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Gopat (गोपत) Gopata (गोपत)[1] Gopta (गोप्त) Goptri (गोप्त्री) Gupti (गुपती) Gupte (गुपते) [2] [3] Gopati (गोपती) is gotra of Jats.


  • One of thousand names of Shiva includes Gopta (गोप्त) and other is Gopati (गोपती).

Mention by Panini

Gupti (गुप्ति), defence, is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [7]

Guptarma (गुप्तार्म) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [8]


V S Agarwal [9] writes about Defence (Gupti) ...The defence of the Greek city state was of the utmost concern to its rulers as well as the citizens. “The people ought to fight for the laws as for the walls of the city”, said Heraclitus.

The Mahabharata discusses in detail the defence of the Janapada (katham rakshyo janapadah, Shantiparva,69.1) and lays great stress on Gupti or the military preparedness of the fortified city and its citizens. It refers to Parikhā, Prākāra, etc, as parts of that defensive system which Panini also mentions.

The evidence in epic is naturally more elaborate, mentioning a full contingent of military and civil institutions needed for the defence of the realm, e.g. durga, gulma, nagara, pura, shakhanagara, arama, udyana, nagaropavana, apana, vihara, sabha, avasatha, chtvara, rashtra, balamukhyas, sasyabhihara, samkrama,

[p. 487]: prakanthi, akasa-janani, kadanga-dvaraka, dvaras, shataghni, bhandagara, ayudhagara, dhanyagara, asvagara, gajagara, baladhikarana, all leading to the complete defence of the janapda and its pura (Shantiparva, 61.1-71).

We are told by the Greek historians of Alexander how the impregnable nature of the defences of Massaga and Aornos forts (Mashakāvati and Varaṇā) helped the heroic Ashvakayanas of Gandhara in offering resistance to the invaders.

Hukum Singh Panwar [10] tells us: What about the Imperial Guptas? Were they Jats? Gupta, as the last name of the homonymous dynasty, has been quite controversial among historians. Latest researches have, however, shown that the last name, used by the members of that dynasty, was Gopata, "meaning thereby defender of the life, prestige; property and faith[11] and was obviously adopted by them as their title[12]. It was certainly not Gupta as we generally find in history. Their ethnonym was either Karaskar[13] or as Prabhavati, princess of Chandragupta Vikrmaditya-II, informs us was Dharana[14]. Evidence from other sources corroborates the assertion of the princess.K.P. Jayaswal, on the authority of the Aryamanjusri-Mulakalpa, a history of India in Sanskrit and Tibetan, Written before 8th century A.D., firmly holds that the so-called Guptas were Jats.[15]

The word 'Gupta'

Bhim Singh Dahiya[16] writes: Before proceeding further, let us deal with the word 'Gupta'.

The first notice of this word was taken by Panini in the fifth cenntury B.C. when two words are mentioned, viz., 'Goptri' and 'Gupti'. V.S. Agarwala in India as Known to Panini defines 'Gupti' as 'defence' and 'Goptri' as the art or science of military arrangements. On this basis, the person who was in-charge of defence, was called 'Gupta' or 'Gopta'.

In the Rajatarangini of Kalhana, the word appears as 'Goptri' and is defined as "Guardian of the Earth" or defender of the realm.[17] Even in the eighteenth century this was the meaning attached to this word. Evidence for this is available in a book which gives the Sanskrit equivalent of all the words and posts and titles which were in the use during the Mughal times. The name of the book is Yāvanaparipāti written by Dalapati Raya, in 1764 A.D., under the patronage of Prince Madhava Simha of Jaipur. In that book there are two titles mentioned, "Nagara Gauptika" which is translated as city Kotwal. The other word is "Sima Gauptika" which is translated as "Faujadar." Even during the 'Gupta' period this word was used in the same sense of military governor. Skandagupta wrote in his inscription that he had "appointed military governors in all provinces."[18]

सर्वेषु देशेषु विधाय गोप्त्रीन

In the Mandsor inscriptions of Bandhu Varman, his ancestor, "Vishva Varman is called a 'Gopta', a term which, according to Junagarh Rock inscription of Skandagupta, means a military governor."[19] Thus we find that this word 'Gupta' means a military governor and was used in this sense right from the fifth century B.C. to the eighteenth century A.D. and the so-called 'Guptas' themselves used this word in the same sense. The mere fact that the word 'Gupta' is a part and parcel of the names of the emperors, should not, and cannot, give any other meaning to this word. It is to be borne in mind that the word 'Gupta' is not used as a surname-it is

In Mahabharata

Gupta (गुप्ता) is mentioned in Mahabharata (V.158.19),(VIII.23.33),(VIII.30.63),(VIII.30.76),(VIII.51.6),(VIII.51.10).

Udyoga Parva/Mahabharata Book V Chapter 158 tells that having reached the Pandava camp, the gambler's son (Uluka) presented himself before the Pandavas, and addressed Yudhishthira about Duryodhana. Gupta is used as protected in verse (V.158.19) ...."Like a frog within a well, why dost thou not realise the strength of this assembled host of monarchs, which resembleth the very celestial host, and which is protected by these kings like the gods protecting theirs in heaven..." [20]

Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 23 mentions the creation of Varna system. Gupta is used for Kshatriyas as protectors in verse (VIII.23.33). ...."The Kshatriyas have been described to be protectors (of the other classes) acquirers of wealth and givers of the same." [21]

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 59 mentions Genealogy of Danavas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Yakshas, Rakshasas: Gopati is mentioned in verse (I.59.41)....."Muni's sons - Bhimasena, Ugrasena, Suparna, Varuna, Gopati, and Dhritarashtra, and Suryavarchas the seventh..." [22]

Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 52 gives the order of army of the (Kuru) in Mahabharata War. Gopta is used in verse (VI.52.17).... "And next, on the left horn (of that array), was that best of men, viz., he who had for his protector (Gopta), Janardana--that protector of the whole Universe." [23]

Notable persons


External links


  1. डॉ पेमाराम:राजस्थान के जाटों का इतिहास, 2010, पृ.299
  2. डॉ पेमाराम:राजस्थान के जाटों का इतिहास, 2010, पृ.299
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I,s.n. 63.
  4. V S Agarwal, India as Known to Panini,p.486
  5. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Empire of the Dharan Jats, Misnamed Guptas,p.176
  6. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya etc,: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998 p. 241
  7. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953,
  8. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p. 567
  9. V S Agarwal, India as Known to Panini,p.486-487
  10. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/An Historico-Somatometrical study bearing on the origin of the Jats,p.137
  11. Monier-Williams, Skt.-Eng. Dic., pp. 358-368
  12. Bhim Singh Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Empire of the Dharan Jats, Misnamed Guptas, p.176
  13. Mukerji, RK., Gupta Emp. 1950, p. 14, Jayaswal, JBORS, XIX, 1933, pp. 115f.
  14. Majumdar, RC. and Altekar, A.S.; Vakataka-Gupta Age-, p. 131, IRO. Vol XI,1935, pp. 326f. EpLInd., Vot. XV, p. 39, Sharma, Dasharatha,JBORS, Vol. XXII, p. 227.
  15. An Imperial History Of India/Gauda and Magadha Provincial History, P. 52-53.
  16. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Empire of the Dharan Jats, Misnamed Guptas,p.176
  17. Rajat., VIII, 341 and 339. Stein's Edition.
  18. J. P. Fleet, CII, Vol. III, No. 14.
  19. Studies in Indian History and Civilisation by Buddha Prakash, p. 405.
  20. किं थर्थुरः कूपशयॊ यदेमां; न बुध्यसे राजचमूं समेताम, थुराधर्षां थेव चमू परकाशां; गुप्तां नरेन्थ्रैस तरिथशैर इव थयाम (V.158.19)
  21. अदान्यॊन्यस्य संयॊगाच चातुर्वर्ण्यस्य भारत, गॊप्तारः संग्रहीतारौ थातारः क्षत्रियाः समृताः (VIII.23.33)
  22. भीमसेनॊग्र सेनौ च सुपर्णॊ वरुणस तथा, गॊपतिर धृतराष्ट्रश च सूर्यवर्चाश च सप्तमः (I.59.41)
  23. ततॊ ऽभूथ थविपथां शरेष्ठॊ वामं पार्श्वम उपाश्रितः, सर्वस्य जगतॊ गॊप्ता गॊप्ता यस्य जनार्थनः (VI.52.17)

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