Mountains, Mentions in 8. Sikata (सिकता) (No. 14, L. 16) with reference to Vividhatirthakalpa at foot note 47, p.296 Junagarh as जुण्ण-डुग्ग.[1] This indicates that name of the fort is derived from tribe name and not from being old. The name Junagarh (जूनागढ़) literally translates to "Fort of Joons". Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman Line 8 also refers Yavana king Tushaspha while governing the fort. Here Yavana is sanskritized for Joon. Thus the name of the fort is after Joon clan.

Junagarh City Map

Mention by Panini

Raivata (रैवत) is a place name mentioned by Panini under Arihanadi (अरीहणादि) (4.2.80.1) group. [2]

History

Mount Girnar

The most astonishing claim made so far about historicity of Neminath was made following the discovery of a copperplate inscription found at Kathiawar, deciphered by Dr. Pran Nath. According to Dr. Pran Nath King Nebuchadnezzar I (Reign ca. 1126–1103 BC, Dynasty IV of Babylon) considered himself to be the Lord of Mt. Girnar (historically also known as Ujjayanta or Raivata or Revata) visited Mt. Raivata and paid homage to Neminath (or Arishtanemi), the paramount deity of Mt. Raivata. He also contributed a grant to build a temple in honor or Neminath.

Visit by Xuanzang in 640 AD

Alexander Cunningham[3] writes that According to Hwen Thsang, the province of Su-la-cha, or Suratha, was a dependent of Balabhi. Its


[p.325]: capital was situated ut 500 li, or 83 miles, to the west of Balabhi, at the foot of Mount Yeu-chen-ta, or Ujjanta. This is the Pali form of the Sanskrit Ujjayanta, which is only another name for the Girinar hill that rises above the old city of Junagarh. The name of Ujjayanta is mentioned in both of the Girinar inscriptions of Rudra Dama and Skanda Gupta, although this important fact escaped the notice of the translators.[4] The mention of this famous hill fixes the position of the capital of Surashtra at Junagarh, or Yavana-gadh, which is 87 miles to the west of Balabhi, or very nearly the same as stated by Hwen Thsang. The pilgrim notices that the mountain was covered with thick forests, and that its scarped sides contained numerous chambers and galleries. This description agrees with the account of Postans,[5] who, in 1838, found the hill covered with " a thick jungul of the custard- apple tree," and a number of excavations at the base, consisting of " small flat roofed rooms, supported by square pillars without ornament."

The name of Surath is still known in this part of the peninsula ; but it is confined to a comparatively small tract, which forms one of the ten divisions of Gujarat.[6] In the time of Akbar, however, it was applied to the southern or larger half of the peninsula, which, according to Abul Fazl, extended from the port of Ghoga to the port of Aramroy, and from Sirdhar to the port of Diu.[7] The name of the district


[p.326]: is also preserved by Terry,[8] whose information was obtained at the Court of Jahangir. According to his account, the chief city of Soret was called Janagar, that is, Javanagarh, or Jonagarh. The province was small, but very rich, and had the ocean to the south. At that time also it would appear not to have been included in Gujarat, as Terry describes it as lying upon Gujarat. In the seventh century Hwen Thsang states that Surath, or Surashtra, was 4000 li, or 667 miles, in circuit, and touched the river Mo-hi on the west. This river has always been identified with the Mahi of Malwa, which falls into the Gulf of Khambay.[9] Accepting this identification as correct, the province of Surath in the time of Hwen Thsang must have comprised the whole of the peninsula, including the city of Balabhi itself. This is confirmed by the measurement of the frontier given by the pilgrim, which agrees exactly with that of the entire peninsula to the south-west of a line drawn from the Lesser Ran of Kachh to Khambay. In spite of the fame of Balabhi, the old name of Surath was still applied to the whole peninsula so late as A.D. 640.

Mauryan dynasty

Ashoka's Rock Edict at Junagadh
Author Laxman Burdak with wife Gomati Burdak at Ashoka Rock Edict Junagadh

An impressive fort, Uperkot, located on a plateau in the middle of town, was originally built during the Mauryan dynasty by Chandragupta Maurya in 319 BCE The fort remained in use until the 6th century, when it was covered over for 300 years, then rediscovered in 976 CE The fort was besieged 16 times over an 800-year period. One unsuccessful siege lasted twelve years.[10]

An inscription with fourteen Edicts of Ashoka is found on a large boulder within 2 km of Uperkot Fort[11]. The inscriptions carry Brāhmī script in Pali language and date back to 250 BCE.

Saka rule

On the same rock are inscriptions in Sanskrit added around 150 CE by Mahakshatrap Rudradaman I, the Saka (Scythian) ruler of Malwa, a member of the Western Kshatrapas dynasty[12]. The earliest reference about Yaudheyas is in this inscriptions, which mentions the victory of Mahaksatrapa Rudradaman over the Yaudheyas who were 'proud of their heroism'.[13]

"Rudradaman (...) who by force destroyed the Yaudheyas who were loath to submit, rendered proud as they were by having manifested their' title of' heroes among all Kshatriyas."[14]
"Rudradaman (...) who is the lord of the whole of eastern and western Akaravanti (Akara: East Malwa and Avanti: West Malwa), the Anupa country, Anarta, Surashtra, Svabhra (northern Gujarat) Maru (Marwar), Kachchha (Cutch), Sindhu-Sauvira (Sindh and Multan districts), Kukura (Eastern Rajputana), Aparanta ("Western Border" - Northern Konkan), Nishada (an aboriginal tribe, Malwa and parts of Central India) and other territories gained by his own valour, the towns, marts and rural parts of which are never troubled by robbers, snakes, wild beasts, diseases and the like, where all subjects are attached to him, (and) where through his might the objects of [religion], wealth and pleasure [are duly attained]". [15]

Bhim Singh Dahiya identifies that the great Satraps, Chaṣṭan and Rudradaman belonged to the Sahrawat clan of the Jats. [16]

Maitraka dynasty

III. Junagarh rock inscription of Skandagupta, year 136 (ASI)

Another insciption dates from about 450 CE and refers to Skandagupta, the last Gupta emperor. Old rock-cut Buddhist "caves" in this area, dating from well before 500 CE, have stone carvings and floral work. There are also the Khapra Kodia Caves north of the fort, and the Babupyana Caves south of the fort.

The Maitraka dynasty ruled Gujarat in western India from 475 to 767 CE The founder of the dynasty, general Bhatarka, a military governor of Saurashtra peninsula under the Gupta empire, established himself as the independent ruler of Gujarat approximately in the last quarter of the 5th century[17]. However, James Tod states Maitraka rule ended as early as 524 CE[18].

Solanki dynasty

The Solanki, of the Chalukya dynasty, ruled Gujarat in the 11th and 12th centuries. The two large step wells (vavs) of Uperkot Fort were both commissioned by Rah Navghan I (1025-1044 CE)[19]

Muslims conquered Gujarat in 1299 and the Sultanate of Gujarat was formed in 1407. Mahmud Begada (Mahmud Shah I) invaded Junagadh in 1467. The city was annexed to the Gujarat Sultanate; the city foundation was laid for Mahmudabad in 1497. Strong embankments were raised along the river, and the city was adorned with a palace, handsome buildings and extensive gardens. When the Portuguese took over the ports of Diu and Daman in the 16th century, a fifteen-foot cannon, made in Egypt in 1531, was abandoned at Uperkot Fort by a Turkish admiral opposing the Portuguese forces at Diu.

Chudasama Dynasty

The Chudasama are a Rajput clan found in Gujarat in India. The Anthropological Survey of India, which relies heavily on sources compiled during the period of the British Raj, notes that they are "an offshoot of the Samma tribe, probably of Turk origin who entered India during the seventh or eighth century and are found in Kachchh, Junagadh and Jamnagar districts." They claim to be originally of the Abhira clan or Ahirs from Sindh . Harald Tambs-Lyche believes that there is evidence, based on myths, that a Chudasama kingdom existed at Junagadh in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat. The dynasty is traditionally said to have been founded in 875 CE and around 1030 received assistance from members of the Ahir community in order to restore its power following a conquest of the kingdom by the king of Gujarat. The Chudasamas are sometimes referred to as the Ahirani Ranis, and Tambs-Lyche says that, "The structure of the Chudasama state , seems to have been an alliance between a small royal clan later to be classified as Rajputs and the Ahir tribe." The last of these kings was Mandlik Chudasama then Mahmud Begarha, who also annexed the state. Begarha had attacked the Chudasama kingdom, which was known as Girnar, on several previous occasions.[5]

Chudasama rulers: The Chudasama Rajputs ruled Junagadh longer than any others. The notable rulers include Chandra Chuda, 875-907; Rah’ Grahripu, 940-982; Solanki Rajput, 1010-1025; Ra Navghan, 1025-1044; Rah’ Khengar, 1044-1067

Mughal rule

Mohammad Bahadur Khanji I, who owed allegiance to the Sultan of Ahmedabad, founded the state of Junagadh by expelling the Mughal Empire governor and declaring independence in 1748. Mohammad Bahadur Khanji I, who assumed the name "Zaid Khan" when he came to power in Junagadh, was the founder of the Babi dynasty. His descendants, the Babi Nawabs of Junagadh, conquered large territories in southern Saurashtra and ruled over the state for the next two centuries, first as tributaries of Baroda, and later under the suzerainty of the British.

Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman

(Be it) accomplished!
  • (Line l.) This lake Sudarshana, from Girinagara [even a long distance?] …….. of a structure so well joined as to rival the spur of a mountain, because all its embankments are strong, in breadth, length and height constructed without gaps as they are of stone, [clay], …………. furnished with a natural dam, [formed by?]………………………….., and with well-provided conduits, drains and means to guard against foul matter,……………………three sections……………by............…….and other favours is (now) in an excellent condition.
  • ( L. 3.) This same (lake) -on the first of the dark half of Margashirsha in the seventy-second -72nd - year of the king, the Mahakshatrapa Rudradaman whose name is repeated by the venerable, the son of . . . . . . . . . . . . , (and) son's son of the king, the Mahakshatrapa Lord Chashtana the taking of whose name is auspicious,…………. when by the clouds pouring with rain the earth had been converted as it were into one ocean, by the excessively swollen floods of the Suvarnasikata, Palasini and other streams of mount Urjayat the dam ………………, though proper precautions [were taken], the water- churned by a storm which, of a most tremendous fury befitting the end of a mundane period, tore down hill-tops, trees, banks, turrets, upper stories, gates and raised places of shelter - scattered, broke to pieces, [tore apart]…………………….. ……., -with stones, trees, bushes and creeping plants scattered about, was thus laid open down to the bottom of the river:-
  • ( L. 7.) By a breach four hundred and twenty cubits long, just as many broad, (and) seventy-five cubits deep, all the water escaped, so that (the lake), almost like a sandy desert, [became] extremely ugly [to look at].
  • (L.8)………for the sake of…………. ordered to be made by the Vaishya Pushyagupta, the provincial governor of the Maurya king Chandragupta; adorned with conduits for Ashoka the Maurya by the Yavana king Tushaspha while governing; and by the conduit ordered to be made by him, constructed in a manner worthy of a king (and) seen in that breach, the extensive dam…………..
  • (L. 9.) ………..he who, because from the womb he was distinguished by the possession of undisturbed consummate Royal Fortune, was resorted to by all castes and chosen their lord to protect them; who made, and is true to, the vow to the latest breath of his life to abstain from slaying men, except in battles; who [showed] compassion …………… not failing to deal blows to equal antagonists meeting him face to face; who grants protection of life to people repairing to him of their own accord and those prostrating themselves before him; who is the lord of the whole of eastern and western Akaravanti, the Anups country, Anarta, Surashtra, Svabhra Maru, Kachchha, Sindhu-Sauvira, Kukura, Aparanta, Nishada and other territories gained by his own valour, the towns, marts and rural parts of which are never troubled by robbers, snakes, wild beasts, diseases and the like, where all subjects are attached to him, (and) where through his might the objects of [religion], wealth and pleasure [are duly attained]; who by force destroyed the Yaudheyas who were loath to submit, rendered proud as they were by having manifested their' title of' heroes among all Kshatriyas; who obtained good report because he, in spite of having twice in fair fight completely defeated Satakarni, the lord of Dakshinapatha, on account of the nearness of their connection did not destroy him; who [obtained] victory . . . . . . . .; who reinstates deposed kings; who by the right raising of his hand has earned the strong attachment of Dharma; who has attained wide fame by studying and remembering, by the knowledge and practice of, grammar, music, logic and other great sciences; who …… the management of horses, elephants and chariots, (the use of) sword and shield, pugilistic combat and other . … .. . . …. the acts of quickness and efficiency of opposing forces; who day by day is in the habit of bestowing presents and honours and eschewing disrespectful treatment; who is bounteous; whose treasury by the tribute, tolls and shares rightfully obtained overflows with an accumulation of gold, silver, diamonds, beryl stones and (other) precious things; who...........… prose and verse, which are clear, agreeable, sweet, charming, beautiful, excelling by the proper use of words and adorned; whose beautiful frame owns the most excellent marks and signs, such as (auspicious) length, dimension and height, voice, gait, colour, vigour and strength; who himself has acquired the name of Mahakshatrapa; who has been wreathed with many garlands at the svayamvaras of kings' daughters; -he, the Mahakshatrapa Rudradaman, in order to . . . . . . . . . . . cows and Brahmans for a thousand of years, and to increase his religious merit and fame, -without oppressing the inhabitants of the towns and country by taxes, forced labour and acts of affection -by (the expenditure of) a vast amount of money from his own treasury and in not too long a time made the dam three times as strong in breadth and length . . . . . . . . [on] all [banks] . . . . . . (and so) had (this lake) made (even) more beautiful to look at.
  • (L. 16.) When in this matter the Mahakshatrapa's counsellors and executive officers, who though fully endowed with the qualifications of ministers, were averse to a task (regarded as) futile on account of the enormous extent of the breach, opposed the commencement (of the work), (and) when the people in their despair of having the dam rebuilt were loudly lamenting, (the work) was carried out by the minister Suvishakha, the son of Kulaipa, a Pahlava, who for the benefit of the inhabitants of the towns and country bad been appointed by the king in this government to rule the whole of Anarta and Surashtra, (a minister) who by his proper dealings and views in things temporal and spiritual increased the attachment (of the people), who was able, patient, not wavering, not arrogant, upright (and) not to be bribed, (and) who by his good government increased the spiritual merit, fame and glory of his master.

Source: Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VIII. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, 1905-6, 45-49.

Junagadh Rock Inscription of Skandagupta A.D. 455, 456 and 457

Gupta Years 136, 137 and 138 (=A.D. 455, 456 and 457)
First Part.
  • Perfection has been attained! Victorious is he, (the god) Vishnu,-the perpetual abode of the (goddess) Lakshmî, whose dwelling is the waterlily; the conqueror of distress; the completely victorious one,-who, for the sake of the happiness of (Indra) the lord of the gods, seized back from (the demon) Bali the goddess of wealth and splendour, who is admitted to be worthy of enjoyment, (and) who had been kept away from him for a very long time!
  • (Line 2.)-And next, victorious for ever is the supreme king of kings over kings, whose breast is embraced by the goddess of wealth and splendour; who has developed heroism by (the strength of his) arms; and who plucked (and utilised) the authority of (his local) representatives, who were so many Garudas, (and used it as) an antidote against the (hostile) kings, who were so many serpents, lifting up their hoods in pride and arrogance; Skandagupta, of great glory, the abode of kingly qualities, who, when (his) father by his own power had attained the position of being a friend of the gods, bowed down his enemies and made subject to himself the (whole) earth, bounded by the waters of the for oceans, (and) full of thriving countries round the borders of it;-whose fame, moreover, even (his) enemies, in the countries of the Mlêchchhas . . . . . . . . . . . . having (their) pride broken down to the very root, announce with the words- "verily the victory has been achieved by him;"-(and) whom the goddess of fortune and splendour of her own accord selected as her husband, having in succession (and) with judgment skillfully taken into consideration and thought over all the causes of virtues and faults, (and) having discarded all (the other) sons of kings (as not coming up to her standard).
  • (L. 5.)-While he, the king, is reigning, verily no man among his subjects falls away from religion; (and) there is no one who is distressed, (or) in poverty, (or) in misery, (or) avaricious, or who, worthy of punishment, is over-much put to torture.
  • (L. 6.)-Thus having conquered the whole earth, (and) having destroyed the height of the pride of (his) enemies, (and) having appointed protectors in all the countries, he cogitated in many ways,- "Among all my servants put together, who is there, who--suitable; endowed with intellect; modest; possessed of a disposition that is not destitute of wisdom and memory; endowed with truth, straightforwardness, nobility, and prudent behaviour; and possessed of sweetness, civility, and fame;-loyal ; affectionate; endowed with manly characteristics; and possessed of a mind that (has been tried and) is (found to be) pure by all the tests of honesty; possessed of an inner soul pervaded by (the inclination for) the acquittance of debts and obligations; occupied with the welfare of all mankind; capable both in the lawful acquisition of wealth, and also in the preservation of it, when acquired, and further in causing the increase of it, when protected, (and able) to dispense it on worthy objects, when it has been increased,-shall govern all my (countries of the) Surâshtras? I have it; (there is) just one man, Parnadatta competent to bear this burden."


  • (L. 9.)-(And it was this same Parnadatta) who, with pressing (and) with difficulty, was appointed by the lord of kings, who had thus deliberated in his mind for many days and nights, to protect in a proper manner the land of the Surâshtras. (And) just as the gods became comfortable, (and) not disturbed in mind, when they had appointed Varuna to the western point of the compass, so the king was easy at heart, when he had appointed Parnadatta over the region of the west.
  • (L. 10.)-His son,-possessed of a filial disposition; his own self, as it were, reduplicated; well trained by self-control; worthy to be protected, as if it were his own self, by the all-pervading spirit; always self-possessed; endowed with a naturally beautiful form; having a disposition the whole of which was always pervaded with joy through a variety of charming actions that were in accordance with (his) beauty; having a waterlily of a face that resembled a bed of waterlilies in full bloom; the refuge of men who came to him for protection,-was this same one who is renowned on the earth under the name of Chakrapâlita; who is beloved of the people; and who confers distinction upon (his) father by his own noble qualities which are everything except unpolished :-
  • (L. 11.)-In whom all these qualities dwell to a marked degree, (and) without eves wandering away (from him),-.viz. patience; lordship; modesty; and good behaviour; and heroism without (too) great an estimation of prowess; eloquence (?); self-control; liberality; and high-spiritedness; civility; the acquittance of debts and obligations; and freedom from empty-headedness; beauty; and reprobation of things that are not right; absence of astonishment; firmness; and generosity. Even in the whole world there is no one to be found, in whom a comparison with his virtues may be made; verily he has become, in all entireness, the standard of comparison for men who are endowed with virtuous qualities.
  • (L. 12.)-(And it was he) who was appointed by (his) father, after testing in person (the existence in him of) these same qualities mentioned above, and higher ones even than them; and who then accomplished the protection of (this) city in a way that quite distinguished him above his predecessors. Relying upon the process of his own two excellent arms (?), not on the pride of any other man, he subjected no one in this city to any anxiety; and he punished wicked people. Even in this time which is a mean one, he failed not to maintain confidence in the people, together with the inhabitants of the city; and, by carefully inquiring into faults, he has charmed all the citizens, together with . . . . . . . . . and children. And he has made (his) subjects happy by conversations addressed with smiles, and marks of honour, and presents; by free and reciprocal entering into (each other's) houses; (and) by carefully nourishing the family ceremonies of affection. Endowed with the highest piety, affable, pure, (and) in a suitable manner devoted to charity, he has, even without any conflict between religion and wealth, applied himself to such pleasures as may be attained at the proper time. What wonder is there in the fact that he, [born] from Parnadatta, is possessed of such proper behaviour?; can heat ever be produced from the moon, which is cold like a string of pearls or like a waterlily?
  • (L. 15.)-Then, in due course of time, there came the season of clouds, bursting asunder with (its) clouds the season of heat, when much water rained down unceasingly for a long time; by reason of which (the lake) Sudarshana suddenly burst,-making the calculation in the reckoning of the Guptas, in a century of years, increased by thirty and also six more, at night, on the sixth day of (the month) Praushthapada. And these (other rivers) which take their source from (the mountain) Raivataka, (and also) this Palâshini, beautiful with (its) sandy stretches,-(all of them) the mistresses of the ocean,-having dwelt so long in captivity, went again, in due accordance with the scriptures, to their lord (the sea). (And) having noticed the great bewilderment, caused by the excess of rain, (the mountain) Ûrjayat, desirous of appropriating the wives of the mighty ocean, stretched forth as it were a hand, consisting of the river Palâshinî, decorated with the numerous flowers that grew on the edges of (its) banks.
  • (L. 17.)-[Then on all sides] the people fell into despair, discussing how they should act; and, spending the whole night awake in vain, in great anxiety they reflected,- "Here in a moment, (the lake) Sudarshana has (by the overflowing of its waters) assumed an unpleasing appearance towards all the people, (as if it were) a man (?); having the appearance of the ocean, quite full of water, can it ever (again) become pleasing of aspect, . . . . . . . ?"
  • (L. 18.)- . . . . . . . . . . . . he having become . . . . . . . . . . . . and displaying the height of devotion towards his father, (and) holding in full view, for the welfare of the king and of the city also, religion, which has such auspicious results,-in a century of years, increased by thirty and seven others also,. . . . . . . . . attentive to the sacred writings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . whose majesty is well known. Then, having sacrificed to the gods with oblations of clarified butter and with obeisances; and having gratified the twice-born with (presents of) riches; and having paid respect to the citizens with such honours as they deserved, and to such of (his) servants as were worthy of notice, and to (his) friends with presents,-in the first fortnight of the month . . . . . . belonging to the hot season, on the first day, he, having practised (all the above) respectful observances for two months, made an immeasurable expenditure of wealth, and, [built an embankment] a hundred cubits in all in length, and sixty and eight in breadth, and seven (?) men's height in elevation, . . . . . . . . . . . . of two hundred cubits. (Thus), having done honour to the kings, he laboriously built up, with a great masonry work, properly constructed, the lake Sudarshana, which is renowned as not being evil by nature, so that it should last for all eternity,-agitated by the defiances of the ruddy-geese which display (their) beauty along the edges of the firmly-built embankment, and by the settling down (in its waters) of the herons and the swans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pure waters; on the earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the sun and the moon.
  • (L. 23.)-And may the city become prosperous; full of inhabitants; cleansed from sin by prayers sung by many hundreds of Brâhmans; [and free from] drought and famine for a hundred years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [Thus] ends the composition of the description of the restoration of (the lake) Sudarshana.
Second Part.
  • (L. 24.)- . . . . . . . . . . . . of him (Skandagupta), who destroyed the pride of (his) haughty enemies; who is of great glory; who is the banner of his lineage; who is the lord of the whole earth; whose pious deeds are even more wonderful than his supreme sovereignty over kings; . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • (L. 24.)- . . . . . . . . . . . . (Parnadatta), the protector of the island, and the leader of great . . . . . . . . of armies for the subjugation of (his) enemies.
  • (L. 25.)-By his son, who is endowed with his own good qualities, (and) whose life is devoted to (the worship of) the feet of (the god) Gôvinda, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -by him, who causes the citizens to bow down by his own prowess, having there attained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the feet, which are like waterlilies, of (the god) Vishnu, with a great expenditure of wealth and time [there was built a temple] of that famous (god Vishnu) who carries the discus, . . . . . . . . . . . . enemies, (and) who became (incarnate and) human by the exercise of his own free will. (Thus) by Chakrapâlita, who is of a straightforward mind, there has been caused to be built a temple of (the god) Chakrabhrit, in a century of years, together with the thirty-eighth ( year), . . . . . . . . . . . . the time of the Guptas.
  • (L. 27.)- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uprisen, as it were, of the mountain Ûrjayat', shines as if displaying (its) lordship on the forehead of the city.
  • (L. 28.)-And another . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . on the forehead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . obstructing the path of the birds, is resplendent . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • Source: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 61-65.

The Rivers of Junagarh

The Rivers of Junagarh

Tej Ram Sharma has discussed about The Rivers of Junagarh in his book Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Appendix V :The Rivers of Junagarh.

The names of the rivers, mentioned in the Junagarh Inscription of Skandagupta, as issuing from the mountain Raivataka or Urjayat.

  • Sikata is the same Suvarnasikata mentioned in the Junagarh Inscription of Rudradaman and as identical with Suvarnarekha which flows at the foot of Girnar hill. In the accompanying map besides the two rivers
  • Ojat and
  • Uben on the sides of Junagarh, we find the river
  • Fuljar and a number of streams, viz., Nonpuria, Sonrakhi, Lotus and Fuljar.
  • Fuljar may be the river Palasinl and the
  • Lotus may be equated with Vilasini.
  • The river Ojat has some resemblance with the mountain Urjayat.

Time periods of various rulers

The various dynasties who ruled at Junagarh are as given in the table.

Various Rulers Time Period[20]
Maurya Dynasty 319 BC
Kalinga Dynasty 185 BC
Greeks 73-70 BC
Shaka (Scythians) 100-275 AD
Kshatrapas 276-455 AD
Guptas 456-770 AD
Hu-en-Tsang had visited Junagadh 640 AD
Chudasamaa 875-1472 AD
Muslim Rulers Mohammed Begada, Khalil Khan 1472-1572 AD
Mughals ruled over Junagadh 1573-1748 AD
Nawabs of Babi Dynasty (Yousufzai Pathan) 1749-1949 AD

Villages in Junagarh district

Achhidra, Adri, Advi, Agatrai, Ajab, Ajak, Ajotha, Akala, Akha, Akhodad, Alidar, Alidhra, Alidhra, Ambada, Ambala, Ambalgadh, Ambaliya, Ambaliyala, Ambecha, Amblash, Amodra, Amrapur, Amrapur Gir, Anand Para, Anandpur, Anida, Anjar, Ankolvadi, Antroli, Arena, Arnej, Arniyala, Avaniya, Babra, Badalpara, Badalpur, Badodar, Bagasra-ghed, Bagdu, Bakula Dhanej, Balagam, Baliyavad, Balot, Bamanasa, Bamangadh, Bamanvada, Bamnasa, Bandhala, Bandharda, Bandhda, Bantiya, Bantwa, Baradiya, Barula, Barula, Barvala, Barwala, Bava Simroli, Bediya, Bhacha, Bhadiyadar, Bhakha, Bhalchhel, Bhalgam, Bhalgam, Bhalpara, Bhanduri, Bhat Simroli, Bhatgam, Bhathrot, Bhatiya, Bhavnath, Bhebha, Bherala, Bhesan, Bhetali, Bhindora, Bhingran, Bhiyal, Bhojde, Bhutdi, Bhuva Timbi, Bij, Bilkha, Bodidar, Bodka, Bodva, Bolas, Borvav, Bosan, Budhecha, Buri, Chagiya, Chamoda, Chanaka, Chanchakvad, Chandigadh, Chanduvav, Chandvana, Chankhva, Chaparda, Char, Chauhan Ni Khan, Chavand Juni, Chhachhar, Chhara, Chhatroda, Chhodvadi, Chikhli, Chikhlodra, Chiroda, Chitravad, Chitrod, Choki, Chokli, Chorvad, Chorvadi, Chuda, Chudva, Chuldi, Dabhor, Dadar, Damasa, Damli, Dandi, Dari, Darsali, Datrana, Deda, Dedakiyal, Deshinga, Devalpur, Devgam, Devli, Dhamlej, Dhandhusar, Dhanej Moti, Dhanfuliya, Dharampur, Dhava, Dhebar, Dhelana, Dhokadva, Dholwa, Dhrabavad, Dhrabavad, Dhramanva, Divasa, Divrana, Dolasa, Dolatpara, Dron, Dudana, Dudhala, Dudhala, Dudhala, Dungarpur, Elampur, Fachariya, Fafni Moti, Fagli, Farangta, Fareda, Fatsar, Fulka, Fulrama, Gabha, Gadhali, Gadoi, Gadu, Galath, Galiyavada, Galodar, Galvav, Gangda, Gangecha, Garal, Gelana, Ghantiya, Ghantvad, Ghodadar, Ghodasan, Ghumli, Ghunsiya, Gir Gadhada, Girdevli, Gohil Ni Khan, Goladhar, Gorakh Madhi, Gorej, Gotana, Govindpara, Gundala, Gundaran, Hadmatiya, Hadmatiya Khajuri, Hadmatiya Khakhra, Hadmatiya Vishal, Handla, Haripur, Harmadiya, Harnasa, Husenabad, Inaj, Indra, Indroi, Ishvariya, Ishvariya Mandavad, Isra, Itali, Itvaya, Ivnagar, Jalondar, Jamanvada, Jambuda, Jambudi, Jamka, Jamvala, Jamvali, Jangar, Januda, Jaragli, Jasadhar, Jasapur, Javantri, Jepur, Jetalvad, Jhadka, Jhalansar, Jhanjharda, Jhankharvada, Jhinjhuda, Jhudvadli, Jhunjharpur, Jithla, Jonpur, Joshipura, Junagadh, Juni Dhari Gundali, Juthal, Kadaya, Kadodara, Kadvar, Kadvasan, Kaj, Kajaliya Mota, Kajardi, Kajli, Kakidi Moli, Kalapan, Kalavad, Kalavani, Kalej, Kalimbhda, Kalsari, Kanakbarda, Kanakiya, Kanavadla, Kandhi, Kanek, Kaneri, Kaneri, Kanjha, Kanjhadi, Kanjotar, Kankasa, Kansari, Kantala, Kareda, Kariya, Katakpara, Kathrota, Katrasa, Kenadipur, Kerala, Kerala, Kesariya, Keshod, Kevadra, Khadiya, Khadiya, Khajudra, Khalilpur, Khambha, Khambha Gir, Khambhaliya, Khambhaliya, Khambhaliya, Khamdhrol, Khamidana, Khan, Khandheri, Khapat, Kharachiya, Khatriwada, Kheda, Khera, Khera, Khilavad, Khim Padar, Khirdhar, Khirsara, Khodada, Khokharda, Khorasa, Khorasa Gir, Khumbhdi, Kindarva, Kob, Kodidara, Kodinar, Kodiya, Kodvav, Kotda Mota, Kotda Nana, Kothadi, Kothariya, Koylana, Koyli, Kuba, Kukasvada, Kukras, Ladudi, Lalpur, Lamdhar, Langad, Langodra, Lathodra, Lati, Leriya, Liliya, Limadhra, Limbuda, Lodhva, Lohej, Lunghiya, Lushala, Madhupur Jambur, Magharwada, Mahobatpara, Mahobatpara, Mahobatpur, Majevdi, Makhiyala, Maktupur, Malanka, Malgam, Malia, Maljhinjhva, Malondha, Malsaram, Manavadar, Mandlikpur Mandodra, Mandor, Mandorna, Mandvi, Manekpur, Manekwada, Mangalpur, Manganath Pipli, Mangrol, Mankhetra, Manpur, Marmath, Matana, Matarvaniya, Mathasuriya, Matiana, Meghpur, Mekhadi, Menanj, Mendarda, Mendpara, Mesvan, Mevasa Kamribaina, Mithapur, Mithapur, Miti, Mitiyaj, Moniya, Monpari Moti, Monpari Nani, Moradiya, Moraj, Morasa, Moruka, Morvad, Morwada, Mota Desar, Mota Samadhiyala, Motha, Moti Ghansari, Moti Khodiyar, Motisar, Movana, Mul Dwarka, Muliyasa, Nagadiya, Nagadla, Nagalpur, Nagichana, Nakhada, Nakra, Naliya Mandvi, Naliyeri Moli, Nana Samadhiyala, Nanadiya, Nanavada, Nandan, Nandarkha, Nandarkhi, Nandarkhi, Nandrakh, Nani Ghansari, Nani Khodiyar, Naredi, Nathal, Nathej, Nava Pipaliya, Navabandar, Navada, Navadra, Navagam, Navagam, Navagam, Navaniya, Navapara, Navlakhi, Nonjhanvav, Nunarda, Olvan, Osa Ghed, Padapadar, Padardi, Padariya, Padodar, Pajod, Palasva, Paldi, Paldi, Panadar, Panch Pipalva, Panchala, Pandva, Panidhra, Pankhan, Pankhan, Pankuva, Parab Vavdi, Paswala, Patan, Patapur, Patrapsar, Pedhavada, Pichhvi, Pikhor, Pikhor, Pindakhai Nani, Pipaliya Hajani, Pipaliya Tadka, Pipalva, Pipalva, Pipalva Bavana, Piplana, Pipli, Pipli, Pirvad, Piyava Gir, Prabhatpur, Pransli, Pransli, Prashnavda, Prempara, Rafaliya, Rahij, Rajesar, Rajpara, Rakhej, Ramarechi, Rameshvar, Rampara, Rampara, Rangpur, Rangpur, Raningpara, Ranpur, Rasulpara, Rasulpura, Ratang, Ratidhar, Ravani, Ravani Mundiya, Ravni, Ronaj, Roodalpur, Saiyad Rajpara, Samadhiyala, Samarda, Samdhiyala, Samega, Samter, Sanakhda, Sandha, Sandhnidhar, Sangavada, Sangodra, Sanjavapur, Sankhdavadar, Sankrola, Sanosra, Sanosri, Santalpur, Sanvav, Saragvada, Sarang Pipli, Sardargadh, Sardarpar, Sarkhadi, Sarod, Sarsai, Sarsali, Sasan, Savni, Sedhaya, Semaliya, Semarvav, Senjaliya, Shahdesar, Shaikhpur, Shantipura, Shapar, Shapur, Sharma, Shepa, Sherdi, Shergadh, Sheriyaj, Sheriyakhan, Shil, Shobhavadla Lashkar, Sidokar, Silodar, Siloj, Simar, Simar, Simasi, Simasi, Singhaj, Singsar, Sitana, Sokhda, Solaj, Sonari, Sonariya, Sondarda, Sonpura, Sudavad, Sukhpur, Sukhpur, Sultanabad, Sultanpur, Supasi, Surva, Sutrapara, Sutrej, Tad, Talala, Talodra, Tantivela, Tarsingda, Thali, Thanapipli, Thaniyana, Thareli, Thordi, Tikar-padardi, Tinmas, Titodi, Tobra, Toraniya, Ugla, Ukadiya, Umba, Umbri, Umedpara, Umej, Umrala, Umrala, Umrali, Umrethi, Una, Undari, Untwala, Vadal, Vadala, Vadala, Vadasda, Vadasimdi, Vadhavi, Vadiya, Vadla, Vadla, Vadnagar, Vadodra, Vadodra Dodiya, Vadviyala, Vajdi, Valadar, Vandarvad, Vandarvad, Vankiya, Vansavad, Vansoj, Vanthali, Varsingpur, Vavarda, Vavdi, Vavdi Adri, Vekariya, Vekri, Velakot, Velan, Velva, Velva, Veraval, Vichhavad, Vijapur, Virdi, Virodar, Virol, Virpur, Virpur, Visanvel, Visavadar, Vithalpur, Yajpur, Zampodad, Zariyavada, Zinzri,

Places of tourist interest

  • Girnar Mountain: The mountain, 6 km. from Junagadh city, has five principal peaks. It has roughly 10,000 steps. The third peak, Gorakhnath, at 3,661 ft (1,116 m) above sea level, is the highest point of Gujarat state. Uperkot has worth seeing Jain temples. Spots to visit Bhimkund, Satpuda, Gaumukhi Ganga, Pathar Chati, Bhairavjap, Bharatvan Sheshavan, Hanumandhara. The peak of Ambaji, with a height of 3,330 ft (1,010 m), is famous for the temple of Ambaji. Kamandal Kund; step way diverts between temples of Gorakhnath and Dattatreya. The path to Dattatreya temple is difficult, but on the top of the peak is a small temple on the padukas of Guru Dattatreya. The best time to start ascending is early morning.
  • Datar Mountain: On the right side of Girnar Gate, 3 km from Dubdi gate, is foot of Datar Mountain.
  • Uperkot - Uperkot is an impressive fort located on a plateau in the middle of town. It was originally built in 319 BC. Visitors enter the fort through a large gate. Some parts of the fort’s walls are 20 m high. If, after entering the gate you turn left, you will come to Jama Masjid. It has 140 pillars supporting its ceiling. Further down the road are what are believed to be old Buddhist caves, said to be 1,500 years old (dating from before 500 AD). They are carved into the rocky hill and have stone carvings and floral work. There are also the Khapra Kodia caves north of the fort, and the Babupyana caves south of the fort. There is a huge, fifteen-foot cannon, made in Egypt in 1531. There are also two interesting large step wells (vavs) here. The 11th century Navghan Kuva has a circular stairway that descends over 50 m down into the well. The Adi Chadi Vav descends 170 steps.
  • Damodar Kund & Revati Kund - Built in 500 A.D., this often reconstructed kund (water reservoir) is a check dam. This kund is about a km before the bottom of Girnar Hill. It is a sacred bathing tank. Close to Damodara Kund is Revati Kund. It is said that Revata left Dwarka and moved near Girnar Hill after his daughter, Revati, married Lord Balarama.
  • Damodarji Temple - Near Aswatthama Hill, which is north of Damodara Kund, is the Damodarji Temple, said to have been built by Vajranabha, Lord Krishna’s great-grandson.
  • Dataar Hills - 2,779 feet (847 m) high stepway is built for going up shrine of Jamiyalshah Datar.
  • Mujkund Caves - Famous place where Krishna ran and came from Mathura after which he was named as Ranchod Rai.
  • Narsinh Mehta Dham - This place is said to be one where the great poet Saint and reformer Narsinh Mehta held his assemblies of discovers in 15th century. Some believe that Lord Krishna held a traditional "Rasleela" dance for his devotee Narsinh Mehta.

जूनागढ़ का इतिहास

जूनागढ़ शिलालेख
  • जूनागढ़: सौराष्ट्र में स्थित जूनागढ़ गिरनार पहाड़ियों के निचले हिस्से पर स्थित है। जूनागढ़ के प्राचीन शहर का नामकरण एक पुराने दुर्ग के नाम पर हुआ है। यहाँ पूर्व-हड़प्पा काल के स्थलों की खुदाई हुई है। इस शहर का निर्माण नौवीं शताब्दी में हुआ था। यह चूड़ासमा क्षत्रियों की राजधानी थी। गिरनार के रास्ते में एक गहरे रंग की बेसाल्ट चट्टान है, जिस पर तीन राजवंशों का प्रतिनिधित्व करने वाला शिलालेख अंकित है। मौर्य शासक अशोक (लगभग 260-238 ई.पू.) रुद्रदामन (150 ई.) और स्कंदगुप्त (लगभग 455-467)। यहाँ 100-700 ई. के दौरान बौद्धों द्वारा बनाई गई गुफ़ाओं के साथ एक स्तूप भी है।
जूनागढ़ के बारे में विविधतीर्थकल्प अभिलेखों से ज्ञात होता है कि इसका प्राचीन नाम 'जुण्ण-डुग्ग' है जो जून जाट गोत्र से सम्बन्धित है। [21] जूनागढ़ में शक क्षत्रप रुद्रदमन का 150 ई. का शिलालेख है जिसमे इसको यवन राजा तुषास्प के अधीन बताया गया है। संकृत में यवन प्राकृत भाषा में जून बनता है। जाट इतिहासकार भीमसिंह दहिया[22] चस्टान और रुद्रदमन को शहरावत गोत्र का मानते हैं।

गुप्तकाल में

गुप्तकाल में पश्चिमी भारत में प्रांत के लिए देश शब्द का प्रयोग तथा पूर्वी भारत में भुक्ति को प्रांत नहीं समझकर आधुनिक काल की कमिश्नरी समझा जाना चाहिए। स्कंदगुप्त के जूनागढ़ अभिलेख में साम्राज्य के प्रांतों को देश तथा उसके प्रशासक को गोप्ता कहा गया । गोप्ता के पद पर प्रायः राजकुल के कुमारों को प्रांतीय शासक नियुक्त किया जाता था। इस पद पर नियुक्त राजकुमारों ने मंदसौर (पश्चिमी मालवा) के गवर्नर (गोविंदगुप्त) तथा एरण (पूर्वी मालवा) के गवर्नर घटोत्कचगुप्त विशेष रुप से उल्लेखनीय हैं। यशोधर्मन- विष्णुवर्धन के मंदसौर प्रस्तर अभिलेख में गोप्ता (प्रांतीय गवर्नर) के लिए राजस्थानीय शब्द का प्रयोग मिलता है। यशोधर्मन ने विंध्य और पारियात्र के मध्य के भू- भाग (मंदसोर- पश्चिमी मालवा) में अभयदत्त को राजस्थानीय (प्रांतीय शासक) नियुक्त किया था, जो अपने देश का शासन अपने द्वारा नियुक्त विभिन्न मंत्रियों की सहायता से करता था।है। गोप्ता का अभिप्राय राज्यपाल या गवर्नर से है, जिसका शाब्दिक अर्थ है रक्षक[23]

Notable persons

Gallery of Images

External links

References

  1. f.n. 47. Vividhatlrthakalpa p. 10 : तं जहा-उग्गसेणगढ़ं ति वा, खंगारागढ़ं ति वा । जुण्ण-डुग्गं ति वा । उत्तरदिशाए विसालथम्भसाला-सोहियो दसदसार मंडवो गिरिदुवारे य पंचमो हरी दामोअरो सुवण्णरेहा-नईपारे वट्टह ।)
  2. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.501
  3. The Ancient Geography of India: I. The Buddhist Period, Including the Campaigns of Alexander, and the Travels of Hwen-Thsang. By Sir Alexander Cunningham, p.324-326
  4. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bombay, vii. 119, " the Urjayata hill ;: p. 123, "Urjayat ;" and p. 124., " the Jayanta mountain," should all be rendered Ujayanta.
  5. Journ. Royal Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1838, pp. 874, 876
  6. Eastwick, ' Handbook of Bombay,' p. 424.
  7. ' Ayin Akbari,' ii. 66.
  8. 'Yoyage to East India,' p.80.
  9. As the Mahi rier lies to the north-east of Gujarat, we must either read east, or suppose that the pilgrim referred to the western bank of the stream.
  10. "Uperkot Fort", India9.com.
  11. M1 Ranchodji Amarji, Târikh-i-Soraṭh: A History of the Provinces of Soraṭh and Hâlâr in Kâthiâwâd, pp. 36-46, Trubner & Co. (1882) - translation of the edicts.
  12. "Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman", Project South Asia.
  13. Tej Ram Sharma:Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions,p. 171
  14. Projectsouthasia.sdstate.edu. http://projectsouthasia.sdstate.edu/Docs/HISTORY/PRIMARYDOCS/EPIGRAPHY/JunagadhRockInscription.htm.
  15. Junagadh rock inscription.[Projectsouthasia.sdstate.edu. http://projectsouthasia.sdstate.edu/Docs/HISTORY/PRIMARYDOCS/EPIGRAPHY/JunagadhRockInscription.htm Geographical interpretations in parenthesis from Rapson.[Rapson, "Indian coins of the British Museum" p.lx ]
  16. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study),p.74
  17. "Ancient Rulers of Gujarat"
  18. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, vol. I (2002), pp. 177, 187.
  19. "Junagadh - In the Shadow of the Holy Girnar", India Profile
  20. http://www.nri.gujarat.gov.in/his-junagadh.htm History of Junagadh
  21. f.n. 47. Vividhatlrthakalpa p. 10 : तं जहा-उग्गसेणगढ़ं ति वा, खंगारागढ़ं ति वा । जुण्ण-डुग्गं ति वा । उत्तरदिशाए विसालथम्भसाला-सोहियो दसदसार मंडवो गिरिदुवारे य पंचमो हरी दामोअरो सुवण्णरेहा-नईपारे वट्टह ।)
  22. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study),p.74
  23. मालवा में प्रशासनिक व्यवस्था, प्रशासनिक विभाजन

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