Tukhara

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The Kingdom of Tukhara in 700 AD

Tukhara (तुखार) was the name of one of Tribes which finds frequent mention in Mahabharata.

Jat Gotras from Tukhara

  • Tushar (तुषार) Tukhar (तुखार) Tusiar (तुसियर) Tusir (तुसीर) Tushir (तुशीर) gotra of Jats originated from Tushara (तुषार) janapada mentioned in Mahabharata. This place is now in Gilgit. There was Tusharagiri mountain also. [2]
  • Tokshi (तोक्षी) Toxi (तोक्षी) Tochhi (तोछी) Tokhi (तोक्षी) is gotra of Jats. The name Tukhara itself survives in the name of the Tokhi caste found in the North- West.[3]

In Mahabharata

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 47 says that when Yudhishthira performed his rajasuya yajna, the Kanka, the Sakas and the Tukharas brought to Indraprashtha, their horses as gifts to the Pandava king. [4]

शकास तुखाराः कङ्काश च रॊमशाः शृङ्गिणॊ नराः
महागमान थूरगमान गणितान अर्बुदं हयान (2.47.26)

Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 48 mentions Tukhars with the Harahunas and Chinas and Tukharas and the Sindhavas and the Jagudas and the Ramathas and the Mundas and the inhabitants of the kingdom of women and the Tanganas.

हारहूणांश च चीनांश च तुखारान सैन्धवांस तदा
जागुडान रमठान मुण्डान सत्री राज्यान अद तङ्गणान (3.48.21)

Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 174 mentions about journey of Pandavas:

Then all those warriors having in due course happily lived at Badari for one month, proceeded towards the realm of Suvahu, king of the Kiratas, by following the same track by which they had come.And crossing the difficult Himalayan regions, and the countries of China, Tukhara, Darada and all the climes of Kulinda, rich in heaps of jewels, those warlike men reached the capital of Suvahu.
विहृत्य मासं सुखिनॊ बथर्यां; किरात राज्ञॊ विषयं सुबाहॊः
चीनांस तुखारान दरदान सथार्वान; थेशान कुणिन्थस्य च भूरि रत्नान Mahabharata (3.174.12)


Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 51 mentions them fighting Mahabharata War on seventeenth day are for Kurus along with:

Tusharas, the Yavanas, the Khasas, the Darvabhisaras, the Daradas, the Sakas, the Kamathas, the Ramathas, the Tanganas the Andhrakas, the Pulindas, the Kiratas of fierce prowess,....
उग्राश च करूरकर्माणस तुखारा यवनाः खशाः
थार्वाभिसारा दरदा: शका रमठ तङ्गणाः Mahabharata 8.51.18


The Mahabharata Book 9: Shalya Parva, Chapter 44, Kisari Mohan Ganguli, tr.1883-1896 shloka 67 mentions about the kings and warriors who came to the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo. Takhar has been mentioned along with Kalasman, Dhama, Mann etc. as under:

वसवॊ मधुवर्णशकलशॊदर एव च
धमन्तॊ मन्मदकरः(Mann+Takhar) सूचीवक्त्रश च वीर्यवान ।।67।।

The province of Takhars has been mentioned in Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 shloka 66 along with the province of Darad, Pallav clans as under:

शूद्राभीराद दरदाः काश्मीराः पशुभिः सह
खशिकाश च तुखाराशपल्लवा गिरिगह्वराः Mahabharata (6.10.66)

In Puranas

The Vayu Purana (47, 44) and the Matsya Purana, (121, 45) mention that:

सान्ध्रान् स्तुखारान् लम्पकान् पह्लवान् दरदान् छकान्
अताञ्जनापदाञ्चक्षु प्लावयन्ती गतोदधिम्

Tusharas of Sanskirit texts and Rajatarangini, Tuhkhara or Tukhara of Mahabharata, or Ta-hus-lo of Hieun- Tsang or Tukhara or Tukharoi of Strabo or Tochari of Ptolemy with their different forms as Thogouroi in Kansu, Tokoraioi in north Imaos, Toghourio in Sogdiana & Tocharoi in Bactria; or Tagorae or Takoraici or Tagouraooi of Pliny, or Tokhari or Togari or Tojari in Central Asian Turfan and of the Ephtlalites or Thogarii of Parthians, or Thodkar or Thokar or Phodkar or Thogar of the Tibetan documents, or Tgwrk in Sogdiana, or Tacharik or Tocharaston of Armenia or Tochar of the Turks or Twchry or Twgry or Twgry of the Turkish, Manechian and Buddhist texts of Central Asia or Tusar or Taggar or Tokha or Toka or Tonk in Jatu or Haryanvi, or Tokharaya in Russian, belong to the Yueh-Chih Kushanas of the Sakas (Rohi Uighur, 1965: 28f). [5]

References

  1. Hukum Singh Panwar:The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations, page 324
  2. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 253
  3. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions, p.166
  4. Bhim Singh Dahiya : Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), 1980, Sterling Publishers New Delhi, p. 34 (Sanskrit-शकास्तुखारा कंकाश्च रोमशः श्रंगिणों नराः)
  5. Hukum Singh Panwar:The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations, page 324

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