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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Map of Sinkiang

Sinkiang (सिकियांग) or Xinjiang is a region of the China in the northwest of the country. Tukhara or Tushara was the ancient name of Chinese Turkistan or Sinkiang. [1]


Xinjiang borders Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.


It is home to a number of ethnic groups including the Uyghur, Han, Kazakh, Tajiks, Hui, Kyrgyz, and Mongol, with a majority of the population adhering to Islam.

With a documented history of at least 2,500 years, a succession of peoples and empires has vied for control over all or parts of this territory. Before the 21st century, all or part of the region has been ruled or controlled by the Tocharians, Yuezhi, Xiongnu Empire, Xianbei state, Kushan Empire, Rouran Khaganate, Han Empire, Former Liang, Former Qin, Later Liang, Western Liáng, Rouran Khaganate, Tang Dynasty, Tibetan Empire, Uyghur Khaganate, Kara-Khitan Khanate, Mongol Empire, Yuan Dynasty, Chagatai Khanate, Moghulistan, Northern Yuan, Yarkent Khanate, Dzungar Khanate, Qing Dynasty, the Republic of China and, since 1950, the People's Republic of China.

Xinjiang was previously known as Xiyu (西域) or Qurighar / Qarbi Diyâr" (غەربىي دىيار), meaning Western Region, under the Han Dynasty, which drove the Xiongnu empire out of the region in 60 BC. This was in an effort to secure the profitable routes of the Silk Road.[2] It was known as Huijiang (回疆), meaning "Muslim Frontier," during the Qing Dynasty before becoming the province of Xinjiang, which literally means "New Frontier" or "New Border," in the 1880s. According to the Chinese statesman Zuo Zongtang's report to the Emperor of Qing, Xingjiang means "An old frontier which returns recently".


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[3] ने लेख किया है ...तुषार (AS, p.409): 'तुखार' अथवा चीनी तुर्किस्तान (सिंक्यांग) का प्राचीन भारतीय नाम था। महाभारत के अनुसार पाण्डव अर्जुन ने अपनी दिग्विजय यात्रा के समय इसे जीत लिया था। दूसरी शती ई. पू. में यूचियों या ऋषिकों ने अपने मूल स्थान चीनी तुर्किस्तान से (जहाँ उनका वर्णन महाभारत में है) 'बल्ख' या 'वाह्लीक' की ओर प्रव्रजन किया था, क्योंकि उनको आक्रमणकारी हूणों ने वहाँ से आगे खदेड़ दिया था। कालांतर में यूचिकों की एक शाखा, कुषाणों ने भारत में आकर यहाँ अपना राज्य स्थापित किया। कनिष्क इसी शाखा का प्रसिद्ध तथा महानतम राजा था। महाभारत, सभापर्व 27, 25-26-27 के अनुसार ऋषिकों को अपनी दिग्विजय यात्रा में अर्जुन ने विजित किया था।

External sources


  1. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.409
  2. Susan Whitfield (2004). The Silk Road: trade, travel, war and faith. Serindia Publications. p. 27.
  3. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.409

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