Skandagupta

From Jatland Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Genealogy of Early Guptas

Skandagupta (स्कंदगुप्त)(455 - 467 AD) was successor of Kumargupta I as ruler of the Gupta Empire. Skandagupta is generally considered to be the last of the great Gupta Emperors. He crushed the Pushyamitras who had threatened the imperial authority.

But shortly thereafter he was faced with the problem of invading Hephthalites or "White Huns", known in India as Indo-Hephthalites or Hunas, from the northwest. He repulsed the first Huna attack c. 455. But it proved a very expensive affair as the war drained the empire's financial and military resources and that led to its decline.

Skandagupta passed away in 467 and was succeeded by his son Narasimhagupta Baladitya.

Bhitari Pillar Inscription of Skandagupta

  • [Perfection has been attained]! The son of the Mahârâjâdhirâja, the glorious Samudragupta,-who was the exterminator of all kings; who had no antagonist (of equal power) in the world; whose fame was tasted by the waters of the four oceans; who was equal to (the gods) Dhanada and Varuna and Indra and Antaka; who was the very axe of (the god) Kritânta; who was the giver of many millions of lawfully acquired cows and gold; who was the restorer of the ashvamêdha-sacrifice, that had been long in abeyance; who was the son of the son's son of the Mahârâja, the illustrious Gupta; who was the son's son of the Mahârâja, the illustrious Ghatôtkacha; (and) who was the son of the Mahârâjâdhirâja, the glorious Chandragupta (I.), (and) the daughter's son of Lichchhivi, begotten on the Mahâdêvî Kumrâdêvî,-
  • (L 4.)-(was) the most devout worshipper of the Divine One, the Mahârâjadhirâja, the glorious Chandragupta (II.), who was accepted by him; who was begotten on the Mahdâdêvî Dattadêvî; (and) who was himself without an antagonist (of equal power).
  • (L.5.)-His son (was) the most devout worshipper of the Divine One, the Mahârâjadhirâja, the glorious Kumâragupta, who meditated on his feet, (and) who was begotten on the Mahdâdêvî Dhruvadêvî.
  • (L. 6.)-The son of him, the king, who was renowned for the innate power of (his) mighty intellect (and) whose fame was great, (is) this (present) king, by name Skandagupta, who possesses great glory; who subsisted (like a bee) on the wide-spreading waterlilies which were the feet of (his) father; whose fame is spread far and wide; -who is amply endowed with strength of arm in the world; who is the most eminent hero in the lineage of the Guptas; whose great splendour is spread far and wide; by whom, practising (good) behaviour, the conduct of those who perform good actions is not obstructed; who is of spotless soul; (and) who is well disciplined in the understanding of musical keys(?) :-
  • (L. 8.)-By whom,-having, with daily intense application, step by step attained his object by means of good behaviour and strength and politic conduct,-instruction in the art of disposition (of resources) was acquired, (and) was employed as the means of (subduing his) enemies who had put themselves forward in the desire for conquest that was so highly welcome (to them) :-
  • (L. 10.)-By whom, when he prepared himself to restore the fallen fortunes of (his) family, a (whole) night was spent on a couch that was the bare earth; and then, having conquered the Pushyamitras, who had developed great power and wealth, he placed (his) left foot on a foot-stool which was the king (of that tribe himself ) :-
  • (L. 11.)-The resplendent behaviour of whom, possessed of spotless fame,-inherent, [but increased] by . . . . . . . . and patience and heroism which are emphatically unequalled, (and) which destroy the efficacy of the weapons (of his enemies),-is sung in every region by happy men, even down to the children:
  • (L. 12.)-Who, when (his) father had attained the skies, conquered (his) enemies by the strength of (his) arm, and established again the ruined fortunes of (his) lineage; and then, crying "the victory has been achieved," betook himself to (his) mother, whose eyes were full of tears from joy, just as Krishna, when he had slain (his) enemies, betook himself to (his mother) Dêvakî;-
  • (L. 14.)-Who, with his own armies, established (again) (his) lineage that had been made to totter . . . . . . . . . .. ., (and) with his two arms subjugated the earth, (and) shewed mercy to the conquered peoples in distress, (but) has become neither proud nor arrogant, though his glory is increasing day by day; (and) whom the bards raise to distinction with (their) songs and praises:-
  • (L. 15.)-By whose two arms the earth was shaken, when he, the creator (of a disturbance like that) of a terrible whirlpool, joined in close conflict with the Hûnas; . . . . . . among enemies . . . . . . arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . proclaimed . . . . . . . . . . . . just as if it were the roaring of (the river) Gangâ, making itself noticed in (their) ears.
  • (L.17.)- . . . . . . the fame of his father . . . . . . . . . . . (Saying to himself that) an image of some kind or other [should be made], he, the very celebrated one, made this image of that (famous) (god) Shârngin, [to endure as long as the moon and stars may last]. And, having here installed this (god), he, whose commands are well-established, has allotted this village (to the idol), in order to increase the religious merit of (his) father.
  • (L. 19.)-Accordingly, this image of the Divine One, and (this village) which has been here agreed to, -both of these, he, the pious-minded one, has assigned for (the increase of ) the religious merit of (his) father.
  • From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 54-56.

Bihar Stone Pillar Inscription of Skandagupta

First Part.
  • . . . . . . . . . . . . a very moon of a man; equal in prowess to (the god Vishnu) the younger brother of Indra; unequalled in respect of virtuous qualities; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • (Line 2.)— . . . . . . . . . . moreover, his son, docile towards (his) master on the earth; renowned; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by his own fame.
  • (L. 3.)— . . . . . . . . . . . . whose sister, indeed, [was espoused] by Kumâragupta, of unequalled prowess.
  • (L. 4.)— . . . . . . . . . . . . both the deceased ancestors and the gods, with the oblations proper for each of them; . . . . . . . . always . . . . . . . . . . . . things that are injurious to man, &c.
  • (L. 5.)— . . . . . . . . . . . . caused to be made a group of temples, not [rivalled by] anything else that could be compared with it in the world.
  • (L. 6.)— . . . . . . . . . . . . assuredly in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . which is beautiful with the erection of (this) best of columns.
  • (L. 7.)— . . . . . . . . . . . of the trees . . . . . . . . . . . . the groups of fig-trees and castor oil plants, the tops of which are bent down by the weight of (their) flowers.
  • (L. 8.)— . . . . . . . . . . by (the presence of) Bhadrâryâ, the house shines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the sky laden with fresh clouds.
  • (L. 9.)— . . . . . . . . . . . . headed by (the god) Skanda, and by the divine Mothers, on the earth, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mankind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • (L. 10.)— . . . . . . . . . . . . [he] made, indeed, the erection of (this) sacrificial pos . . . . . . . . . . . Bhadrâryâ and others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in (the village (?) called) Skandaguptabata (?), 30 (and) 5 shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • (L. 12.)— . . . . . . . . . . . . . . if there be any misdeed on the part of (his) father (or) his mother, let him share . . . . . . . . . . .
  • (L. 13.)— . . . . . . . . . . . . in the agrahâra of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 shares . . . . . . . . by Anantasêna . . . . . . . . .
Second Part.
  • (L. 14.)— . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The son of the Mahârâjâdhirâja, the glorious Samudragupta,— who was the exterminator [of all kings]; who had no antagonist (of equal power) in the world; [whose fame was tasted by the waters of the four oceans]; who was equal to (the gods) [Dhanada and Varuna] and Indra and Antaka; [who was the very axe] of (the god) Kritânta; [who was the giver of many millions of lawfully acquire cows and gold]; who was the restorer of the ashvamêdha-sacrifice, that had been [long] in abeyance; [who was the son of the son's son of the Mahârâdha, the illustrious Gupta]; who was the son's son of [the Mahârâja, the illustrious] Ghatôtkacha; (and) who was [the son] of the Mahârâjâdhâja, [the glorious Chandragupta (I.), (and) the daughter's son of Lichchhavi], begotten on the Mahâdêví Kumâradêvî,—
  • (L. 19.)—(was) the most devout worshipper of the Divine One, the Mahârâjâdhirâja, [the glorious Chandragupta (II.)],— who was accepted by him;2 [who was begotten on] the Mahâdêvî [Dattadêvî]; (and) [who was himself without an antagonist (of equal power.)]
  • (L. 21.)— [His son], who meditated on [his feet], (and) [who was begotten] on the Mahâdêvî Dhruvadêvî, (was) [the most devout worshipper of the Divine One], [the Mahârâjâdhirâja, the glorious Kumâragupta].
  • (L. 22.)— [His] son, who meditated on his feet, (is) [the most devout worshipper the Divine One, the Mahârâjâdhirâja, the glorious] Skandagupta.
  • (L. 24.)— [1], the most devout worshipper of the Divine One, (the Mahârâjâdhirâja, the glorious Skandagupta, issue a command] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of the town of Ajapura in the . . . . . . vishaya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a perpetual endowment . . . . . . . . . . . a village-field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the Uparika, the Kumâyâmâtya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . acquired by the merchant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in the seat (of office) (?) of the Âgrahârika, the Saulkika, and the Gaulmika . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and others who subsist on Our favour;—
  • (L. 31.)— " I have been requested by . . . . . . varman,— By my father's father, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by the Bhatta Guhilasvâmin, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . belonging to Bhadrâryâ . . . . . . . . . . . "
  • From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 50-52.

Indore Copper-plate Inscription of Skandagupta (465-466 CE)

  • Perfection has been attained! May that Sun, the rich source of rays that pierce (the darkness which is) the envelope of the earth, protect you,— whom Brâhmans, of enlightened minds, (have recourse to) according to due rite, (and thus become) the utterers of praises in meditation, which are directed solely to him; whose limit, either vertically or from side to side, neither the gods nor the demons could ascertain; (and) by having recourse to whom, mankind, when they have lost control of themselves through much disease and agitation of the mind, acquire consciousness (again)!
  • (Line 3.)— In the augmenting victorious reign of the Paramabhattâraka and Mahârâjâdhirâja, the glorious Skandagupta; in the year one hundred, increased by forty-six; (and) while the month Phâlguna is current for the increase of the enjoyment, in (the land of) Antarvêdî, of the Vishayaputi Sharvanâga, who has been accepted (with favour) by his feet;—
  • (L. 5.)— The Brâhman Dêvavishnu, who belongs to the community of Chaturvêdins of Padmâ of the town of Chandrâpura,— who is the son of Dêva, (and) the son's son of Haritrâta, (and) the son of the son's son of Dudika; who always recites the hymns of the agnihôtra-sacrifice; who belongs to the Rânâyanîya (shâkhâ); (and) who is of the Varshagana gôtra,— for the increase of his own fame gives an endowment, (of which the interest is) to be applied to (the maintenance of) a lamp for the divine Sun, which has been established (in a temple) by the Kshatriyas Achalavarman and Bhrukunthasinha, merchants of the town of Indrâpura, on the east of the settlement, (and) , actually touching . . . . . . . .of the settlement of the town of Indrâpura.
  • (L. 8.)— This gift of a Brâhman's endowment of (the temple of) the Sun, (is) the perpetual property of the guild of oil-men, of which Jîvanta is the head, residing at the town of Indrapura, as long as it continues in complete unity, (even) in moving away from this settlement. But there should be given by this guild, for the same time as the moon and the sun endure, two palas of oil by weight, (or in figures) by weight 2, uninterrupted in use, (and) continuing without any diminution from the original value.
  • (L. 11.)— Whosoever shall transgress this grant that has been assigned,— that man, (becoming as guilty as) the slayer of a cow, (or) the slayer of a spiritual preceptor, (or) the slayer of a Brâhman, shall go down (into hell), invested with (the guilt of) those (well-known) five sins, together with the minor sins.
  • From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 71-72.

Kahaum Pillar Inscription of Skandagupta G.E. 141 (=AD 460)

  • Perfection has been attained! In the tranquil reign of Skandagupta, whose hall of audience is shaken by the wind caused by the falling down (in the act of performing obeisance) of the heads of a hundred kings; who is born in the lineage of the Guptas; whose fame is spread far and wide; who excels all others in prosperity; who resembles (the god) Shakra; (and) who is the lord of a hundred kings;-in the one hundredth year, increased by thirty and ten and one; the month Jyêshtha having arrived;-
  • (Line 5.)-In this jewel of a village, which is known by people under the name of Kakubha, (and) which is pure from association with holy men,-(there was) the high-minded Bhattisôma, who (was) the son of Sômila, that receptacle of many good qualities. His son (was) Rudrasôma, of great intellect and fame, who had the other appellation of Vyâghra. His son was Madra, who (was) especially full of affection for Brâhmans and religious preceptors and ascetics.
  • (L. 9.)-He, being alarmed when he observed the whole of this world (to be ever) passing through a succession of changes, acquired for himself a large mass of religious merit. (And by him),-having set up, for the sake of final beatitude (and) for the welfare of (all) existing beings, five excellent (images), made of stone, (of) those who led the way in the path of the Arhats who practise religious observances,-there was then planted in the ground this most beautiful pillar of stone, which resembles the tip of the summit of the best of mountains, (and) which confers fame (upon him).
  • From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 67-68.

Mathura Stone Image Inscription of Skandagupta (454-455 CE)

  • In a century of years, increased by the thirty-fifth (year), (or in figures) 100 (and) 30 (and) 5; in the month Pushya; on the twentieth day, (or in figures) the day 20;-this is the appropriate religious gift of the Vihârasvaminî Dêvatâ. Whatever religious merit (there is) in this (act),-let it be for the acquisition of supreme knowledge by (her) parents and by all sentient beings!
  • (Line 3.)-Good fortune; the condition of being a model (worthy of imitation), abounding in virtuous qualities; fame; the destruction of the enemies (of religion); riches abounding in prosperity, births that result in happiness; (and) finally, an auspicious nirvâna;-(all these) are not permanent (?); having once fixed the thoughts upon the happiness of making gifts, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 263-264.

An insciption at Junagarh dates from about 450 CE and refers to Skandagupta, the last Gupta emperor. Old rock-cut Buddhist "caves" in this area, dating from well before 500 CE, have stone carvings and floral work. There are also the Khapra Kodia Caves North of the fort, and the Babupyana Caves South of the fort.


Junagarh Rock Inscription of Skandagupta

Gupta Years 136, 137 and 138 (=A.D. 455, 456 and 457)
First Part.
III. Junagarh rock inscription of Skandagupta, year 136 (ASI)
  • Perfection has been attained! Victorious is he, (the god) Vishnu,-the perpetual abode of the (goddess) Lakshmî, whose dwelling is the waterlily; the conqueror of distress; the completely victorious one,-who, for the sake of the happiness of (Indra) the lord of the gods, seized back from (the demon) Bali the goddess of wealth and splendour, who is admitted to be worthy of enjoyment, (and) who had been kept away from him for a very long time!
  • (Line 2.)-And next, victorious for ever is the supreme king of kings over kings, whose breast is embraced by the goddess of wealth and splendour; who has developed heroism by (the strength of his) arms; and who plucked (and utilised) the authority of (his local) representatives, who were so many Garudas, (and used it as) an antidote against the (hostile) kings, who were so many serpents, lifting up their hoods in pride and arrogance; Skandagupta, of great glory, the abode of kingly qualities, who, when (his) father by his own power had attained the position of being a friend of the gods, bowed down his enemies and made subject to himself the (whole) earth, bounded by the waters of the for oceans, (and) full of thriving countries round the borders of it;-whose fame, moreover, even (his) enemies, in the countries of the Mlêchchhas . . . . . . . . . . . . having (their) pride broken down to the very root, announce with the words- "verily the victory has been achieved by him;"-(and) whom the goddess of fortune and splendour of her own accord selected as her husband, having in succession (and) with judgment skillfully taken into consideration and thought over all the causes of virtues and faults, (and) having discarded all (the other) sons of kings (as not coming up to her standard).
  • (L. 5.)-While he, the king, is reigning, verily no man among his subjects falls away from religion; (and) there is no one who is distressed, (or) in poverty, (or) in misery, (or) avaricious, or who, worthy of punishment, is over-much put to torture.
  • (L. 6.)-Thus having conquered the whole earth, (and) having destroyed the height of the pride of (his) enemies, (and) having appointed protectors in all the countries, he cogitated in many ways,- "Among all my servants put together, who is there, who--suitable; endowed with intellect; modest; possessed of a disposition that is not destitute of wisdom and memory; endowed with truth, straightforwardness, nobility, and prudent behaviour; and possessed of sweetness, civility, and fame;-loyal ; affectionate; endowed with manly characteristics; and possessed of a mind that (has been tried and) is (found to be) pure by all the tests of honesty; possessed of an inner soul pervaded by (the inclination for) the acquittance of debts and obligations; occupied with the welfare of all mankind; capable both in the lawful acquisition of wealth, and also in the preservation of it, when acquired, and further in causing the increase of it, when protected, (and able) to dispense it on worthy objects, when it has been increased,-shall govern all my (countries of the) Surâshtras? I have it; (there is) just one man, Parnadatta competent to bear this burden."


  • (L. 9.)-(And it was this same Parnadatta) who, with pressing (and) with difficulty, was appointed by the lord of kings, who had thus deliberated in his mind for many days and nights, to protect in a proper manner the land of the Surâshtras. (And) just as the gods became comfortable, (and) not disturbed in mind, when they had appointed Varuna to the western point of the compass, so the king was easy at heart, when he had appointed Parnadatta over the region of the west.
  • (L. 10.)-His son,-possessed of a filial disposition; his own self, as it were, reduplicated; well trained by self-control; worthy to be protected, as if it were his own self, by the all-pervading spirit; always self-possessed; endowed with a naturally beautiful form; having a disposition the whole of which was always pervaded with joy through a variety of charming actions that were in accordance with (his) beauty; having a waterlily of a face that resembled a bed of waterlilies in full bloom; the refuge of men who came to him for protection,-was this same one who is renowned on the earth under the name of Chakrapâlita; who is beloved of the people; and who confers distinction upon (his) father by his own noble qualities which are everything except unpolished :-
  • (L. 11.)-In whom all these qualities dwell to a marked degree, (and) without eves wandering away (from him),-.viz. patience; lordship; modesty; and good behaviour; and heroism without (too) great an estimation of prowess; eloquence (?); self-control; liberality; and high-spiritedness; civility; the acquittance of debts and obligations; and freedom from empty-headedness; beauty; and reprobation of things that are not right; absence of astonishment; firmness; and generosity. Even in the whole world there is no one to be found, in whom a comparison with his virtues may be made; verily he has become, in all entireness, the standard of comparison for men who are endowed with virtuous qualities.
  • (L. 12.)-(And it was he) who was appointed by (his) father, after testing in person (the existence in him of) these same qualities mentioned above, and higher ones even than them; and who then accomplished the protection of (this) city in a way that quite distinguished him above his predecessors. Relying upon the process of his own two excellent arms (?), not on the pride of any other man, he subjected no one in this city to any anxiety; and he punished wicked people. Even in this time which is a mean one, he failed not to maintain confidence in the people, together with the inhabitants of the city; and, by carefully inquiring into faults, he has charmed all the citizens, together with . . . . . . . . . and children. And he has made (his) subjects happy by conversations addressed with smiles, and marks of honour, and presents; by free and reciprocal entering into (each other's) houses; (and) by carefully nourishing the family ceremonies of affection. Endowed with the highest piety, affable, pure, (and) in a suitable manner devoted to charity, he has, even without any conflict between religion and wealth, applied himself to such pleasures as may be attained at the proper time. What wonder is there in the fact that he, [born] from Parnadatta, is possessed of such proper behaviour?; can heat ever be produced from the moon, which is cold like a string of pearls or like a waterlily?
  • (L. 15.)-Then, in due course of time, there came the season of clouds, bursting asunder with (its) clouds the season of heat, when much water rained down unceasingly for a long time; by reason of which (the lake) Sudarshana suddenly burst,-making the calculation in the reckoning of the Guptas, in a century of years, increased by thirty and also six more, at night, on the sixth day of (the month) Praushthapada. And these (other rivers) which take their source from (the mountain) Raivataka, (and also) this Palâshini, beautiful with (its) sandy stretches,-(all of them) the mistresses of the ocean,-having dwelt so long in captivity, went again, in due accordance with the scriptures, to their lord (the sea). (And) having noticed the great bewilderment, caused by the excess of rain, (the mountain) Ûrjayat, desirous of appropriating the wives of the mighty ocean, stretched forth as it were a hand, consisting of the river Palâshinî, decorated with the numerous flowers that grew on the edges of (its) banks.
  • (L. 17.)-[Then on all sides] the people fell into despair, discussing how they should act; and, spending the whole night awake in vain, in great anxiety they reflected,- "Here in a moment, (the lake) Sudarshana has (by the overflowing of its waters) assumed an unpleasing appearance towards all the people, (as if it were) a man (?); having the appearance of the ocean, quite full of water, can it ever (again) become pleasing of aspect, . . . . . . . ?"
  • (L. 18.)- . . . . . . . . . . . . he having become . . . . . . . . . . . . and displaying the height of devotion towards his father, (and) holding in full view, for the welfare of the king and of the city also, religion, which has such auspicious results,-in a century of years, increased by thirty and seven others also,. . . . . . . . . attentive to the sacred writings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . whose majesty is well known. Then, having sacrificed to the gods with oblations of clarified butter and with obeisances; and having gratified the twice-born with (presents of) riches; and having paid respect to the citizens with such honours as they deserved, and to such of (his) servants as were worthy of notice, and to (his) friends with presents,-in the first fortnight of the month . . . . . . belonging to the hot season, on the first day, he, having practised (all the above) respectful observances for two months, made an immeasurable expenditure of wealth, and, [built an embankment] a hundred cubits in all in length, and sixty and eight in breadth, and seven (?) men's height in elevation, . . . . . . . . . . . . of two hundred cubits. (Thus), having done honour to the kings, he laboriously built up, with a great masonry work, properly constructed, the lake Sudarshana, which is renowned as not being evil by nature, so that it should last for all eternity,-agitated by the defiances of the ruddy-geese which display (their) beauty along the edges of the firmly-built embankment, and by the settling down (in its waters) of the herons and the swans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pure waters; on the earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the sun and the moon.
  • (L. 23.)-And may the city become prosperous; full of inhabitants; cleansed from sin by prayers sung by many hundreds of Brâhmans; [and free from] drought and famine for a hundred years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [Thus] ends the composition of the description of the restoration of (the lake) Sudarshana.
Second Part.
  • (L. 24.)- . . . . . . . . . . . . of him (Skandagupta), who destroyed the pride of (his) haughty enemies; who is of great glory; who is the banner of his lineage; who is the lord of the whole earth; whose pious deeds are even more wonderful than his supreme sovereignty over kings; . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • (L. 24.)- . . . . . . . . . . . . (Parnadatta), the protector of the island, and the leader of great . . . . . . . . of armies for the subjugation of (his) enemies.
  • (L. 25.)-By his son, who is endowed with his own good qualities, (and) whose life is devoted to (the worship of) the feet of (the god) Gôvinda, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -by him, who causes the citizens to bow down by his own prowess, having there attained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the feet, which are like waterlilies, of (the god) Vishnu, with a great expenditure of wealth and time [there was built a temple] of that famous (god Vishnu) who carries the discus, . . . . . . . . . . . . enemies, (and) who became (incarnate and) human by the exercise of his own free will. (Thus) by Chakrapâlita, who is of a straightforward mind, there has been caused to be built a temple of (the god) Chakrabhrit, in a century of years, together with the thirty-eighth ( year), . . . . . . . . . . . . the time of the Guptas.
  • (L. 27.)- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uprisen, as it were, of the mountain Ûrjayat', shines as if displaying (its) lordship on the forehead of the city.
  • (L. 28.)-And another . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . on the forehead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . obstructing the path of the birds, is resplendent . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • Source: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 61-65.

दिलीपसिंह अहलावत लिखते हैं

स्कन्दगुप्त (445 ई० से 467 ई० तक) -

कुमारगु्प्त प्रथम की मृत्यु के पश्चात् उसका योग्य पुत्र स्कन्दगुप्त 455 ई० में राजसिंहासन पर बैठा। उसने अपने दादा की विक्रमादित्य की उपाधि ग्रहण की।

स्कन्दगुप्त की सबसे बड़ी सफलता हूणों के विरुद्ध युद्ध करना था। हूण मध्य एशिया की एक क्रूर तथा असभ्य जाति थी जिसने संसार के अनेक देशों पर आक्रमण किए थे। सम्राट् स्कन्दगुप्त के शासनकाल में इस जाति की एक शाखा ने भारत पर आक्रमण कर दिया। परन्तु स्कन्दगुप्त ने बड़ी वीरता से उनका मुकाबला किया और उन्हें बुरी तरह पराजित किया। इस सम्राट् ने साम्राज्य के आन्तरिक विद्रोहों का भी दमन किया। इस प्रकार इसने अपनी वीरता के आधार पर गुप्त साम्राज्य ज्यों का त्यों स्थिर रखा।

इस सम्राट् ने सुदर्शन झील की मरम्मत कराई। यह झील मौर्यकाल में गिरनार (गुजरात) में बनाई गई थी। अधिक वर्षा होने से इसका पानी किनारों से ऊपर चढ़ गया था जिससे पास के प्रदेशों में रहने वाले लोगों को खतरा पैदा हो गया था।

स्कन्दगुप्त भी अपने पूर्वजों की भांति हिन्दू-धर्म की वैष्णव शाखा का अनुयायी था। उसके काल में भी महात्मा बुद्ध तथा जैन तीर्थंकरों की मूर्तियां बनाईं गईं।[1]


References


Back to The Rulers