Kampana

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Kampana was an ancient Kingdom in Kashmir.

Origin

History

In Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[1] mentions that ....At this time Tribhuvana the powerful lord of Kampana came with the Damaras to usurp the kingdom. Though a large part of the royal army joined the rebel, the cavalry and the Ekanggas remained faithful to the king. In the battle which ensued the gallant king evaded his enemy's blow and struck Tribhuvana. Though protected with a strong iron mail which saved his life, Tribhuvana vomited blood, and fled. (VII,p.179)


Rajatarangini[2] mentions that ....The patient Tilaka, lord of Kampana, of the family of Kaka, was alone able to pursue him to the peak where he had taken shelter. Thus pressed by Tilaka, Garga sent his wife to his daughter [who was married to the king] and received the good will of the king who hid his anger in his assumed kindness. (p.51)


Rajatarangini[3] mentions that ....Now Vijaya slowly brought Bhikshachara, grandson of king Harsha, by the road of Vishalaṇṭa, but being defeated by the lord of Kampana, he fled towards Devasarasa. As he was running along a gap, he fell to the earth. The victor sent his head to the king as a fruit of the tree of victory. But the ungrateful monarch was not pleased with this groat act nor gave him fitting honor. He sent him a messenger saying " it was the Hollow, lord of Kampana... (p.58)


Rajatarangini[4] mentions that ....King Sussala accused himself as the cause of this destruction and slaughter of his subjects, and set out to fight. Janakaraja died near Avantipura, in order to suffer for his sins in hell. Irrational men do not remember that they sacrifice their happiness in the future world by trying to serve their ends in this fleeting life. The king made Simba, lord of Kampana, and drove the Damaras from Vijayakshetra and other places. Year 1121 AD (VIII,p.85)


Rajatarangini[5] mentions that ....The king lost his intellect in his anger and impaled Simba and Simba's younger brothers Simha and Thakkanasimha. He made Shrivaka, lord of Kampana, and having confined Janakasimha, he appointed Sujji, brother of Prajji, in the Rājasthāna (palace.) Year 1121 AD (VIII,p.89)


Rajatarangini[6] mentions that ....When the kingdom was thus divided, an untimely fall of snow overwhelmed Bhikshu's army, and it was overcome by Sussala. Bhikshu and Prithvihara again went to Pushpananada, and the Lavanyas paid tribute to the king and submitted to him. The hero Simba, lord of Kampana, subdued the Damaras and quelled all rebellion in Madavarajya. Year 1121 AD (VIII,p.88)


Rajatarangini[7] tells....Bhāsa, a servant of Sujji, had escaped his enemies through the virtue of the people and being weary, entered the court-yard of god Avasvami at Avantipura. He and Kshemananda who had quelled the rebellion at Kampana were surrounded by the angry Damaras of Holaḍa. Induraja, a commander in the army, born of the line of Kularaja was also surrounded by the same Damaras ; but by some pretext Induraja obtained the protection of Tikka at Dhyānoddāra. Pinchadeva and many other leaders of the army were besieged by the Damaras and they left Kramarajya. [VIII(i),p.122-123]


Rajatarangini[8] tells....When the powerful lord of Kampana entered the capital, Induraja with his followers left Tikka and came thither. The king made Chitraratha, Shriva, Bhāsa and others lords of Pādāgra, Dvara and Kheri ; even Sujji who had not given up the duty entrusted to him had to wait on the pleasure of the Pratihara. [VIII(i), p.127]


Rajatarangini[9] tells us ...The enemies stopped that day at Vijayakshetra and then on the day following, they went to the lord of Kampana leaving Dhyanoddara behind. At this place Sujji stopped for a few days, and was going towards Devasarasa, when the relatives of Tikka, on account of some difference with Tikka, came out and joined Sujji. Sujjj entered Devasarasa and set up Jayaraja and Yashoraja, principal men among the sons (clan) of Bhojaka, in place of Tikka. [VIII (i),p.130]


Rajatarangini[10] tells us ...At this time, in the mouth of Shravana, the grateful king went to Vijayeshvara to welcome the victorious lord of Kampana. In the meantime Utpala who was coming from Pinchadeva at Shurapura was murdered by the lord of Dranga in a mountain cavern. He was returning from Pushpananada in order to serve Pinchadeva, when he was found out by the lord of Dranga who was secretly looking out for him. But the lord of Dranga was thrown on the ground and was on the point of death. His knee was pierced with arrow. He killed a soldier of the enemy's party whom he found by him.

The king, after he had bestowed favors on the lord of Kampana, was on his return. He stopped at the gate of Avantipura when Sura of Dranga bowed to him. He was the scourge of his enemy, — he assuaged the anger and the grief of the king. In his first expedition he destroyed his enemies, and the people thought that he had exterminated his foes. When he entered the city, some of the guilty men fled, and Janakasimha and some others were thrown into prison. Koshteshvara and others became his [[[Sura]]'s] enemies, through fear of the king. In the month of Karttika, the accomplished king went to Shamala, and there by fierce fighting, he harassed the unfriendly villages. The village of Hāḍi, where the power of king Sussala and others had been broken, was burnt by the powerful Sujji. [VIII (i),p.136]


Rajatarangini[11] tells us ....When the king recovered, Sujji out of etiquette came to the palace, and was seen to distribute wealth to the people, and afterwards to go towards the houses of the beggars. But the king did not favor him but devised plans to attack him. Sujji had a large body of retainers. The king then judged that if he deposed Sujji from his posts, his followers would become broken-hearted and would desert him, and he bestowed Sujji's posts on others without delay. He gave the government of Rajasthana (palace ) to Dhanya, Kampana to Udaya and the office at Kheri to Rilhana. [VIII (i) ,p.140]


Rajatarangini[12] tells us ....Udaya, lord of Kampana, crossed over the Saṅkaṭa in the month of Vaishakha and fought a battle with Bhikshu who was attended by the Khashas. At first Udaya had few soldiers with him, but when his army increased, Bhikshu entered the fort which was besieged. Now the king went to Vijayakshetra and swelled the army of the lord of Kampana by sending some squadrons. The king's soldiers discharged stones by means of engines, showered arrows and hurled various weapons. Those within the fort fought by throwing stones. On account of the stones which fell on the infantry, — and which were marked with the name of Bhikshu, — the king's army could not take the fort. [VIII(i), p.145]


Rajatarangini[13] tells us ....Udaya, lord of Kampana, waited before the king, and then went after the prime minister, the Pratihara. The army consisted of the Rajputs, and the Damara horsemen and was led by ministers, and accompanied by troops who looked terrible in their arms. A part of the force which was within the palace (at Lohara) surrounded a large tract of country and tried to seize the enemy. Lalla , and others remained at Phullapura adjoining Kotta, and made the enemy's soldiers tremble by spreading alarm and dissension among them, and also by skirmishes. [VIII (i),p.161]


Rajatarangini[14] mentions that....Distressed by internal quarrel and unable to remain there, Mallarjjuna left Kotta after taking with him his wealth. Expelled from his territory, he was plundered by the robbers and was nearly surrounded by them ; and it was with difficulty that he secured the remainder of his treasure. On the second day of Vaishakha, in the year 8 (=1132 AD), Mallarjjuna, aged eighteen years, lost the kingdom.

Udaya, lord of Kampana, reduced Kāpila, Harṣhaṭa and Kotta under the province of Mandala. He collected the officers of Kotta and, with a view to consolidate Maṇḍala, waited there for a few days. At this time the mind of the king who was about to reward the lord of Kampana, was abused by the treason of wicked and profligate men who wore jealous of one another. [VIII (i),p.179]


Rajatarangini[15] mentions about rewards to the king's favourites : The king served Sanjapala by making him lord of Kampana, and Kularaja, superintendent of the capital Dhanya and Udaya. (p.195)


Naga temple at Chinta (Bhadarvah), Courtesy:Vogel JPH

Rajatarangini[16] mentions.... Chintavihara - Chinta, wife of Udaya, lord of Kampana, adorned the land on the banks of the Vitasta with a vihara There the five temples in the vihara appeared like the five tall fingers of the hand of the god of virtue. [VIII (ii), p.311]

List of Kings of Kampana

External links

References