The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire/Bibliography

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The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire

The book by Dr Girish Chandra Dwivedi, Edited by Dr Vir Singh 2003.

Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052. ISBN 81-88629-08-1 (H.B.) & ISBN 81-88629-11-1 (P.B.)


The full text of this chapter has been converted into Wiki format by Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क

Bibliography


Contents

Classification of Bibliography

I Original Sources
[Page 283]

A. PERSIAN

1. Works dealing mainly with the Jat history
2. Works on the Mughal history under Aurangzeb and his successors
(a) General histories
i. MSS
ii. Published
iii. English Translations
(b) Documents, Letters, Farmans, Reports etc.
i. MSS
ii. Published
iii. English Translations

B.MARATHI

C.HINDI·

1.MSS
2. Published

D.FRENCH

1. Ms
2. Translation

II sakhas

III Secondary Works

A. GENERAL
1. English
2. Hindu
3. Urdu
B. GAZETTEERS
C. SELECT ARTICLES

I Original Sources

A. Persian

(1) Works dealing mainly with the Jat History

[Page 284] (The following MSS. are being used for the first time).

  • 1. Tarikh-i-Bharatpur by Anand Rai. Written 1247 AH. Khuda Bakhsha, VII, Nos. 602-l54,ff. 40. Though mainly the description of the siege of Bharatpur by Lord Lake (1804-05), it refers to the history of Churaman and after, and corroborates some known facts.
  • 2. Tawarikh-i-Hunud by Frans Gottlieb Kuen, pen name Fransoo. My personal microfilm copy made from its only Ms. preserved in British Museum, London. Br. Mus. pers Add. 19,501 folios, 66, with 15 lines to page. Fransoo (1777-1861), a German native of Poland, migrating to India entered the service of the famous captain Samru. Fransoo learnt Persian and Urdu and became an expert author, especially of poetry. The present Ms., written in elegant Persian for presentation to Captain Abraham Lockett, is the most valuable account of the Bharatpur Rajas upto 1826 AD., based on the Hindu sources and the information derived from the Persian Munshis of the Bharatpur Court. Giving a genealogy of the Sinsinwara chiefs from Raja Ram (other than his name sake of the seventeenth century), the son of Sobhu Thakur of Bayana and Devsani of Sinsini, this Ms. throws a flood of light on the personality and achievements of Muhkam Singh, Badan Singh, Suraj Mal and the subsequent Jat Rajas. Thus, it fills up many gaps in the Jat history. However, quite a number of its earlier dates, Indian names and a few incidents (such as Khema Jats appointment as the governor of Agra and the Marathas' raising the siege of Kumbher immediately after the death of Khandoji) are incorrect.
  • 3. Waqa-i-Bharatpur by Pt. Shankar Nath Nadir. Written in 1833 AD., ff. 36. Punjab University Library, No. 179. It (ff. 1-2) gives an account of the happenings of Bharatpur in 1833 AD. and the following year.
  • 4. Waqa-i-Jang-i-Bharatpur by Maulavi Muhammad Fazl-i-Azim, "Azim" Written 1826 A.D. ff. 61. Aligarh Muslim Univemty Library Ms. I, No. 476 (Salam 540/61). It is a masnavi on the operations against Durjan Sal of Bharatpur in 1825-26 AD.

(2) Works on the Mughal history under Aurangzeb and his successors.

(a) General Histories

General Histories - (i) Manuscripts
  • 1. Ahwal-i-Salatin-i-Mutakherin. Anonymous. R.S.L. transcript from U.V.L. Ms. This work begins abruptly with Aurangzeb on his deathbed and goes down to the 30th year of the reign of Shah Alam (1789A.D.).

[Page 285] The reference about the Jats begin with Churaman (in 1129 AH.). Here we find only a summarized account of the Jats upto the Civil war. After a gap of about seven years there is a passing reference to the Marathas occupying Delhi against the advice of Suraj Mal (1760). In its narrative on the Jats and other details it exactly follows Mirat-i-Aftab-Numa.
  • 2. Bahadur Shah Nama by Niamat Ali. Rampur Library. A detailed official record of the first two years of Bahadur Shah's reign.
  • 3. Fatuhat-i-Alamgiri by Ishwar Das Nagar. R.S.L. transcript from JNS transcript in turn from Br. Mus. No. Add 23, 884. It gives comparatively detailed account of the rebellions under Gokul and Raja Rama and the subsequent suppression of the Jats by the imperialists. Its dates and names of persons at places are confusing which have been corrected with the help of the Court History. Maasir-i-Alamgiri.
  • 4. Ibratnama by Faqir Khair-ud-Din Muhammad Allahabadi. May own extract microfilm copy from Br. Mus. Or. 1932. We have been able to use it upto folio 21a, which refers to Imad's flight to Suraj Mal. The subsequent folios are too dim to be clearly read. Its notices about the Jats during the reigns of Ahmad Shah and Alamgir Sani are too brief.
  • 5. Imad-us-Saadat by Ghulam Ali Naqwi. Banaras Hindu University Library Ms. in bad shape. Page numbers marked by us. Though a later work (written: 1808 AD.), it is useful for the early career of Churaman. Its references about the later activities of Suraj Mal are especially valuable because the informant of Ghulam Ali, Rao Radha Kishan was a close confidant of Suraj Mal.
  • XXVII. Its names of places and persons at places are confusing. For example it confuses Bharatpur with Thun.-Editor.
  • 6. Mirat-i-Aftab Numa by Abdur Rahman entitled Shah Nawaz Khan. R.S.L. Ms. from the one of U.V.L. Completed in the 45th year of the reign of Shah Alam. Also see the entry under '1' above.
  • 7. Muntakhab-i-Khulasat-ul-Tawarikh by Ram Parshad. Dr. G.D. Bhatnagar's (Reader in Med. History, RH.U) extract microfilm copy from Br. Mus. Or. 2057. Not an abridgement of Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh as the title might suggest.
  • 8. Roznamcha (also known as Ibratnama and Tarikh-Muhammad bin Mutamad Khan) by Mirza Muhammad. R.S.L. Transcript from J.N.S. collection, in turn from Khuda Baksha Ms. An account of the first successors of Aurangzeb from the death of that Emperor to the death of Farrukh Siyar (1707-1719). This work takes a lenient view of the

[Page 286] activities of Churaman. It suggests that the alliance between the Sayyids and Churaman had its roots in Chhabela Ram's operations against the Jats.
  • 9. Safinat-ul-Aishby Qurban Ali Written c. 1728. Incomplete but the only extract copy in possession of Dr. G.D. Bhatnagar. Throws some light on the reign of Muhammad Shah. It is of no value for the Jat history.
  • 10. Sahifa-i-Iqba. Anonymous. Written 1734. A.M.U. History department Library Contains only incidental notices about the Jats, especially Churaman.
  • 11. Tarikh-i-Ahmad Shahi Anonymous history of the reign of Ahmad Shah. My personal microfilm copy from the Br. Mus. Library London. Br. Mus. Or. 2005. Generally a reliable contemporary source in which we find minute details about the Jat history from 1748 to 1754. Without it our knowledge about the Jats in this period would have been sadly incomplete. It throws valuable light especially on Suraj Mal's relations with Safdar Jang, Imad and Intizam and the career of [[Muhkam Singh[[ during the period. It is, however, mistaken in recording that the Jats did not accompany Safdar Jang in his second Afghan expedition.
  • 12. Tarikh-i-Alamgir Sani Anonymous history of the reign of Alamgir Sani. R.S.L. Ms. copied from J.N.S. transcript in turn from Br. Mus. Or. 1749. It is one of the few Persian histories which takes a lenient view of the activities of Suraj Mal. This contemporary source gives by far the fullest description of the Jat fortifications and the Jat expansion during the period. It helps us in determining Suraj Mal's role in the imperial affairs. It advances our knowledge about the causes of the Abdali's return from the Jat country (1757 A.D.) and Suraj Mal's relations with the Wazir, Imad.
  • 13. Tarikh-i-Hind (Also known as Tarikh-i-Hindi) by Rustam Ali. R.S.L. photostat copy from Br. Mus. Or 1628. General history of India down to 1740 A.D. contains only stray references about Churaman (between the battle of Hasanpur and the second siege of Thun) and the Jats of Mahaban.
  • 14. Tazkira-i-Shakir Khan (also known as Tarikh-i-Shakir Khani) by Shakir Khan. R.S.L. copy from the transcript in J.N.S. collection. Shakir Khan says that from the accession of Muhammad Shah to that of Shah Alam he witnessed developments with his own eyes and recorded them in his work. But, his observations about the Jats, besides, being brief, are at places confusing (for instance, he mentions [[Suraj Mal[[ in place of [[Balram[[ in connection with an incident at Delhi between Safdar Jang and Javed Khan in 1752).

[Page 287]
  • 15. Tazkirat-us-Salatin-i-Chaghtal by Muhammad Hadi Kamwar Khan. R.S.L. transcript from U.V.L. in two Vols. Its second volume going down to the 6th year of Muhammad Shah's reign (1724) is used here. Kamwar held various offices under Farrukh Siyar and his three successors and was thus an eye-witnes of most of the things narrated in this book. Though his work contains references to the Jat activities during the reign of Aurangzeb, it is valuable for the period after that Emperor's death to the second siege of Thun by Jai Singh.
General Histories-(ii) Published.
  • 1. Gul-i-Rahmat by Saadat Yar Khan. Lith. Agra, 1836. Composed in 1249 A.H. It is an expanded recension of Gulistan-i-Rahmat. Though it pays to read it, at places it ignores well known facts of the Jat history. For instance it does not speak of the participation of the Jats in the second Afghan expedition of Safdar Jang and the Civil war.
  • 2. Haqiqat-ul-AqaJim by Qazi Murtaza Husain, Lith. Lucknow (Nawal Kishore). Written c. 1780 A.D. Though work on topography of the world, it is useful for the history also. It is the only source for the information that the Jats also participated in the battle of Manupur. References to the Jats of various places including those of Bharatpur and Gohad are no doubt brief, but are very valuable in as much as the author had personally visited the Jat country.
  • 3. Khazan-i-Amira by Mir Ghulam Ali Khan Bilgrami, Azad Ptd. Kanpur (Nawal Kishore). Written 1762-63 A.D. It is a biographical sketch of Persian poets and some of the Amirs, who were contemporary to its author. In it is interwoven incidental references to the Bharatpur Jats from the first Pathan expedition of Safdar Jang onwards. It supplies valuable information on Suraj Mal's return from Bhau's camp (in 1760), although some of its contentions (such as that the Holkar appealed to Suraj Mal for help against the Abdali before the Maratha chiefs rout at Sikandarabad) are incorrect.
  • 4. Maasir-i-Alamgiri by Muhammad Saqi Mustaid Khan. Bib. Ind. Ser. Calcutta. A history of the reign of Aurangzeb. Its notices of the Jats are brief but valuable.
  • 5. Muntakhab-ul-Lubab (Also known as Tarikh-i-Khafi Khan) by Muhammad Hashim, better known by the designation Khafi Khan, Vol.. II, Bib. Ind. Series, Calcutta. A general history which goes down to the fourteenth year of the reign of Muhammad Shah. "Brought up in Aurangzeb's service" and "employed by him" in different situations (Elliot, VII, 207), Khafi Khan shows distinct bias in his narrative against the Jats (especially Churaman).

[Page 288]

  • 6. Shah Alam Nama (Also known as Ain-i-Alam Shah) by Ghulam Ali Khan. Bib. Ind. Facs.I(to 1761 A.D.), 1912AD. ed. by Hari Nath De. Herein it takes notice of the Jats from the Abdali's invasion (1757) to Suraj Mal's departure from Bhau's camp (1760).
  • 7. Shahnama Munawwar Kalam by Shivdas Lakhanavi. Written c. 1722 ed. by S.H. Askari Patna, 1968. A reliable and valuable source for the Jat history under Churaman from the first siege to the suicide of that chief and the campaign of Nilkanth Nagar against the Jats.
  • 8. Tarikh-i-Ahmad or Muharbat-i-Salatin-i-Durrania-o-Bhao-o-Jnu-0-Sikhaan by Muhammad Abdul Karim. Written 1255 A.H. Pub. Sultan-ul-Matabe, 1266 AH. Mere compilation from earlier sources.
  • 9. Waqa-i-Alam Shahl by Prem Kishore Firaqi ed. by Imtiaz Ali, Arshi, Rampur, 1949.
General Histories-(iii) English Translations
  • 1. Bihari Lal Munishi's Life of Najib-ud-Daulah, trans. by Sir Jadu Nath Sarkar in Islamic Culture(1936) entitled Najib-ud-Daulah Ruhela chief Written 1787. Refers to Suraj Mal's struggle with Najib and the former's death.
  • 2. Delhi Chronicle. Anonymous. R.5.L. copy of the abridged English translation by Sir Jadu Nath Sarkar of a rare Ms. (which he discovered at Patna) containing "detailed Chronology of Delhi events and reports received from 1738 to 1798 A.D." Following Sir Jadu Nath it is referred to as Delhi Chronicle, without citing the page number of the date of its entries.
  • 3. Dilkusha (Also known as Nushka-i-Dilkusha) by Bhimsen. Abridged trans. by Jonathan Scott in Ferishta:S- History of the Dekkan, Vol. II, pt. III, Shrewsbury, 1794. Not useful for the Jat history.
  • 4. Elliot and Dowson's. History of India as told by its Own Historians, Vols. I-VIII. (Kitab Mahal edition). Contains extract trans. of various works used by us.
  • 5. Ghulam Husain Samin's narrative. Trans. by Sir William Irvine, entitled, "Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Indian Wazir; Imad-ul-Mulk", in Ind. Ant., 1907. Being an eye-witness's account, it is extremely valuable for the Abdali's Jat expedition (1757).
  • 6. Gulistan-i-Rahmat by Nawab Muhammad Mustajab Khan. Written 1792-93. Abridged and translated by Charles Elliot, entitled, "The Life of Hafizool-Moolk, Hafiz Rehmut Khan, "London, 1831. It is on this work that Gul-i-Rahmat is based. See entry Puhlished 1.

[Page 289]

  • 7. Iqbalnama. Anonymous. It covers the period from 1713 to 1750 AD. Translated in full by Prof. S.H. Askari, who every kindly lent me his typed transcript. Its author (a Hindu) was a contemporary (eyewitness in some cases, such as the battle of Hasanpur and Sher Afghan's expedition against Kooch tribe in the early years of Muhammad Shah's reign) of the events described therein. It throws a good deal of light on the character and activities of Badan Singh during the invasion of Nadir Shah.
  • 8. Kashi Raja's account of the battle of Panipat and the events leading to it. Trans. In parts by Sir Jadu Nath Sarkar in IHQ. 934,1935. The part of this work covered in translation is not useful for our purpose.
  • 9. Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh by Kalyan Singh, Trans. by Khan Bahadur Sarfaraz Husain Khan in parts in J.B.o.R.S., 1920.
  • 10. Maasir-ul-Umra by Shah Nawaz Khan. Trans. by H. Beveridge and B. Prasad, Calcutta, Vols.! (1941), II (1952).
  • 11. Mirat-i-Ahmadi by Ali Muhammad Khan. Written 1761. Trans. M.P. Lokhandwala. Gaekwad Oriental Series No. 146, Baroda, 1965. Though a history of Gujarat down to 1761, incidentally it gives valuable information about Delhi's affairs and in the process about the later activities of Suraj Mal.
  • 12. Sayyid Nur-ud-Din Hasan's Life of Najib-ud-Daulah (BI: Mus. Pers. Ms. 24-410). Written c. 1772. Trans. by Sir Jadu Nath Sarkar in parts in IHO 1933 and Islamic Culture, 1933, Sh. Abdur Rashid has also translated it with an introduction and explanatory notes as An Account of Najlb-ud-Daulah (Aligarh, 1952) and edited this account with an introduction and notes. "A fair and judicious" account, which, though devoted to the life of the Rohilla chief, contains a good deal of information about the Jats and their activities, especially during post Panipat period. This is the only source telling us that Suraj Mal remitted the transit duty on grain in his State. Folio numbers of the Ms., as given by Prof. Sarkar, cited here.
  • 13. Siyar-ul-Mutakherin by Ghulam Husain Khan Tabatabai. Written 1780 A.D. Trans. by Raymond or Haji Mustafa. Reprinted in 4 vols. from Calcutta, 1902; A second edition with introduction in 1926. Only Vols. III and IV of Haji Mustafa are used here. For earlier portion General Brigg's trans. (Vol. I, London, 1832) is cited which is better than the corresponding one by Haji Mustafa. Siyar covers in its narrative a long range of the Jat history but is invaluable for Suraj Mal's struggle with Salabat Khan and that chiefs participation in Safdar Jang's two Afghan expeditions in which the historian's father, Hidayat Ali Khan

[Page 290] (in the second event) and uncle, Abdul Ali Khan (In the first and third events) were personally present. This work generally takes a lenient and sympathetic view of Suraj Mal and gives him due praise.
  • 14. Tarikh-i-Iradat Khan by Iradat Khan Wazih. Abridged trans. by Jonathan Scott in Ferishta's History of the Dekkan , Vol. II, pt. 4

(b) Document, Letters, Farmans, Reports etc.

(i) Manuscripts

  • 1. Ahkam-i-Alamgiri by B Inayatullah. R.S.L. Ms. in two vols., copied from the transcript in IN.S. collection, in turn from the MS. in Rampur Library. A summarized collection of the orders issued by Aurangzeb to his secretary Inayatullah, for inclusion in the despatches. It refers to the last decade of that Emperor's reign. Very valuable for the Mughal Jat clash over Sinsini during the period. But, as several letters contain no date and have not been arranged in chronological order, at places it becomes difficult to determine the exact timings of the events.
  • 2. Ajaib-ul-Afaq R.S.L. Ms. copied from a photostat copy, from Br. Mus. Ms. No. 1776 (Rieu, III, 986a-b). A collection of letters written by Farrukh Siyar, Muhammad Shah and the chief Mughal officers to Raja Chhabela Ram, Girdhar Bahadur and his successors together with the answers of the latter. This collection is an extremely valuable contemporary source for Churaman's activities during the reign of Farrukh Siyar and the imperialists attempts to subdue him. Page numbers of the Ms. cited here.
  • 3. Jaipur Records R.S.L. transcripts from the Jaipur State archives. "A miscellaneous collection of copies of letters, imperials farmans, nishans, hasb-ul-hukums, vakil reports and the correspondence between the Amber rulers and the officials of the empire or those of their own State". (R. Singh), A Handlist of Important Historical Manuscripts, Sitamau: 1949, a17). The collections consist of the following series of volumes (i) Sarkar's collection series (vols. IV, VII, IX, X and XII utilized by us) (ii) Sitamau collection (Vol. I utilized), (iii) Additional series. Akhbarat-i-Darbar-i-Mualla, Waqava papers etc. (Vol. II covering 20th, 24th and 25th years of the reign of Aurangzeb, XXIII covering 5th, 9th and 15th years of the reign of Muhammad Shah, XXIV covering 25th and 26th years of the reign of latter and 4th and 5th years of that Ahmad Shah thoroughly screened by us). Being exactly contemporary, these documents stand out pre-eminently for the period covered by them. In particular, their importance lies in illustrating Aurangzeb's great concern over the renewed turbulence (during the next half of his reign) by the Jats and the kindred people in a greater part of the province of Agra and in providing minute details of the

[Page 291] refractory activities of various Jat catellancs and the persistent imperialists efforts to chastise them. Unless not indicated otherwise, page numbers of the Records cited here.
  • 4. Letter (transcript from Bharatpur in fragments) by Nawab Safdar Jang addressed to Suraj Mal Jat (Letter given in the main thesis). In the possession of Mr. Mahendra Singh Varma, M.A., grand son of late Chowdhary Hukum Singh of the village, Libber Hedi (Distt. Saharanpur), President of Sarva-Khap Panchayat meeting held at village Shoram (Distt. Muzaffarnagar) in 1952. This letter enlightens us on the intimacy between the Wazir Safdar Jang and Suraj Mal and on the former's dependence on the latter.

(b) Documents, Letters, Farmans, Reports etc.-(ii) Published

  • 1. Balmukund Nama. Letters of Abdullah Khan to various personages and a few farmans. Ed. by Abdur Rashid, Department of History, Aligarh Muslim University.
  • 2. Daftar-i-Diwani-o-Mal-o-Mal-o-Mulki Sarkar-i-Ali Nizam's government, Hyderabad, Deccan, 1357 AH. Not useful for our purpose as it contains merely a passing reference to Nawal Singh and Ranjit Singh, the sons of Suraj Mal Jat.
  • 3. Shah Waliullah Dehlavi Ke Siyasi Maktubat. Persian text and Urdu trans. by K.A Nizami, Delhi, 1969. Maktubat are a very valuable source being exactly contemporary. They throw important light among other points on Najib-Suraj Mal relationship in post-Panipat period. Number of letters is cited here.

(b) Documents, Letters, Farmans, Reports-(iii) English Translations

  • 1. An Anonymous Journal of Nadir Shah's Translations in India. Translated by S.H. Askari in Proc. I.H.C. (1947) entitled 'A Contemporary Correspondence Describing the Events at Delhi at the time of Nadir Shah's "Invasions". It tends to demonstrate an attitude of resistance on the part of Badan Singh during Nadir Shah's stay at Delhi.
  • 2. Durrani-Rajput Relations. l759-1761. Correspondence between Madho Singh and the Abdali and others. Extract translation by S.H. Askari in Proc. IH C, (1945).
  • 3. Two Historical Letters of the Great Asaf Jah 1, Persian text and English translation by Jadu Nath Sarkar in Islamic Culture (1941).
  • 4. Unpublished Correspondence Relating to Maharaja Madho Singh of Jaipur and some of his Contemporaries by S.H. Askari, Proc. IH C, (1948).

[Page 292]

  • 5. Letters of a King Maker of the Eighteenth Century Eng. translation with Introduction and Notes of Balmukundnama by S. Chandra.

B.Marathi

Number of letters is cited in each case

  • 1. Chandrachud Daftar. ed. D. V. Apte, vol. I, Excepting letter 45 and 82, the others are useless for us.
  • 2. Marathanchya Itihasachin Sadhanen, ed. v.K. Rajwade and others. Vols, I-XXI, of these Vols. I, III, and VI are extremely valuable.
  • 3. Purandare Daftar, ed. K.v. Purandare, Vol. 1.
  • 4. Selection from the Peshwas' Daftar. ed. G.S. Sardesai. Vols. 11XXXXv. Of these Vols. II, XIII-XV-XXI-XXVII, XXIX and XXX are extremely valuable. Besides giving new information, these despatches supplement the one derived from other sources. The Marathi papers have made our knowledge of the Jats fuller.
  • 5. Selections from the Peshwas' Dafter, New series Vol. I, ed. P.M. Joshi. Being used for the first time in the context of the Jat history.

C. Hindi

Hindi -(i) Manuscripts

The MSS. under entry 1 and 3 below are being used for the first time here.

  • 1. Devdutta's untitled miscellaneous account of the Jats, especially of the Doab and Haryana, running into 16 leaves written on both sides size 12.5" x 5" composed in Samvat 1875, from earlier Sarva-Khap Panchayat (Doab) records. It enlightens us about the social, religious and political practices of the Jats and other groups of the Doab and Haryana during the medieval period. On ff. 12-14 (side notes) it makes a passing reference to Samarth Guru Ram Das's exhortation to Gokul for rebellion, a fact pointed out by the persistent local tradition among the Jats. The Ms. is in the possession of Chowdhary Qabul Singh of Shoram (Muzaffarnagar, UP.).
  • 2. Pt Kanha Ram's untitled Pothi. (In possession of Chowdhary Qabul Singh, Muzaffarnagar) Containing wrongly bound 16 leaves written on both sides. The number of lines in a leaf and the size of letters are not uniform. Size 12.5" x 5". The first leaf, though mutilated, mentions samvat 1840. The visible difference in ink and size of letters suggests its gradual compilation. Even if begun in 1840, it was completed at a later date. Its author, Kanha Ram is said to have been a person of local repute, was a resident of village Shoram, Dist. Muzaffarnagar. His descendants, whom I had the occasion to meet, still live there.

[Page 293] This MS. written in bad Hindi, is an unconnected compilation mostly from the earlier but now untraceable Pothis and partly from rhe author's own observations, showing the activities of the Jats and other local people especially of the Doab and Haryana, during medieval times.
Its earlier portion (leaves 3a-lla) refers to the meetings, along with their resolutions, of the Sarva Khap Panchayat (Doab) held in Samvat 1252,1254 (in a jungle near Baraut), 1256, 1305, 1312 (Bhokharhedi) 1317 (Libberhedi), 1344 (Shikarpur), 1383 (Sisauli), 1408 (in a jungle near Sisaul Bhanaura), 1455 (in a jungle of Chagama), 1460 (Shikarpur), 1547 (in a jungle near Baraut), 1560 (Mauza Bavali), 1584, 1597 (Kairana) 1613 (Nisarh) 1621 (Shoram), 1665 (Khekaram) 1686 (Nisarh) 1718 (Chhaprauli), 1727, 1764 (Bhaisewal) 1766 (Kamol) and 1817 (Sisauli). The latter part of the Pothi (leaves llb-16b) bound reversely, enumerates the social customs of the Jats and other people and the nature, scope, formation and functioning of the Sarva Khap Panchayat. This compilation is worthy of our attention as giving some important facts about the Jats, known only to the local people and supported by the persistent tradition. However, an attempt to find their corroboration in the writings of the contemporary historians, may prove futile as in most cases the latter could have neither access to, nor evince interest in the local happenings of historically less important people of relatively obscure and distant place. And yet its testimony needs to be handled with utmost caution; the dates in some cases are incorrect and the numbers of participants in the Panchayat meetings and of local militia raised for any battle seem to be highly inflated.
  • 3. Somnath's works. Somnath was the great grandson of Narottam Mishra, who hailed from Mathura. Somnath has given his family table which shows that he belonged to a family of leamed Brahmans who worked as Priests of various chiefs. He enjoyed the patronage of Suraj Mal for some time and then lived at the Court of Suraj Mal's brother, Pratap Singh and nephew, Bahadur Singh at Wair. The colophons of most of his works known to us, clearly mention that they were composed at the instance of one of these three Jat chiefs. The Kashi Nagari pracharini Sabha is bringing out a collection of his works as Somnath Granthawali of which the first part is shortly to be released. I have consulted the press copy. Other works of Somnath, (i) Nawabollas (Incomplete, having four stamas only; devoted to Nawab "Ghazi Azam Khan", probably a mistake for Nawab Ghazi-ud-Din Imad ul-mulk, who lived for long as a refugee at the Jat court); (ii) Sangrdm Darpan (pp. 26. composed in Samvat 1786); (iii) Brijendra Vinod (pp. 212,
[Page 294] copied from the original in Jyeshtha Samvat, 1837 by Bhaskaran Kashmiri Pandit for Raja Ranjit Singh Jat); (iv) Ram Chantra Ratnakar and (v) Ram Kaladhar (typed copy pp. 48) are in the form of MSS. in the Sabha Library copied from the originals at Bharatpur. Of his works some are on poetics, while others are translations of standard Sanskrit texts including the Puranas and Epics. These works show the literary activities going on in the Jat Kingdom and serve as a corrective to the common impression that the Jats had little interest in the literary pursuits. They give us an idea of the social and cultural life in the Jat Kingdom. The only work having any historical value is Dirgh Nagar Vaman (Ms., it runs into seven pages and ends abruptly). It describes the layout of Deeg palaces etc., and gives the genealogical list of the Sinisinwara chiefs. The characterization of the chiefs, besides being highly exaggerated in the worst traditions of the Riti poetry, is stereo typed and only occasionally gives us an insight into their individual traits. For political history these works (barring to some extent Dirgh Nagar Vaman) are without any utility.

Hindi-(ii) Published

  • 1. Somnath Granthawali. Vol. I (in press). Being edited by Sudhakar Pande, Kashi, 1971. Collection of the Poems of the same Somnath. I have consulted the press copy. (See entry under Hindi; MS5., 3). The work includes Ras Peeushnidhi (pp. 1-224). (Composed in Jyestha, Somnath, 1794), Madhav Vinod (pp. 317-498. composed in Ashwin, Samvast 1809), RasPanchadhavi (composed in Agahan, Samvat 1800), and (Shringar Vilas. The first two (Ras Peeushllldhi; pp. 2-8; Madhav Vinod, pp. 317-320) generally follow the contents of Dirgh Nagar Vaman (Hindi Ms. described above). The remaining two works and the others being brought out in this volume are devoid of any historical value.
  • 2. Sujan Charitra by Sudan. Written c. 1784, 1st edition Kashi.I came across its three neatly written manuscripts in Bharatpur, two of them in the private collection of Somnath Chaturvedi (near Lakshman Temple, Bharatpur City). It gives an account of the exploits of Suraj Mal from 1745, to the beginning of 1754, besides casual references to the history of the Jats before that period. With the exception of Prof. A.L. Srivastava (First two Nawabs of Oudh, p. 294) earlier scholars have not given due importance to this text. A comparative study* reveals that its

  • Our article, "Ghasira Ke Yudha Ka Aitihasil- Paryalochan" appears in Nagari Pracharini Patrika, Commemoration volume, Samvat 2024 A second article. 'Chronology in the Sujan Charitra' has been accepted for publication In the Journal of the Bihar Research Society.

[Page 294] details, including dates, are generally authentic. In some cases (for example Ghasira's campaign) it gives fuller details than are to be found elsewhere. Moreover, information available in other sources is supported and thus confirmed by Sudan (for example, Wendel's statement that Jawahar Singh received the highest honours from the Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah is supported by Sudan). The great merit of the work is that Sudan, a native of Mathura and a close companion of Suraj Mal, had access to information not available to outsiders. It is written in the literary style, characteristic of the Riti poetry and hence at places it has to be assessed after making due allowance to Sudan's desire to create literary embellishments which, however, do not affect the core of historical facts. If he praises his patron he cleverly alludes to his shortcomings also. His generally balanced approach is apparent from his due praise of the opponents of Suraj Mal (such as Bahadur Singh and Asad Khan).

D. French

French - (i) Manuscript

Memores de L' origine, accroissement et etat present de puissance des Jats dans L' In dostan, 11 de Partie, suite des Memoires des Pattans. My personal microfilm copy made from the Ms. in India Office Library, London. LO.L Orme Collection, O.V 216, NO.2. The MS. appears to be the original, sent by Father Francis Xzvier Wendel with a covering letter to an unknown addressee, may be to Robert Orme himself who left India in 1759. The MS. forms the second of the four parts, in a leather bound volume lettered MSS., Vol. 30 x 22 cm. (i) 122. Part I, pp. 1 -26 is in the form of an unsigned letter. Part II, pp. 29- 114, consists of the present MS. Part III, pp. 115-118 and Part IV pp. 119-122. The last one contains the letter dated: Agra, 27th October, 1769 from EX. Wendel. R. Orme notes at the end that he read it in June, 1772 and again in 1777.

The fact that the last letter signed by Wendel is in the same handwriting to be seen in parts I to III, supports S.C. Hill's suggestion that the present MS., though nowhere specified as such, was written by EX. Wendel who was in India from 1751 until his death in 1803, at Lucknow. He was in Agra between 1766 and 1771, supplying secret information to the English especially about the Jats. From a reference in the Ms. (p. 64, footnote) pertaining to the year 1760, it is clear that for some time at least he resided at the Jat Court, at Bharatpur, during the life time of Raja Suraj Mal also. Dr. R.J. Bingle of India Office Library has very kindly enclosed with his personal letter dated 10th February, 1971, the Xerox copies of extracts concerning Wendel's activities in India in (i) Jesuit missionaries in Northern India and


[Page 296] Inscriptions on their Tombs, Agra, pp. 41-42 by Rev. Henri Hosten, S.J (Calcutta: 1907) and (ii) List of inscriptions on Christian Tombs and Tablets of Historical interest in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, p. 53, by E.A.H. Blunt (Allahabad: 1911).
My copy visibly shows two types of page numbers; the first indicates the number running through all the four parts of the volume according to which the Ms. begins at p. 29 and ends at p. 115; the second gives separate numbering to the present Ms., i.e. pp. 1-86. I have cited the latter numbers as they look more appropriate. With the help of Miss Asha of Mauritius we have made the full translation of this valuable source.

French-(ii) Translations

  • 1. Le Journal Du Voyage du Bengale a Delhy (Paris Ms.) by L.L. Dolisy De Modave. Extracts of this eyewitness account have been translated by Jadu Nath Sarkar entitled, 'The Delhi Empire A century after Bernier, in Islamic Culture XI, 1937.
  • 2. Travels in Mogul Empire by Bernier. Trans. A. Constable, S. Chand & Co., 1968.
  • 3. Storia Do Mogorby Noccolao Manucci. Trans. Sir William Irvine, Vols. I (1906), III (1907), London, II (1966), Calcutta. (At different times Manucci wrote besides French in Portuguese and Italian. The text which Irvine translated was largely in Portuguese and partly in French).

II. Sakhas

Verses in the Jataki dialect dealing with notable events of Medieval Indian history, especially concerning the Jats. I heard and collected several Sakhas in course of my visit to parts of Haryana, Western UP. and Rajasthan. Mr. Jagdev Singh Sidhanti (Prop. Samrat Press, Delhi) having tape recorded one Sakha on Suraj Mal, and Bhau before Panipat, in the voice of Imad-ud-Din and party of Haryana, has very kindly sent to me its typed copy. Sakhas, a sort of Ballads, though composed much earlier, probably not long after the date of occurrence of the event narrated by them are in unwritten form. They are, however, still fresh in the memory of the Jogis -a class of professional rural singers-who generation after generation have earned their bread by reciting them to rural folk. At places the note of exaggeration in the delineation of the events is discernible. The number of fighter in battles, as given in them is also understandably inflated. Nevertheless, they have importance of their own in own so far as they constitute floating evidence of the seamy side of history.


III. Secondary Works

A. General

(1) English

  • Ali, M. Athar : The Mughal Nobility under Aurangzeb, Asia Publishing House, 1966.
  • Beams, John: (ed.) H.M. Elliots Memoirs of Races of North Western Provinces of India Vol. I, London.
  • Beveridge, H : The Comprehensive History of India, Civil Military and Social, Vol. II, London.
  • Chandra, S. : Parties and Politics at the Mughal Court, Aligarh, 1959.
  • Chatterji, N.L.: Mir Qasim, Allahabad, 1935.
  • Chopra, P.N.: Society and Culture during MughaI Age, Agra, 1963.
  • Dow, Alexander : The History of Hindostan, translated from Persian, Vol. II, London, 1812.
  • Duff, JCG : A History of the Marathas, Vol. I, Oxford, 1921.
  • Erskine, William :The History of India under the first Two Sovereigns of the House of Taimur, Babar and Humayun, Vols. I & II, London, 1854.
  • Elliot & Dowson :HistoryofIndia, Vols. I-VIII, Kitab Mahal edition.
  • Elliot, H.M.: History of India, Vol. II, Calcutta, 1901.
  • Faruki, Zahir-ud-Din : Aurangzeb and His Times, Bombay, 1935.
  • Franklin, W :The History of the Reign of Shah Aulum, London, 1798.
  • Fraser, James: The History of Nadir Shah, Panini Office, Allahabad.
  • Growse, F.S. : Mathura. A District Memoir, Allahabad, 1883.
  • Gupta,H.R. : Studies in the Later Mughal History of the Panjab, Lahore, 1944.
  • - : ed.) Marathas and Panipat, Chandigarh, 1961.
  • Habib Irafan: The Agrarian System ofMughaI India (155661707) Bombay; 1963.
  • Husain, Mahmud :(ed) A History of the Freedom Movement, Vols I (1957), II, (1960) Karachi.
  • Husain, Yusuf : The First Nizam, Bombay, 1963.
  • Hutton,J.H. : Caste in India, Cambridge, 1946.

[Page 298]

  • Ibbetson, Denzil: The Panjab Castes, Lahore Government Printing Press, 1916.
  • Irvine, William: The Later Mughals, Vo1s. I & II Calcutta.
  • Keene, H.G. : The Moghul Empire, London 1866.
  • Lanepoo1, Stanely : Medieval India under Muhammadan Rule, London, 1923.
  • Latif, S.M. : Agra, Historical and Descriptive, Calcutta, 1896.
  • Majumdar, D.N. :Races and Cultures of India, Bombay, 1965.
  • Majumdar, R.C. : Corporate Life in Ancient India, Calcutta, 1918. (ed.)
  • - : Classical Accounts of India; Calcutta, 1960.
  • Malik, Z. : Muhammad Shah, Unpublished thesis. A.M.V. Library.
  • Moreland, W.H.: From Akbar to Aurangzeb, London 1923.
  • Owen, Sidney J. : The Fall of the Mogul Empire, London, 1912.
  • Pande, AB: Later Medieval India, Allahabad, 1963.
  • Pande, Ram: Bharatpur upto 1826, Jaipur, May, 1970.
  • Pradhan, M.C.: The Political System of the Jats of North em India, Oxford, 1966.
  • Prasad, Beni: History of Jahangir, London, 1930.
  • Prasad, Ishwari: A Short History of Muslim Rule in India, Allahabad 1st edition.
  • Qanungo, K.R.: History of the Jats, Vol. I, Calcutta, 1925.
  • - : Studies in Rajput History, Delhi 1960.
  • Risley, Herbert: The people of India, Calcutta, 1908.
  • Russel, R.V.: The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India, Vol. III, London, 1916.
  • Saksena, B.P. :History of Shah Jahan of Delhi, Allahabad, 1938.
  • Sardesai, G.S.: New History of the Marathas, Vol. II Bombay, 1958.
  • Sarkar, J.N. : Anecdotes of Aurangzib and other Historical Essays, edition 1925.
  • - : Fall of the Mughal Empire, Calcutta, Vol. 1(1932), II (1934).
  • - :History of Aurangzib, Calcutta-Vols. I (1912), II (1912), III (1928), IV (1930), V (1924).
  • - :India of Aurangzib, Sanya1 and Co. Printers, 1901.

[Page 299]

  • - : Mughal Administration, Calcutta 1924.
  • - : Studies in Mughal India, Calcutta, 1919.
  • Scott, Jonathan: Ferishta's History of the Dekkan, Vol. II, Shrewsbury, 1794.
  • Sharma, Shri Ram : A Bibliography of Mughal India, Bombay, 1932.
  • - : The Religious Policy of the Mughal Emperors, Bombay, 1962.
  • - : Studies in Medieval Indian History, Sho1apur, 1956.
  • Shejwa1kar, T.S.: Panipat.1761, Poona, 1946.
  • Srivastava, A.L. : The First Two Nawabs of Oudh, Lucknow, 1933.
  • - : Shuja-ud-Daulah, Vol. I, Agra, 1961.
  • Singh, Ganda:Ahmad Shah Durrani, Bombay, 1959.
  • Sinha, H.N.: Rise of the Peshwas, Allahabad, 1931.
  • Tad, James: The Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, ed. by W Crooks, 3 Vo1s.
  • Tripathi, R.P.: Some Aspects of Muslim Administration, Al1ahabad,1959.
  • Upadhyaya, V.: The Socio-Religious Conditions of North India, Varanasi, 1964
  • Vaidya, C.V. :History of Medieval Hindu India, Vol. I, Poona, 1921.

(2) Hindi

  • Bhargava, V.S. :Rajasthan Ke Iuhas Ka Sarvekshna, Jaipur., 1971.
  • Bhatnagar, V.S. :Sawai Jai Singh, Jaipur, 1972.
  • Chandra, S. :Uttar Mughal Kalin Bharat Ka ltihas, Meerut, 1972.
  • Desh Raj, Thakur : Jat Itihas, Kanti Press, 1938.
  • - : Marwar Ka Jat Itlhas, Nagore, 1954.
  • Dikshit, G. C. : Brajendra Vansha Bhaskar, Agra, Samvat 1983.
  • Gahlot, Jagdish Singh : Rajputana Ka Itihas, Vol. III, Jodhpur, 1966.
  • Gahlot, S.S. : Rajasthan Ke Itihas Ka Tithikram, Jodhpur, 1967.
  • Jaiswal, K.P. : Andhkar Yugin Bharat (trans. Ram Chandra Varma), Kashi, Samvat 2014.
  • Mitra, M. : Maharaja Ajit Singh Aur Unka Yug, Jaipur, 1973.
  • Prasad, Beni : Jaton Ki UtpatuAur Itihas.

[Page 300]

  • Ranawat, M.S.:Bharatpur Maharaja Jawahar Singh Jat, Jodhpur, 1973.
  • Saran, P.: Mughalon Ka Prantiya Shashan, Lucknow, 1970.
  • Sharma, M.L.: Kota Rajya Ka Itihas.
  • Sharma, U.N.:Jaton Ka Navin Itihas, Jaipur, 1977.
  • Singh, Ganga :Yadu Vansha, Vol. I, Bharatpur, 1967.
  • Singh, Raghubir: Malwa Main Yugantar, Purvakal, Indore, 1938.
  • - : Brij Ka Itihas, I
  • Srivastava, A.L. :Awadh Ke Pratham Do Nawab, Agra, 1957.
  • Shastri, Y.P. :Prachin Rajya Vansh Evam Jat Kshatriya Itihas, Hardwar, 1944.
  • Tomar, Tikam Singh: Hindi Veer Kavya, Hindustani Academy, Allahabad, 1954.
  • Vidyalankar, J.C.: Bhartiya Itihas Ki Ruprekha, Vol. I, Hindustani Academy, Allahabad, 1933.

(3) Urdu

  • Khalidi, AN.: Taqwim Hijari-o-Iswan; Karachi, 1952.
  • Mitra, K. : Khalisa Shahidon Ka Balidan, Lahore.
  • Numani,Maulana Shibh: Aurangzeb Alamgir.
  • Paramanandji, Bhai :Tarikh-i-Panjab, Lahore.
  • Saiyid, Ahmad : Tarikh-i-Agra, Agra, 1931.
  • Saiyid, M.M.: Omra-i-Hinud, Kanpur, 1910.

(B). Gazetteers

  • 1. District Gazetteers of the United Provincess.
  • 2. Imperial Gazetteer of India (Provincial series for U. P., Agra and Oudh), 2 Vols. Calcutta, 1908.
  • 3. The Imperial Gazetteer of India, New edition, Oxford, 1908 (relevant volumes).
  • 4. Delhi Gazetteer.
  • 5. Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. IX, 1931.
  • 6. Muttra Gazetter, 1911.

C. Select articles

This list does not include the articles already referred to above.

(a) Deccan Geographer

  • Mukerji, AB.: The Jats of the Upper Ganga-Jamuna Doab, Vol. VI, 1968.

[Page 301]

(b) Indian Historical Quarterly

  • Dhar, S.N.: The Arab Conquest of Sind, Vol. XVI, 1940.

(c) Islamic Culture

  • Gupta, H.R.: Mughalani Begam, the Governor of Lahore, Vol. XlV, 1940.
  • Habib, M. :The Arab Conquest of Slnd, Vol. III, 1929.
  • Hashimi, Syed: TheArabRuleinSlnd, Vol. I, 1927.
  • Heras, J.: Durrani Influence in Northern India, Vol. XI, 1937.
  • Jaffar, S.M.: Arab Administration of Sind, 1943.
  • Khulusi, S.A. :(Extract trans.) An account of Nadir Shah in an Eighteenth Century Ms. Vol. XXV, 1951.
  • Husain, Yusuf: Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah I, Vols. VIII-IX, 1934435.
  • Sarkar, J.N. Ahmad Shah Abdaliin India, 1748, Vol. VI, 1932.
  • Shah, Abdul Rashid : (Extract trans.) Insha-i--Mahru or Tarassul-i-Ain-ul-Mulki; Vol. XVI, 1942.
  • Smith, W.C. : Lower Class Upnsings in the Mughal Empire, Vol. XX, 1946.

(d) Joumal of Asiatic Society of Bengal

  • Irvine, William : Nadir Shah and Muhammad Shah, 1897.
  • - : The Bangash Nawabs of Farrukhabad, Vol. XLVIII, Part I, 1879.

(e) Journal of Bihar and Orissa Research Society

  • Sarkar, J.N. : A Correct Chronology of the Delhi History, 1739-1754, Vol. XVIII, Part I, 1932.

(f) Journal of India History

  • Srivastava, A.L.: Akbar's Theory of Kingship, 1962.

(g) Modern Review

  • Sarkar, J.N.: The Breaking-up of the Mughal Empire: Jat and Gujars, October, 1923
  • - : The End of Nadir Shah, May, 1929.

(h) Nagari Prachanni Patrika (Hindi)

  • Dwivedi, G.C.: Ghasira Ke Yudha Ka Aitihaslk Paryalochan, Commemoration volume, Samvat 2024.

[Page 302]

(i) Proceedings of Indian History Congress

  • Agaskar, M.S.: Mahadji Sindhia in the Battle of Panipat, 1953.
  • Banga,Indu: Ahmad Shah Abdali's Designs over the Panjab, 1968.
  • Chandra, Satish: Jiziyah in the Post-Aurangzeb Period, 1946.
  • - : Raja Jai Singh Sawai's Contribution to Imperial Politics, 1948.
  • Mahajan, D.B.: The Battle of Sakhar Khelda and the part played by Raghoji Jadhava of Sindh Khed, 1951.
  • Pande, Ram: Raja Bishan Singh's Campaign against the Jats, 1968.
  • - : Relations between Badan Singh and Sawai Raja Jai Singh,1969.
  • Qanungo, K.R. : Some SIde-Lights on the career of Raja Bishan Singh Kachhwah of Amber, 1948.
  • Rao, V.R. :Panipat and the Nizam, 1950.
  • Sangar, S.P.: Political Offences in Aurangazeb's India, 1950.
  • Siddiqi, Zameeruddin: The Wizarat of Safdar Jang, 1968.
  • Tikkimal, H. C.: Sawai Jai Singh and the Marwar Affairs in the reign of Emperor, Muhammad Shah, 1970.

(j) Proceedings of Indian Historical Re:cords Commission

  • Khare, G.H.: Some New Records on the Maratha-Jaipur Relations, Vol. XXIV, 1948.
  • Puntambekar, S. V.: The Political and Religious Policy of the First Two Peshwas in the North, Vol. XXII, 1945.

(k) Uplabdhi(Hindi)

  • Dwivedi, G. C.: Badan Singh Ke KaJ Main Bharatpur Ka Pradeshik Vistar, Samvat 2025.

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