Girnar

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Mount Girnar

Girnar (गिरनार) or Girinagar ('city-on-the-hill') is a group of mountains in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, India. It is an important pilgrimage site for both Jains and Hindus, and Buddhists[1]. Girnar is one of the five major 'tirthas' attributed to the 'panchkalyanakas' of various 'Jain tirthankaras'

Variants

Location

The Junagadh city is located at the foot of the Girnar hills. Girnar is historically also known as Ujjayanta or Raivata or Revata.

Mention by Panini

Raivata (रैवत) is a place name mentioned by Panini under Arihanadi (अरीहणादि) (4.2.80.1) group. [1]

History

The Mountain Girnar is older than the Himalayas and the Jain temples upon it are amongst the most ancient in the country; it is the Nirvan bhumi of 22nd Tirthankara Neminath. It is 3666 feet high, and is one of the most remarkable mountains in India. From the city of Junagarh, which is at an altitude of barely 351 feet only the top of Mount Girnar can be seen, as it has in front of it lower hills, of which Jogniya, or Laso Pawadi, 2527 feet; Lakhshman Tekri, Bensla, 2290 feet high; and Datar, 2779 feet high, are the principals.[2]

Ashoka's edicts at Mount Girnar, Junagadh

Ashoka's Rock Edict at Junagadh
Author Laxman Burdak with wife Gomati Burdak at Ashoka Rock Edict Junagadh

Fourteen of Ashoka's Major Rock Edicts, dating to circa 250 BCE, are inscribed on a large boulder that is housed in a small building located outside the town of Junagadh on Saurashtra peninsula in the state of Gujarat, India. It is located on Girnar Taleti road, at about 2 km (1.2 mi) far from Uperkot Fort easterly, some 2 km before Girnar Taleti. An uneven rock, with a circumference of seven meters and a height of ten meters, bears inscriptions etched with an iron pen in Brahmi script in a language similar to Pali and date back to 250 BCE, thus marking the beginning of written history of Junagadh.[3]

On the same rock there are inscriptions in Sanskrit added around 150 CE by Mahakshatrap Rudradaman I, the Saka (Scythian) ruler of Malwa, a member of the Western Satraps dynasty (see [[Junagadh rock inscription of Rudradaman).[4] The edict also narrates the story of Sudarshan Lake which was built or renovated by Rudradaman I, and the heavy rain and storm due to which it had broken.

Another inscription dates from about 450 CE and refers to Skandagupta, the last Gupta Empire.

The protective building around the edicts was built in 1900 by Nawab Rasool Khan of Junagadh State at a cost of Rs 8,662. It was repaired and restored in 1939 and 1941 by the rulers of Junagadh. The wall of the structure had collapsed in 2014.[5]

The base of the mountain, known as Girnar Taleti, is about 4 km east of the center of Junagadh. There are temples and other sacred places all along this stretch.

Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman

On the same rock are inscriptions in Sanskrit added around 150 CE by Mahakshatrap Rudradaman I, the Saka (Scythian) ruler of Malwa, a member of the Western Kshatrapas dynasty[6]. The earliest reference about Yaudheyas is in this inscriptions, which mentions the victory of Mahaksatrapa Rudradaman over the Yaudheyas who were 'proud of their heroism'.[7]

"Rudradaman (...) who by force destroyed the Yaudheyas who were loath to submit, rendered proud as they were by having manifested their' title of' heroes among all Kshatriyas."[8]
"Rudradaman (...) who is the lord of the whole of eastern and western Akaravanti (Akara: East Malwa and Avanti: West Malwa), the Anupa country, Anarta, Surashtra, Svabhra (northern Gujarat) Maru (Marwar), Kachchha (Cutch), Sindhu-Sauvira (Sindh and Multan districts), Kukura (Eastern Rajputana), Aparanta ("Western Border" - Northern Konkan), Nishada (an aboriginal tribe, Malwa and parts of Central India) and other territories gained by his own valour, the towns, marts and rural parts of which are never troubled by robbers, snakes, wild beasts, diseases and the like, where all subjects are attached to him, (and) where through his might the objects of [religion], wealth and pleasure [are duly attained]". [9]

Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman 120 AD

(Be it) accomplished!
  • (Line l.) This lake Sudarshana, from Girinagara [even a long distance?] …….. of a structure so well joined as to rival the spur of a mountain, because all its embankments are strong, in breadth, length and height constructed without gaps as they are of stone, [clay], …………. furnished with a natural dam, [formed by?]………………………….., and with well-provided conduits, drains and means to guard against foul matter,……………………three sections……………by............…….and other favours is (now) in an excellent condition.
  • ( L. 3.) This same (lake) -on the first of the dark half of Margashirsha in the seventy-second -72nd - year of the king, the Mahakshatrapa Rudradaman whose name is repeated by the venerable, the son of . . . . . . . . . . . . , (and) son's son of the king, the Mahakshatrapa Lord Chashtana the taking of whose name is auspicious,…………. when by the clouds pouring with rain the earth had been converted as it were into one ocean, by the excessively swollen floods of the Suvarnasikata, Palasini and other streams of mount Urjayat the dam ………………, though proper precautions [were taken], the water- churned by a storm which, of a most tremendous fury befitting the end of a mundane period, tore down hill-tops, trees, banks, turrets, upper stories, gates and raised places of shelter - scattered, broke to pieces, [tore apart]…………………….. ……., -with stones, trees, bushes and creeping plants scattered about, was thus laid open down to the bottom of the river:-
  • ( L. 7.) By a breach four hundred and twenty cubits long, just as many broad, (and) seventy-five cubits deep, all the water escaped, so that (the lake), almost like a sandy desert (Marudhanva) (मरुधन्व), [became] extremely ugly [to look at].
  • (L.8)………for the sake of…………. ordered to be made by the Vaishya Pushyagupta, the provincial governor of the Maurya king Chandragupta; adorned with conduits for Ashoka the Maurya by the Yavana king Tushaspha while governing; and by the conduit ordered to be made by him, constructed in a manner worthy of a king (and) seen in that breach, the extensive dam…………..
  • (L. 9.) ………..he who, because from the womb he was distinguished by the possession of undisturbed consummate Royal Fortune, was resorted to by all castes and chosen their lord to protect them; who made, and is true to, the vow to the latest breath of his life to abstain from slaying men, except in battles; who [showed] compassion …………… not failing to deal blows to equal antagonists meeting him face to face; who grants protection of life to people repairing to him of their own accord and those prostrating themselves before him; who is the lord of the whole of eastern and western Akara-Avanti, the Anupas country, Anarta, Surashtra, Shvabhra, Maru Kachchha (? or Bharukachchha) [10] , Sindhu-Sauvira, Kukura, Aparanta, Nishada and other territories gained by his own valour, the towns, marts and rural parts of which are never troubled by robbers, snakes, wild beasts, diseases and the like, where all subjects are attached to him, (and) where through his might the objects of [religion], wealth and pleasure [are duly attained]; who by force destroyed the Yaudheyas who were loath to submit, rendered proud as they were by having manifested their' title of' heroes among all Kshatriyas; who obtained good report because he, in spite of having twice in fair fight completely defeated Satakarni, the lord of Dakshinapatha, on account of the nearness of their connection did not destroy him; who [obtained] victory . . . . . . . .; who reinstates deposed kings; who by the right raising of his hand has earned the strong attachment of Dharma; who has attained wide fame by studying and remembering, by the knowledge and practice of, grammar, music, logic and other great sciences; who …… the management of horses, elephants and chariots, (the use of) sword and shield, pugilistic combat and other . … .. . . …. the acts of quickness and efficiency of opposing forces; who day by day is in the habit of bestowing presents and honours and eschewing disrespectful treatment; who is bounteous; whose treasury by the tribute, tolls and shares rightfully obtained overflows with an accumulation of gold, silver, diamonds, beryl stones and (other) precious things; who...........… prose and verse, which are clear, agreeable, sweet, charming, beautiful, excelling by the proper use of words and adorned; whose beautiful frame owns the most excellent marks and signs, such as (auspicious) length, dimension and height, voice, gait, colour, vigour and strength; who himself has acquired the name of Mahakshatrapa; who has been wreathed with many garlands at the svayamvaras of kings' daughters; -he, the Mahakshatrapa Rudradaman, in order to . . . . . . . . . . . cows and Brahmans for a thousand of years, and to increase his religious merit and fame, -without oppressing the inhabitants of the towns and country by taxes, forced labour and acts of affection -by (the expenditure of) a vast amount of money from his own treasury and in not too long a time made the dam three times as strong in breadth and length . . . . . . . . [on] all [banks] . . . . . . (and so) had (this lake) made (even) more beautiful to look at.
  • (L. 16.) When in this matter the Mahakshatrapa's counsellors and executive officers, who though fully endowed with the qualifications of ministers, were averse to a task (regarded as) futile on account of the enormous extent of the breach, opposed the commencement (of the work), (and) when the people in their despair of having the dam rebuilt were loudly lamenting, (the work) was carried out by the minister Suvishakha, the son of Kulaipa, a Pahlava, who for the benefit of the inhabitants of the towns and country bad been appointed by the king in this government to rule the whole of Anarta and Surashtra, (a minister) who by his proper dealings and views in things temporal and spiritual increased the attachment (of the people), who was able, patient, not wavering, not arrogant, upright (and) not to be bribed, (and) who by his good government increased the spiritual merit, fame and glory of his master.

Source: Epigraphia Indica, Vol. VIII. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, 1905-6, 45-49.

Junagadh Rock Inscription of Skandagupta A.D. 455, 456 and 457

Gupta Years 136, 137 and 138 (=A.D. 455, 456 and 457)
First Part.
  • Perfection has been attained! Victorious is he, (the god) Vishnu,-the perpetual abode of the (goddess) Lakshmî, whose dwelling is the waterlily; the conqueror of distress; the completely victorious one,-who, for the sake of the happiness of (Indra) the lord of the gods, seized back from (the demon) Bali the goddess of wealth and splendour, who is admitted to be worthy of enjoyment, (and) who had been kept away from him for a very long time!
  • (Line 2.)-And next, victorious for ever is the supreme king of kings over kings, whose breast is embraced by the goddess of wealth and splendour; who has developed heroism by (the strength of his) arms; and who plucked (and utilised) the authority of (his local) representatives, who were so many Garudas, (and used it as) an antidote against the (hostile) kings, who were so many serpents, lifting up their hoods in pride and arrogance; Skandagupta, of great glory, the abode of kingly qualities, who, when (his) father by his own power had attained the position of being a friend of the gods, bowed down his enemies and made subject to himself the (whole) earth, bounded by the waters of the for oceans, (and) full of thriving countries round the borders of it;-whose fame, moreover, even (his) enemies, in the countries of the Mlêchchhas . . . . . . . . . . . . having (their) pride broken down to the very root, announce with the words- "verily the victory has been achieved by him;"-(and) whom the goddess of fortune and splendour of her own accord selected as her husband, having in succession (and) with judgment skillfully taken into consideration and thought over all the causes of virtues and faults, (and) having discarded all (the other) sons of kings (as not coming up to her standard).
  • (L. 5.)-While he, the king, is reigning, verily no man among his subjects falls away from religion; (and) there is no one who is distressed, (or) in poverty, (or) in misery, (or) avaricious, or who, worthy of punishment, is over-much put to torture.
  • (L. 6.)-Thus having conquered the whole earth, (and) having destroyed the height of the pride of (his) enemies, (and) having appointed protectors in all the countries, he cogitated in many ways,- "Among all my servants put together, who is there, who--suitable; endowed with intellect; modest; possessed of a disposition that is not destitute of wisdom and memory; endowed with truth, straightforwardness, nobility, and prudent behaviour; and possessed of sweetness, civility, and fame;-loyal ; affectionate; endowed with manly characteristics; and possessed of a mind that (has been tried and) is (found to be) pure by all the tests of honesty; possessed of an inner soul pervaded by (the inclination for) the acquittance of debts and obligations; occupied with the welfare of all mankind; capable both in the lawful acquisition of wealth, and also in the preservation of it, when acquired, and further in causing the increase of it, when protected, (and able) to dispense it on worthy objects, when it has been increased,-shall govern all my (countries of the) Surâshtras? I have it; (there is) just one man, Parnadatta competent to bear this burden."


  • (L. 9.)-(And it was this same Parnadatta) who, with pressing (and) with difficulty, was appointed by the lord of kings, who had thus deliberated in his mind for many days and nights, to protect in a proper manner the land of the Surâshtras. (And) just as the gods became comfortable, (and) not disturbed in mind, when they had appointed Varuna to the western point of the compass, so the king was easy at heart, when he had appointed Parnadatta over the region of the west.
  • (L. 10.)-His son,-possessed of a filial disposition; his own self, as it were, reduplicated; well trained by self-control; worthy to be protected, as if it were his own self, by the all-pervading spirit; always self-possessed; endowed with a naturally beautiful form; having a disposition the whole of which was always pervaded with joy through a variety of charming actions that were in accordance with (his) beauty; having a waterlily of a face that resembled a bed of waterlilies in full bloom; the refuge of men who came to him for protection,-was this same one who is renowned on the earth under the name of Chakrapâlita; who is beloved of the people; and who confers distinction upon (his) father by his own noble qualities which are everything except unpolished :-
  • (L. 11.)-In whom all these qualities dwell to a marked degree, (and) without eves wandering away (from him),-.viz. patience; lordship; modesty; and good behaviour; and heroism without (too) great an estimation of prowess; eloquence (?); self-control; liberality; and high-spiritedness; civility; the acquittance of debts and obligations; and freedom from empty-headedness; beauty; and reprobation of things that are not right; absence of astonishment; firmness; and generosity. Even in the whole world there is no one to be found, in whom a comparison with his virtues may be made; verily he has become, in all entireness, the standard of comparison for men who are endowed with virtuous qualities.
  • (L. 12.)-(And it was he) who was appointed by (his) father, after testing in person (the existence in him of) these same qualities mentioned above, and higher ones even than them; and who then accomplished the protection of (this) city in a way that quite distinguished him above his predecessors. Relying upon the process of his own two excellent arms (?), not on the pride of any other man, he subjected no one in this city to any anxiety; and he punished wicked people. Even in this time which is a mean one, he failed not to maintain confidence in the people, together with the inhabitants of the city; and, by carefully inquiring into faults, he has charmed all the citizens, together with . . . . . . . . . and children. And he has made (his) subjects happy by conversations addressed with smiles, and marks of honour, and presents; by free and reciprocal entering into (each other's) houses; (and) by carefully nourishing the family ceremonies of affection. Endowed with the highest piety, affable, pure, (and) in a suitable manner devoted to charity, he has, even without any conflict between religion and wealth, applied himself to such pleasures as may be attained at the proper time. What wonder is there in the fact that he, [born] from Parnadatta, is possessed of such proper behaviour?; can heat ever be produced from the moon, which is cold like a string of pearls or like a waterlily?
  • (L. 15.)-Then, in due course of time, there came the season of clouds, bursting asunder with (its) clouds the season of heat, when much water rained down unceasingly for a long time; by reason of which (the lake) Sudarshana suddenly burst,-making the calculation in the reckoning of the Guptas, in a century of years, increased by thirty and also six more, at night, on the sixth day of (the month) Praushthapada. And these (other rivers) which take their source from (the mountain) Raivataka, (and also) this Palâshini, beautiful with (its) sandy stretches,-(all of them) the mistresses of the ocean,-having dwelt so long in captivity, went again, in due accordance with the scriptures, to their lord (the sea). (And) having noticed the great bewilderment, caused by the excess of rain, (the mountain) Ûrjayat, desirous of appropriating the wives of the mighty ocean, stretched forth as it were a hand, consisting of the river Palâshinî, decorated with the numerous flowers that grew on the edges of (its) banks.
  • (L. 17.)-[Then on all sides] the people fell into despair, discussing how they should act; and, spending the whole night awake in vain, in great anxiety they reflected,- "Here in a moment, (the lake) Sudarshana has (by the overflowing of its waters) assumed an unpleasing appearance towards all the people, (as if it were) a man (?); having the appearance of the ocean, quite full of water, can it ever (again) become pleasing of aspect, . . . . . . . ?"
  • (L. 18.)- . . . . . . . . . . . . he having become . . . . . . . . . . . . and displaying the height of devotion towards his father, (and) holding in full view, for the welfare of the king and of the city also, religion, which has such auspicious results,-in a century of years, increased by thirty and seven others also,. . . . . . . . . attentive to the sacred writings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . whose majesty is well known. Then, having sacrificed to the gods with oblations of clarified butter and with obeisances; and having gratified the twice-born with (presents of) riches; and having paid respect to the citizens with such honours as they deserved, and to such of (his) servants as were worthy of notice, and to (his) friends with presents,-in the first fortnight of the month . . . . . . belonging to the hot season, on the first day, he, having practised (all the above) respectful observances for two months, made an immeasurable expenditure of wealth, and, [built an embankment] a hundred cubits in all in length, and sixty and eight in breadth, and seven (?) men's height in elevation, . . . . . . . . . . . . of two hundred cubits. (Thus), having done honour to the kings, he laboriously built up, with a great masonry work, properly constructed, the lake Sudarshana, which is renowned as not being evil by nature, so that it should last for all eternity,-agitated by the defiances of the ruddy-geese which display (their) beauty along the edges of the firmly-built embankment, and by the settling down (in its waters) of the herons and the swans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pure waters; on the earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the sun and the moon.
  • (L. 23.)-And may the city become prosperous; full of inhabitants; cleansed from sin by prayers sung by many hundreds of Brâhmans; [and free from] drought and famine for a hundred years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [Thus] ends the composition of the description of the restoration of (the lake) Sudarshana.
Second Part.
  • (L. 24.)- . . . . . . . . . . . . of him (Skandagupta), who destroyed the pride of (his) haughty enemies; who is of great glory; who is the banner of his lineage; who is the lord of the whole earth; whose pious deeds are even more wonderful than his supreme sovereignty over kings; . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • (L. 24.)- . . . . . . . . . . . . (Parnadatta), the protector of the island, and the leader of great . . . . . . . . of armies for the subjugation of (his) enemies.
  • (L. 25.)-By his son, who is endowed with his own good qualities, (and) whose life is devoted to (the worship of) the feet of (the god) Gôvinda, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -by him, who causes the citizens to bow down by his own prowess, having there attained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and the feet, which are like waterlilies, of (the god) Vishnu, with a great expenditure of wealth and time [there was built a temple] of that famous (god Vishnu) who carries the discus, . . . . . . . . . . . . enemies, (and) who became (incarnate and) human by the exercise of his own free will. (Thus) by Chakrapâlita, who is of a straightforward mind, there has been caused to be built a temple of (the god) Chakrabhrit, in a century of years, together with the thirty-eighth ( year), . . . . . . . . . . . . the time of the Guptas.
  • (L. 27.)- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uprisen, as it were, of the mountain Ûrjayat', shines as if displaying (its) lordship on the forehead of the city.
  • (L. 28.)-And another . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . on the forehead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . obstructing the path of the birds, is resplendent . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • Source: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 61-65.

Temples and other sacred places

The traveller, in order to reach Girnar Taleti from Junagadh city, will pass through the Wagheshwari or Vagheshwari Gate [Girnar Darwaza], which is close to the Uparkot fort area, Easterly.

At about 200 metres from the gate, to the right of the road, is the Temple of Wagheshwari (Upale Vagheshwari maa), which is joined to the road by a causeway about 150 yards long. An ancient Verai Mata mandir and a modern Gayatri Shakti Peeth mandir are nearby.

About a furlong beyond this is a stone bridge, and just beyond it on the right are the Ashoka's Major Rock Edicts.[11] The edicts are inscribed high up on a large, domed mass of black granite measuring roughly 20 feet x 30 feet. The inscription is in Brahmi script. On the same rock can be found an inscription of the Western Satrap ruler Rudradaman, the Junagadh rock inscription of Rudradaman.

On leaving Ashoka's edicts, the route crosses the handsome bridge over the Sona-rekha, which here forms a fine sheet of water over golden sand, then passes a number of temples, at first on the left bank of the river and then on the right, to the largest of the temples. This is dedicated to Damodar, a name of Krishna, from Dam, a rope, because by tradition his mother in vain attempted to confine him with a rope when a child. The reservoir, Damodar Kund, at this place is accounted very sacred.[12]

Next is an old shrine of Bhavnath, a form of Shiva, close to Girnar Taleti; Mrigi kund and Sudharshan lake are nearby.

Most persons who are not active climbers will probably proceed up the mountain in a swing doli from Taleti. A long ridge runs up from the west, and culminates in a rugged scarped rock, on the top of which are the temples. Close to the old shrine is a well called the Chadani vav. [13]

The paved way begins just beyond this and continues for two-thirds of the ascent. The first resthouse, Chadia Parab, is reached, 480 feet, above the plain; and the second halting-place at Dholi-deri, 1000 feet above the plain. From here the ascent becomes more difficult, winding under the face of the precipice to the third resthouse, 1400 feet up. The path turns to the right along the edge of a precipice, which is very narrow, so that the doli almost grazes the scarp, which rises perpendicularly 200 feet above the traveller. On the right is seen the lofty mountain of Datar, covered with low jungle. At about 1500 feet there is a stone dharmsala, and from this there is a fine view of the rock called the Bhairav-Thampa, "the terrific leap," because devotees used to cast themselves from its top, falling 1000 feet or more.[14]

At 2370 feet above Junagadh the gate of the enclosure known as the Deva Kota, or Ra Khengar's Palace, is reached.[15]

गिरिनगर

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[16] ने लेख किया है ... गिरिनगर (जिला जूनागढ़, गुजरात) (AS, p.288) - वर्तमान गिरनार का ही प्राचीन नाम है. इसका उल्लेख रुद्रदामन् के प्रसिद्ध अभिलेख में है--'इदं तडाकं सुदर्शनं गिरिनगरादपि' (दे. गिरनार)

उज्जयंत

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[17] ने लेख किया है ... उज्जयंत (AS, p.87) सौराष्ट्र, काठियावाड़ के जूनागढ़ के समीप स्थित गिरनार पर्वत का एक नाम है। महाभारत के अंतर्गत सौराष्ट्र के जिन तीर्थों का वर्णन धौम्य ऋषि ने किया है उसमें उज्जयंत पर्वत भी है- 'तत्र पिंडारकं नाम तापसाचरितं शिवम्। उज्जयन्तश्च शिखर: क्षिप्र सिद्धकरो महान्' (वन पर्व महाभारत 88,21) जान पड़ता है कि उज्जयंत रैवतक पर्वत का ही नाम था। वर्तमान गिरनार (जूनागढ़, काठियावाड़)आदि इसी पर्वत पर स्थित हैं। महाभारत के समय द्वारका के निकट होने से इस पर्वत की महत्ता बढ़ गई थी। मंडलीक काव्य में कहा गया है- 'शिखरत्रय भेदेन नाम भेदमगादसौ, उज्जयन्तो रैवतक: कुमुदश्चेति भूधर:'। रुद्रदामन् के गिरनार अभिलेख में इसे ऊर्जयन् कहा गया है। (देखें- गिरनार)

गिरनार परिचय

गिरनार गुजरात में जूनागढ़ के निकट एक पर्वत का नाम है। गिरनार की पहाड़ियों से पश्चिम और पूर्व दिशा में भादस, रोहजा, शतरूंजी और घेलो नदियां बहती हैं। इन पहाड़ियों पर मुख्यतः भील और डुबला लोगों का निवास है। एशियाई सिंहों के लिए विख्यात 'गिर वन राष्ट्रीय उद्यान' इसी क्षेत्र में स्थित है। खंबलिया, धारी विसावदर, मेंदरदा और आदित्याणा यहाँ के प्रमुख नगर हैं।[18]

गिरनार में इतिहास प्रसिद्ध अभिलेख

Sanskrit Text of Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman 120 AD

"सिद्धम्। इदं तडाकं सुदर्शनं गिरिनगरादपिदू-मृत्तिकोपलविस्तारायामोच्छयनि:संधिबद्धदृढ़सर्वपालीकत्वात् पर्वतपादप्रतिस्पर्धि सुश्लिष्टवंधं-मवजातेनाकृत्रिमेण सेतुबंधेनोपपन्नं सुप्रतिविहृत प्रणालीपरीबाहमीढ़विधानं च त्रिस्कंधं नादिभिरनुग्रहै महेत्युपचये वर्तते। तदिदं राज्ञो महाक्षत्रपस्य सुगृहीतनाम्न: स्वामिचष्टनपौत्रस्य राज्ञ: क्षत्रपस्य जयदान्न: पुत्रस्य राज्ञो महाक्षत्रपस्य गुरुभिरभ्यस्तनाम्नो रुद्रदाम्नोवर्षे द्विसप्ततितमे 702 मार्गशीर्ष बहुल प्रतिपदायां सृष्टवृष्टिना पर्जन्येनैकार्णवभूतायामिव पृथिव्यां कृतायां गिरेरूर्जयत: सुवर्णसिकतापलाशिनीप्रभृतीनां नदीनामति मात्रोदृवृत्तैर्वेगै: सेतुम-यमाणा-नुरूप प्रतिकारमपि-गिरशिखर तरुतटाट्टाल कोपतल्प द्वारशरणोच्छय विध्वंसिना युगनिवनसद्दशपरमघोरवेगेन वायुना प्रमथित सलिल विक्षिप्त जर्जरी कृताव क्षिप्ताश्म वृक्षगुल्म लताप्रतान मनदी तलादित्युद्धाटित मासीत्। चत्वारि हस्तशतानि विंशदुत्तराण्यायतेनैतावन्त्ये व विस्तीर्णने पंच सप्तहस्तानवगाढन भेदेन नि:सृत सर्व तीर्थ मरुधन्वकल्प मतिभृशं दुदर्शनं-स्यार्थे मौर्यस्य राज्ञ: चन्द्रगुप्तस्य राष्ट्रियेण वैश्येन पुष्पगुप्तेन कारितमशोकस्य मौर्यस्य कृते यवनराजेन तुषास्फेनाधिष्टाय प्रणाली भिरलंकृत तत्कारितया च राजानुरूप कृतविधानया तस्मिन भेदे दृष्टया प्रणाड्या विस्तृत सेतुणा गर्भात् प्रभृत्यविहित समुदित राजलक्ष्मी धारणागुणत: सर्ववर्णेरभिगम्य रक्षणार्थ पतित्वे वृतेना प्राणोच्छवासात् पुरुषवध निवृति कृतसत्यप्रतिज्ञेनान्यत्र संग्रामेष्वभिमुखागत सदृश शत्रु प्रहरण वितरण त्वादिगुज रिपु-धृतकारुण्येन स्वयमभिगत जनपद प्रणिपतितायुष शरणदेन दस्युव्याल मृगरोगादिभिरनु पसृष्ट पूर्व नगरनिगम जनपदानां स्ववीर्यार्जितानामनुरक्त सर्वप्रकृतीनां पूर्वापराकरा वन्त्यनूपनी वृदानर्त सुराष्ट्र श्वभ्रभरुकच्छ सिंधु सौवीर कुकुरापरान्त निषादादीनां समग्रणां तत्प्रभावाद्य र्थ काम विषयाणां विषयाणां पतिना सर्वक्षत्राविष्कृतवीर शब्द जातोत्सेक विधेयानां यौयेयानां प्रसह्योत्सादकेन दक्षिणापथपते: सातकर्णे द्विरपि निर्व्याज मवजित्यावजित्य संबंधाबिदूरतयानुत्सादना त्प्राप्तयशसा माप्त विजयेन भ्रष्ट राजप्रतिष्ठापकेन यथार्थहस्तोच्छ्रयार्जितो-र्जितधर्मानुरागेण शब्दार्थ गांधर्वन्ययाद्यानां विद्यानां महतीनां पारण धारण विज्ञान प्रयोगावाप्त बिपुलकीर्तिना तुरग गज रथ चर्यासि चर्म नियुद्धाद्या परबल लाघवसौष्ठव क्रिपेणाहर हर्दानमाना नवमानशीलेन स्थूललक्षेण यथावत् प्राप्तैर्बलिशुल्क भागै: कनक रजतवज्र वडूर्य रत्नोपचय विष्यन्दमान कोशेन स्फुटलघु मधुर चित्रकान्त शब्द समयोहारालंकृत गद्यपद्य-न प्रमाणमानोन्मान स्वर गतिवर्ण सारस त्यादिभि: परमलक्षणं व्यंजनै रुपेतकान्तमूर्तिना स्वयमधिगत-महाक्षत्रप नाम्ना नरेन्द्र कन्या स्वयंवरानेक माल्यप्राप्त दाम्ना महाक्षत्रपेण रुद्रदाम्ना वर्ष सहस्त्राय गोव्राह्य-व धर्मकीर्ति वृद्धयर्थ चापीडयित्वा करविष्टि प्रणयक्रियाभि: पौरजनपदं जनं स्वस्मात्कोशान्महता धनौघेनानति महता च कालेन त्रिगुण दृढतर विस्तारायामं सेतुं विधाय सर्व तटे सुदर्शन वरं कारितम्। अस्मिन्नर्थे महाक्षत्रपस्य मति सचिवकर्म सचिवैरमात्य गुण समुद्युक्तैरप्यति महत्वाद् भेदस्यानुत्साह विमुख मतिभि: प्रत्याख्यातारंभं पुन: सेतुवंधनै राश्याद्धाहा भूतासु प्रजास्विहाघिष्ठाने पौरजानपदजनानुग्रहार्थ पार्थिवेन कृत्स्नानामानर्त सुराष्ट्राणां पालनार्थ नियुक्तेन पह्लवेन कुलैपपुत्रेणामात्येन सुविशाखेन यथावदर्थधर्म व्यवहार दर्शनैरनुरागम बिवर्धयता शक्तेन दान्तेना चपला विस्मितेनार्येणाहर्येण स्वधितिष्ठता धर्मकीर्ति यशांसि भर्तुरभिवर्धयतानुष्ठितामिति।"

Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman 120 AD[19]

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[20] ने लेख किया है ...[p.285]: गिरनार का प्राचीन नाम 'गिरिनगर' था। महाभारत में उल्लिखित रेवतक पर्वत की क्रोड़ में बसा हुआ प्राचीन तीर्थ स्थल। पहाड़ी की ऊंची चोटी पर कई जैन मंदिर है। यहां की चढ़ाई बड़ी कठिन है। गिरिशिखर तक पहुंचने के लिए सात हज़ार सीढ़ियाँ हैं। इन मंदिरों में सर्वप्रचीन, गुजरात नेरश कुमारपाल के समय का बना हुआ है। दूसरा वास्तुपाल और तेजपाल नामक भाइयों ने बनवाया था। इसे तीर्थंकर मल्लिनाथ का मंदिर कहते हैं। यह विक्रम संवत् 1288 (1237 ई.) में [p.286]:बना था। तीसरा मंदिर नेमिनाथ का है, जो 1277 ई. के लगभग तैयार हुआ था। यह सबसे अधिक विशाल और भव्य है।

प्रचीन काल में इन मंदिरों की शोभा बहुत अधिक थी, क्योंकि इनमें सभामंडप, स्तंभ, शिखर, गर्भगृह आदि स्वच्छ संगमरमर से निर्मित होने के कारण बहुत चमकदार और सुंदर दिखते थे। अब अनेकों बार मरम्मत होने से इनका स्वाभाविक सोंदर्य कुछ फीका पड़ गया है। पर्वत पर दत्तात्रेय का मंदिर और गोमुखी गंगा है, जो हिन्दुओं का तीर्थ है। जैनों का तीर्थ गजेंद्र पदकुंड भी पर्वत शिखर पर अवस्थित है।

रुद्रदामन् का 120 ई. का अभिलेख: गिरनार में कई इतिहास प्रसिद्ध अभिलेख मिले हैं। पहाड़ी की तलहटी में एक वृहत् चट्टान पर अशोक की मुख्य धर्मलिपियाँ 1-14 उत्कीर्ण हैं, जो ब्राह्मी लिपि और पाली भाषा में हैं। इसी चट्टान पर क्षत्रप रुद्रदामन् का, लगभग 120 ई. में उत्कीर्ण, प्रसिद्ध संस्कृत अभिलेख है। इनमें पाटलिपुत्र के चंद्रगुप्त मौर्य तथा परवर्ती राजाओं द्वारा निर्मित तथा जीर्णोंद्धारित सुदर्शन झील और विष्णु मंदिर का सुंदर वर्णन है। यह लेख संस्कृत काव्य शैली के विकास के अध्ययन के लिए महत्वपूर्ण समझा जाता है। यह अभिलेख साथ के बॉक्स में दिया है.

स्कंदगुप्त का 458 ई. का अभिलेख: इसी अभिलेख की चट्टान पर 458 ई. का गुप्त सम्राट स्कन्दगुप्त के समय का भी एक अभिलेख अंकित है। इसमें स्कंदगुप्त द्वारा नियुक्त सुराष्ट्र के तत्कालीनराष्ट्रिक पर्णदत्त का उल्लेख है। पर्णदत्त के पुत्र चक्रपालित ने जो गिरिनगर का शासक था, सुदर्शन तड़ाग के सेतु या बांध का जीर्णोद्धार करवाया, क्योंकि यह स्कंदगुप्त के राज्याभिषेक के वर्ष में जल के वेग से नष्ट हो गया था। इन अभिलेखों से प्रमाणित होता है कि हमारे इतिहास के सुदूर अतीत में भी राज्य द्वारा नदियों पर बांध बनाकर किसानों के लिए कृषि एवं सिंचाई के साधन जुटाने को दीर्घकालीन प्रथा थी। जैन ग्रंथ विविधतीर्थकल्प में वर्णित है कि गिरनार सब पर्वतों में श्रेष्ठ है, क्योंकि यह तीर्थंकर नेमिनाथ से सम्बंधित है।


रुद्रदामन के जूनागढ़ लेख से ज्ञात होता है कि सम्राट अशोक के समय तुशाष्प नामक अधीनस्थ यवन राज्यपाल के रूप में सौराष्ट्र पर शासन करता था। गिरनार की एक पहाड़ी की तलहटी में अशोक के शिलालेख (तीसरी शताब्दी ई. पू.) से युक्त एक चट्टान है। मौर्य शासक चंद्रगुप्त (चौथी शताब्दी ई. पू. का उत्तरार्ध) द्वारा सुदर्शन नामक झील बनाए जाने का उल्लेख भी इसी शिलालेख में मिलता है। इन दो महत्त्वपूर्ण ऐतिहासिक प्रमाणों के आस-पास की पहाड़ियों पर सोलंकी वंश (961-1242) के राजाओं द्वारा बनवाए गए कई जैन मंदिर स्थित हैं।

In Mahabharata

Mahabharata mentions:

Raivata (रैवत) (XIII.116.67), (XIII.115),

Raivataka (रैवतक) (M) (I.221.1), (I.221),


Anusasana Parva/Book XIII Chapter 116 mentions List of Kings who had abstained from flesh in Karttika month. Raivata (रैवत) is mentioned in verse (XIII.116.67) [21]


Adi Parva Mahabharata Book 1 Chapter 211 mentions Raivataka mountain festival of Bhojas, Vrishnis and Andhakas. Raivataka (रैवतक) mountain is mentioned in verse (I.221.1). [22]

External links

References

  1. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.501
  2. Murray, John (1911). "A handbook for travellers in India, Burma, and Ceylon". Internet Archive. pp. 155–157.
  3. Keay, John (2000). India, a History. New York, United States: Harper Collins Publishers. pp. 129–131.
  4. Keay, John (2000). India, a History. New York, United States: Harper Collins Publishers. pp. 129–131.
  5. "Roof over Ashoka rock edicts in Junagadh crashes". The Times of India. 19 July 2014.
  6. "Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman", Project South Asia.
  7. Tej Ram Sharma:Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions,p. 171
  8. Projectsouthasia.sdstate.edu. http://projectsouthasia.sdstate.edu/Docs/HISTORY/PRIMARYDOCS/EPIGRAPHY/JunagadhRockInscription.htm.
  9. Junagadh rock inscription.[Projectsouthasia.sdstate.edu. http://projectsouthasia.sdstate.edu/Docs/HISTORY/PRIMARYDOCS/EPIGRAPHY/JunagadhRockInscription.htm Geographical interpretations in parenthesis from Rapson.[Rapson, "Indian coins of the British Museum" p.lx ]
  10. Sanskrit Text has Bharukachchha भरुकच्छ Laxman Burdak (talk) 07:09, 29 December 2018 (UTC)
  11. Murray, John (1911). "A handbook for travellers in India, Burma, and Ceylon". Internet Archive. pp. 155–157.
  12. Murray, John (1911). "A handbook for travellers in India, Burma, and Ceylon". Internet Archive. pp. 155–157.
  13. Murray, John (1911). "A handbook for travellers in India, Burma, and Ceylon". Internet Archive. pp. 155–157.
  14. Murray, John (1911). "A handbook for travellers in India, Burma, and Ceylon". Internet Archive. pp. 155–157.
  15. Murray, John (1911). "A handbook for travellers in India, Burma, and Ceylon". Internet Archive. pp. 155–157.
  16. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.288
  17. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.87
  18. भारतकोश-गिरनार
  19. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.285-287
  20. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.285-287
  21. शयेनचित्रेण राजेन्द्र सॊमकेन वृकेण च, रैवतेन रन्ति देवेन वसुना सृञ्जयेन च (XIII.116.67)
  22. ततः कतिपयाहस्य तस्मिन रैवतके गिरौ, वृष्ण्यन्धकानाम अभवत सुमहान उत्सवॊ नृप (I.221.1)