Unmattavanti

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Unmattavanti (उन्मत्तवन्ति) (937-939)[1] was an Utpal clan ruler of Kashmir in 10th century. He was son of Raja Parth.

Genealogy of Utpala dynasty

The Genealogy of Utpala dynasty is: Utpalaka or UtpalaSukhavarmanAvantivarman (855) → Shankaravarman (A.D. 883 to 901) → Raja Parth (S/O Nirjjitavarmma) → Unmattavanti (937 AD) (S/O Partha) → Gopalavarman (S/O Shankaravarman)

History

In Rajatarangini[2] it is written that Sharvata and other ministers then raised Unmattavanti son of the wicked Partha to the throne. This king was worse than his predecessor. Sarasvati stops here in fear of contamination by narrating the sinful acts of this king, but I shall lead her as one leads a frightened mare. This monster was the destroyer of his father's line. He used to strike his Ministers on their heads, and those who could produce sounds by their noses became his chief ministers. The shameless ministers used to please him by flattery &c., and those ministers in time became kings. Parvvagupta became the king's greatest favourite by dancing naked in the court. Since the revolution


[p.136]: caused by the Tantris, kings, as Parvvagupta perceived, had become powerless, and he aspired to the sovereignty. He contracted friendship with minister Bhubhata, and the four principal ministers Sharvata, Chhoja, Kumuda and Amritakara who were robbing the treasury with the intention of becoming kings. The king made Rakka of celebrated valor his chief minister. The king had witnessed in a battle the singular prowess of this man, then fighting on foot. Rakka saw the goddess Shri in the tank neer the window of the house of Sangrama, the Damara chief; and he raised an image of the same shape as he had seen, and named it Rakkajāyā.

Guided by the advice of Parvvagupta who wished to clear the country of all enemies, and then to usurp it, the king began to destroy his kindred. He plundered his father Partha who was supported with his family by the gifts of the beggars of Jayendravihara where he resided. The king closed up the doors of tho room where Shankaravarmma and his infant brothers were, and thus starved them to death. He then intended to murder his father ; and gave gifts of clothes &c. to some of his ministers who favored his view, the rest he confined with chains. One night according to the king's orders, Partha was surrounded by ministers, captains, Tantris and Kayasthas. They shut the door and murdered his wife, and also murdered her infants weeping and embracing their mother. The Minister Kumuda and other favourites of the king; dragged Partha by the hair, naked


[p.137]: over the gravel which cut Ins body, and murdered him helpless, unarmed and naked, lean for want of food, and crying. The king heard the news of his father's death, and on the morning went to the spot out of curiosity accompanied by his ministers, and was glad to see the occurrence of tho previous night. The courtiers prided , themselves and pointed out the wounds -which each of them had inflicted. With, the king's permission, Parvvagupta told his son Devagupta to paint the king with his father's blood whereupon the young man sent a knife into the dead man's limbs and the blood spouted out and smeared the person of the king. This made the king laugh long.

After the murder of Chakravarmma the Damaras plundered the country. The king again raised the wicked Kayasthas, who oppressed the country, to high posts. Advised by evil ministers, he learnt the use of arms by striking off the breasts of prostitutes. Ha ripped open the wombs of pregnant women to see the fetus, and he hacked the limbs of blacksmiths, in order to try their strength. Brahmanas accepted from him gifts of villages, either through avarice or through fear of life.

The king was attacked with consumption, a disease befitting his cruelty ; and he suffered great pain as long as he lived. Not only wore his subjects glad of his death, but so also were his fourteen queens. The Jung died during summer of the year 15.

A feudling was then seated on the throne, and he was falsely declared by the female servants of the zenana to


[p.138]: be the son of tho king, and was named Shuravarmma. This infant was placed in charge of tho ministers, the Tantris, the Ekanggas and the captains. Kamalabardhana lord of Kampana, who was then residing at Madava, and who alone was capable of subduing tho Damaras, was the enemy of the late king. On the 7th bright lunar day of A'shada, the king set out to visit Jayasvsvami. Kamalabardhana informed of the fact by his spies, took this opportunity to approach the capital with his captains; and besieged it with the Ekanggas and Tantris. His army had been wearied in subduing the Damaras, in the way, but were still able to overcome the enemy here. They deputed one thousand horse of the enemy with a smaller number of their cavalry, and entered the city unopposed.

Hearing of this defeat the soldiers deserted the infant king ; and his mother fled with him. The victorious prince either through sins of past life, or through the evil council of the bad ministers, did not ascend the throne. He retired to his own house wishing to be coronated some other day. Afterwards he collected the Brahmaua, and asked them to select some countryman of theirs, young and worthy to be their king, expecting foolishly that they would select him. Who is more to be pitied than he who finds some rare and beautiful woman alone and without enjoying her then, sends a female messenger for her in a subsequent day ; or he who leaving suddenly got wealth, wishes to acquire it on a subsequent day by fair means. The Brahmanas covered with thick


[p.139]: blankets, looking like hornless bulls, and with their beards burnt with smokes, met at Gokula. And now that the line of Utpala, was extinct, they began to discuss as to whom they would select. But on account of difference of opinion they could not bathe (coronate) any one, except their mutual beards with spitting ( the effect of hot discussion.) Kamalabardhana appeared before them in order to remind the Brahmanas of his claims but they pelted at him. During the five or six days that they passed in discussion, there came many courtiers to the Brahmanas with many followers and loud music and with banners and umbrellas in their carriages. Kamalabardhana now repented.

The widow of the late king who had murdered his father, sent officers to the Brahmanas to urge the claims of her infant son (who had lately been dethroned by Kamalabardhana,) whom she had been concealing. Viradeva had a son named Kāmadeva in the village Pishachakapura. This Kamadeva bore a good character, and used to teach boys in the house of Meruvardhana. In time he became the treasurer, and his son Prabhakara soon became the treasurer of king Shangkaravarmma. Prabhakara who was the paramour of queen Sugandha died in tho sabsequeut revolution. His son Yashaskara became very poor, and went out of the country with his friend Phalgunaka; but dreaming a good dream he returned to his country hopeful. The messenger who were sent by the widow of the parricide, selected him, and sent


[p.140]: him, because of his eloquence, to the Brahmanas. But no sooner had the Brahmanas seen him, than they all of a sudden cried out loudly — " let this be king," and they soon, bathed him king. Providence ordains, that when the bamboo forest is burnt up by forest flame, the roots are saved by a shower. When a tree is blown down by the wind, the roots are preserved being embedded in rooks. If the son of Partha guided by his servants had not destroyed his own line, if Kamala-vardhana had not upset the grandson of Partha, how could Yashaskara, the beggar wandering about the country, become king? The people crowded in the streets to see him king, whom they had once seen going on foot alone like a common man. On his way towards the palace, he heard the blessings of gazelle-eyed women without feeling pride ; and he entered the palace surrounded by sun-like white umbrellas, and things made of silver looking like moon and stars, and hearing the blessings of women with which the palace was resounding. Thus he commenced to reign.

उत्पल - उप्पल गोत्र का इतिहास

कैप्टन दलीप सिंह अहलावत[3] ने उत्पल-उप्पल गोत्र का इतिहास वर्णन इस प्रकार किया है।

अवन्तिवर्मन: इस उत्पल जाट राजवंश का महाराजा अवन्तिवर्मन कश्मीर नरेश सम्वत् 912 (855 ई०) में सम्पूर्ण डोगरा प्रदेश पर शासन करता था।

शंकरवर्मन: उसके पश्चात् इसके पुत्र राजा शंकरवर्मन शासक हुए, जिसके पास एक लाख घुड़सवार, 9 लाख पैदल सैनिक और 300 हाथियों की सेना थी। इसने विक्रमी संवत् 959 (902 ई०) तक अनेक विजययात्राओं में मन्दिरों को भी लूटा।

राजा पार्थ: इसके पुत्र राजा पार्थ के शासनकाल में अकाल के कारण मरने वालों की लाशों से जेहलम नदी का जल देर तक श्रीनगर को दुर्गन्धित किए रहा था। इस राजा पार्थ ने प्रजा से साधारण ऊंचे दर पर सम्पूर्ण अनाज मोल लेकर सैंकड़ों गुने ऊंचे दर से बेचा। उसने बड़ी प्रसन्नतायुक्त उत्सुकता से अपने महलों के पास दम तोड़ते अपनी प्रजा को देखा।

उन्मत्तवन्ति: वि० सम्वत् 994 (937 ई०) में इसके पुत्र उन्मत्तवन्ति ने तो क्रूरताओं की एक ऐसी सीमा स्थिर की जिसे अभी तक कोई न लांघ सका। इन अत्याचारों व क्रूरता के कारण इस राजवंश का अन्त हो गया।

जाटों और खत्रियों में इस वंश की समान रूप से संख्या है। वीर योद्धा हरीसिंह नलवा इसी वंश के महापुरुष थे (इसकी जीवनी देखो, पंजाब केसरी महाराजा रणजीतसिंह प्रकरण)।

उत्पल जाटों ने बीकानेर के पास बड़ी खाटू के समीप पलाना गांव बसाया। उस गांव के बाद अन्य स्थानों पर बसने वाले उन जाटों ने अपना परिचय पिलानिया नाम से देना आरम्भ कर दिया।

इस वंश का बांहपुर बहुत ऊंचा घराना है, जो कुचेसर भरतपुर के वैवाहिक सम्बन्धों से जातीय जगत् में विशेष प्रसिद्ध हुआ। यहां के राजा कर्णसिंह ने वैधानिक रीति से ऊंचा गांव इस्टेट की स्थापना की। वहां पर कुं० सुरेन्द्रपालसिंह जी (बहनोई महाराजा भरतपुर) ने एक नया किला और दर्शनीय राजमहल बनवाया। उप्पल-उत्पल जाटों की सिक्खों में बहुसंख्या है।

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References


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