Hyderabad (India)

From Jatland Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Note - For Hyderabad city (in Sindh, Pakistan) Please click → Hyderabad Sindh

Telangana State

Hyderabad (हैदराबाद) is the capital of the southern Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.

Variants

Location

Occupying 650 square kms along the banks of the Musi River, it has an average altitude of 542 metres, much of Hyderabad is situated on hilly terrain around artificial lakes, including Hussain Sagar—predating the city's founding—north of the city centre.

Origin of name

According to John Everett-Heath, the author of Oxford Concise Dictionary of World Place Names, Hyderabad means "Haydar's city" or "lion city", from haydar (lion) and ābād (city). It was named to honour the Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib, who was also known as Haydar because of his lion-like valour in battles.[1] Andrew Petersen, a scholar of Islamic architecture, says the city was originally called Baghnagar (city of gardens).[2] One popular theory suggests that Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the founder of the city, named it "Bhagyanagar" or "Bhāgnagar" after Bhagmati, a local nautch (dancing) girl with whom he had fallen in love. She converted to Islam and adopted the title Hyder Mahal. The city was renamed Hyderabad in her honour.[3]

History

Note: This section is from book - History And Legend In Hyderabad, Department of Information and Public Relations, 1953,pp.49-54


Hyderabad is one of the few twin cities of the world, the capital of Hyderabad State is the Budapest of India. A sheet of water, as noble as the blue Danube, separates the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, which like Budapest have similar old and new streets and suburbs.

Mosques and minarets, bazars and bridges, and hills and lakes, remind one of Constantinople, while to stand on the Hussainsagar bund, at sunset, is to catch a fleeting illusion of the Bay of Naples or the Ionian scenery.

Perched on the top of the Deccan plateau nearly 2,000 feet above the sea, romantic as the Alhambra, the twin cities sprawl over 96 square miles of hills and hillocks, plains and valleys, lakes and rivulets. Contrasting scenes meet at every turn of the road. Oriental bazars hobnob with streets of western inspiration, and typical Indian villages suddenly appear in all their rustic greenery after a spell of palaces and boulevards. The architecture is as varied as the history of the city has been colourful. Ancient Indian, Saracenic, Moghul, colonial English and French, modern German and American and modern Indian styles of architecture create an atmosphere of exuberance and richness, wealth and variety of the conflict of civilizations and the tremendous pace of history.

Unlike Delhi and Mathura, Paris or Rome, Hyderabad is but an infant. It had no history until King Ganapati, the famous Kakatiya king, built a kutcha fort on the grim rocky prominence now known as Golconda. It was then called Mankal according to Maathire Alamgiri. The Kakatiyas became independent of the Chalukyas and the dynasty was founded by King Rudradeva. The Thousand Pillar Temple at Hanamkonda owes its origin to him. King Ganapati was succeeded by his daughter Rudrama, during whose rule Marco Polo visited the Kakatiya kiingdom and was impressed by her administration. After Pratap Rudra II (1296-1325), the Kakatiya dynasty


[p.50]: gave way to Muslim power in the south. Still there was no Hyderabad.

In the reign of Muhammad Shah III (1463), the thirteenth king of the great Bahmani dynasty which reigned in the Deccan for nearly two hundred years, troubles arose in Telingana, and a Baharlu Turk of Hamadan, Sultan Quli by name, who had been a slave in the imperial household, was appointed to pacify the country and to clear the land of the robbers who had overrun it. The Kakatiya fort of Golconda was ceded to this young Turk. The young Turk’s performance of the task entrusted to him surpassed the expectations of all. The condition of the Bahmani kingdom at this time was such that an appeal to arms would probably have hastened its downfall, and the young man was consequently compelled to rely on his diplomatic tact and personal' charm of manner. Notwithstanding the disadvantages under which he laboured, he soon succeeded in restoring order, thus securing the confidence placed in him by the ladies of the harem, and winning useful friends among non-Muslims and those amirs of the empire who had lands in Telingana.

Under Mahmud Shah IV (1482), Sultan Quli became an amir of the empire, with the title of Qutb-ul-Mulk, receiving as his jagir Golconda with the surrounding country. Shortly after receiving this grant he was appointed commander-in-chief in Telingana, a position which strengthened his hands considerably. In 1512 Qutb-ul-Mulk, who had for some time been practically independent, followed the example which had been set by Yusuf Adil Khan, Ahmad Nizam-ul-Mulk, and Fath-ullah Imad-ul-Mulk, the governors of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Berar, and, throwing off his allegiance to the now feeble house of Bahman, proclaimed himself independent sovereign of the territory which he had hitherto ruled in the king’s name. Assuming the style of Sultan Quli Qutb Shah, he made Golconda his capital.

Sultan Quli had already replaced the old Kakatiya mud fort with a strong fortress of stone which the surrounding country yielded in large quantities. His fort received many and substantial additions at the hands of his descendants and successors. The Qutb Shahi kings of Golconda did not, like their neighbours, the Adil Shahi kings of Bijapur, run mad on architecture, but they built and built well, in spite of a depraved preference for stucco for buildings other than fortifications.

Thus came into being Golconda, but Hyderabad had to wait till 1591. In that year Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth king of the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda, grew weary of his fortress capital, which was then so overcrowded with habitations as to be both unhealthy and unpleasant as a place of residence. While hunting one day on the south-bank of the river Musi, he was attracted by the fresh and green appearance of the site on which the city of Hyderabad now stands, about six miles from the fortress of Golconda, and selected it as the site of his new capital.

He called the new city Bhagnagar after the lady of his love, Bhagmati, to meet whom he used to cross the Musi on horseback while yet heir-apparent. When the city grew


[p.51]: it was renamed Hyderabad. The first work taken in hand was the laying out of four bazars, at the entrance of each of which a great arch was erected on the principal road, the space within the arches being designated the Char Kaman or "four arches", which name it still retains.

To the south of this space was erected the Char Minar which is to this day the most conspicuous landmark in the city of Hyderabad, and even figured on the obverse of the Hyderabad rupee.

One of the earliest buildings to be taken in hand, by a devout Muslim sovereign founding a new city, was the Jami Masjid, or principal mosque, where all the inhabitants may meet for the general Friday prayers. This was founded in A.H, 1006 (A.D. 1597-98) according to a Persian inscription over the gateway.

The next work to be undertaken was building a permanent bridge over the Musi to connect the new city on its south bank with the old fortress capital of Golconda. This bridge still exists and is known as the old bridge. It is the westernmost of the four bridges which now span the river between Hyderabad and its northern suburbs, and is carried on twenty-three pointed arches. Over it runs the old highroad from the north-western gate of the city, through Karwan, to the principal gate of Golconda. The building of the bridge was followed by the building of a hospital and public baths, and the king’s architects then set to work to design the royal palace, which was built on some open ground to the east of the Char Minar, probably the site now occupied by the Nizam’s palace known as the Purani haveli though the present palace, despite its name, is not that built by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah. An ornamental cistern called the Gulzar Hauz, or "cistern of the rose garden" was constructed at the same time. This cistern still exists in the centre of the Char Kaman, but there is little in its surroundings that recalls a rose garden. The Dad Mahal, or hall of justice, a building which was unfortunately destroyed by fire when Ibrahim Khan was subahdar of the Deccan, was also built at the same time. Another building of the same date, which cannot now be traced, was the Nadi Mahal, or river palace.

According to Firishta, the city of Hyderabad lies among the trees on the south bank of the river Musi, a city “ the like of which for beauty and cleanliness, is not to be found in the whole of Hindustan east, west, south, or north. Its compass is near five leagues, and its bazars, unlike those of other cities of India, are laid out on a fixed plan and are spacious and clean, and through them run water channels beside which grow shady trees.”

This is somewhat highly coloured, but the situation of the city is undeniably beautiful. Of its aspect, from the hill on which the Falaknuma Palace now stands, the Kuh-i-Tur or ‘ ount Sinai’ of Qutb Shahi days. Colonel Meadows Taylor writes : “ from one favourite point of view of mine, the city lies stretched before you, the graceful Char Minar or gate of the four minarets, in its centre; the gigantic Mecca mosque standing out nobly; while the large tank lies at your feet, and the bold rock of the fort of Golconda rises in the distance. From hence, a rising, sun gradually lighting up every object in the clear


[p. 52]: morning air, and the growing, glittering landscape terminating in the tender blue of the distance, (the scene) is inexpressibly beautiful."

At least it must have seemed so to Shah Abbas, son of Tahmasp Safavi, and his ambassador who came to the court of Golconda via Goa with many valuable Iranian presents, in 1603. He remained in "the dilkusha garden of Hyderabad" till 1609. There were other ambassadors too. Husain Baig Qubchachi, another Persian ambassador, came in 1614 and returned in 1616. In 1617 Mir Makki and Munshi Jadoo Rao represented jehangir at the court of Golconda. But these friendly relations only increased Delhi’s appetite for the territories and riches of Golconda, and Aurangzeb, as viceroy of the Deccan, nearly conquered Hyderabad at the instigation of Mir Jumla, the double dealing Qutb Shahi Prime Minister. Mir Jumla will also be remembered for his conquest of Assam as a Moghul Commander-in-Chief. This first encounter with Delhi ended in a truce while Aurangzed hastened back to contest the imperial throne following Shah Jahan’s illness. Abdulla Qutb Shah, however, had no illusions, and when Aurangzeb captured the throne of Delhi, King Abdulla placed upon his seal and coinage the pathetic legend: "it has come to a good and auspicious conclusion". This motto is usually referred to as a prescience of the fall of the Golconda.

Meanwhile, Abul Hasan Qutb Shah, familiarly known as the Good King Tana Shah, came to the throne. He began as a pious darvish, but soon became the merry monarch of the Deccan, not unlike Muhammad Shah revelling in drinking, feasting and orgies. The administration, however, was ably carried on by two Brahmins, Madanna and Venkanna (Akanna), who governed the country in accordance with Hindu principles. Aurangzeb seized upon this as a pretext, and invaded Qutb Shahi territories in 1684 but actually the seige of Golconda began in 1687 and lasted eight months. Repeated treachery, despite the bravery of Abdur Razaq Lari, gave the fort to Aurangzeb and the kingdom of Golconda became just another Moghul district. It remained so until Mir Qamruddin Chin Qilich Khan made himself independent of the Moghul court. Emperor Farrukh Sayyar had made him viceroy of the Deccan with the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk Feroz Jung in 1713 but the Moghul kingdom was in decadence and the tussle for the throne continued until Muhammed Shah became king. In all this and in meeting the invasion of Nadir Shah and stopping the massacre of Delhi, Nizam-ul-Mulk played a conspicuous part and was rewarded with the title of Asaf Jah. He was then one of the ablest statesmen of the time even though his advice fell upon deaf ears. He declared himself independent of the Moghuls in 1724, and founded the Asafia dynasty.

The later Nizams, neither so wise nor so capable, maintained themselves somehow amid the conflicting new powers of the time — the Hon’ble East India Company, the Frenchmen and the Marathas. In this sempiternal conflict, the Nizams steadily lost, despite their playing one off against the other, until John Company became Queen Victoria’s empire. Thereafter the Nizams were as good as any other ruler at the mercy of the British Crown.

Regarded as one of the six largest dties in India, Hyderabad together with


[p.53]: Secunderabad, has a total population of over 10,85,000. One interesting fact is that Secunderabad has more women while Hyderabad has more men. In Hyderabad, males exceed females by about 6,178. According to satistics literacy is about 25.25 per cent.

At present the twin cities cover about 96 square miles. Here, it is interesting to note that the area of Paris is only 30 square miles. The Musi divides old and new Hyderabad, which are connected by four narrow bridges. The old city is on the right bank and the new on the left, but growth has been all round, and the old city is only a core round which new areas have come up. Hyderabad has many distinctive divisions which are small towns by themselves. The aristocratic localities are acknowledged to be Banjara Hills, Somajiguda, and Saifabad, while modern colonies comprise Himayatnagar, Hyderguda, and Narayanguda. Mushirabad is an industrial area while Adigmet is the seat of the Osmania University. The left bank is decidedly more picturesque, and is perhaps the real capital because almost all Government offices are on this side of the river. The Secretariat and the Mint fringe upon the Hussainsagar, while Shah Manzil in Somajiguda and adjoining palaces Have been for long the stronghold of Hyderabad’s Prime Ministers and administrator. Below the shadow of the Naubat Pahar, are the Town Hall, the Nizam Club, the Darbar Hall, the Police Headquarters, the Zoo and the Public Gardens. Across the railway line are other residential quarters such as Red Hills and Mallepalli. The A.C, Guard Lines, Mansaheba’s Tank and Asifnagar and beyond were once the Nizam’s army’s strong points.

Khairiatabad is another amazing locality where the primitive and the modern, and rural and urban scenes, intermingle. Here, buildings vary from the swineherd’s hovel on a drainage sewer to such imposing an edifice as the Institution of Engineers. Adjoining the Fateh Maidan, is the Nizam College and from here to the river bank, the area comprising Abid Road, Sultan Bazar, Station Road, Afzalgunj and other streets and bazars, is a great centre of trade, commerce, banking, law and business of all kinds. It can be favourably compared to Clive Sreet, Calcutta, and the City in London.

Chadarghat is another picturesque locality, which at one time comprised the entire area up to Gunfoundry. This was the northern suburb of the city separated from it by the Musi river. According to the Imperial Gazetteer of 1909, "It derives its name from a dam 12 feet high thrown across the Musi, over which the water falls like a sheet (chadar). At one time this suburb contained most of the houses of the Europeans in the service of the Nizam and also of native officials, and has sprung up within the last fifty years. In 1850 with the exception of the Residency and its bazars, there was scarcely a building to be found where houses may be now counted by thousands, many of them fine buildings. The Roman Cathohe Cathedral and All Saints’ School; the old French Gunfoundry erected by M. Raymond, and referred to by Malcolm (1798) as a place in which ‘they cast excellent cannon and made serviceable muskets'; Sir W. Rumbold’s house (Rumbold’s Kothi) now occupied by the Nizam College, the King Kothi, where the Nizam’s eldest son resides; the Public Works Office; the Hyderabad College; and tile


[p.54]: fine buildings known as the Saifabad Palace, now used as the offices of the Financial, Public Works and the Private Secretaries, were once all included in this area. Adjoining the compound of this palace in the west is the Mint and Stamp Office, an immense building which was completed in 1904.”

The city was once surrounded by a stone wall flanked with bastions, and pierced with thirteen gates and twelve khirkis or posterns. It was built in the form of a parallelogram, six miles in circumference and 2-1/2 square miles in area. The wall was commenced by Mubariz Khan, the last Moghul Subahdar, and completed by the first of the Nizams. The city has extended beyond its former limits on the north and east. Four bridges span the Musi. The Purana Pul, or 'Old Bridge,’ is the westernmost, and the Oliphant or Chadarghat Bridge, the easternmost, while between these two are the Afzal Bridge and the Musallamjung Bridge.

The Dar-ush-shifa (hospital) about 200 yards to the north-west of the Purani Haveli (old palace), built by Sultan Quli Qutb Shah, is a large building consisting of a paved quadrangular courtyard, with chambers all round for the accommodation of the sick. A number of native physicians were formerly maintained to minister to the sick and to teach medicine. Opposite the' entrance is a fine mosque erected at the same time as the hospital. The Ashur Khana, a large building west of Sir Salar Jung’s palace, was erected by Sultan Muhammad Quli Qptb Shah in 1594, at a cost of Rs. 66,000. It is used for the Muharram ceremonies. The Gosha Mahal palace, erected hy Abul Hasan, the last Qutb Shahi King, stands a mile north of the city and has a large cistern and pleasure grounds for the zanana. The Jami Masjid, which is near the Char Minar, was built in 1596. Ruins of a Turkish bath are to be seen in the courtyard. With the exception of the Mecca Masjid and the Gosha Mahal, most of the buildings here were constructed by Sultan Muhammad Qpli Qutb Shah, who is said to have spent three million sterling on public buildings and irrigation works, while his nobles followed his example. An extensive burial-ground known as Mir Momin’s Daira, was originally consecrated as the necropolis of the Shiah sect by Mir Momin, who came to Hyderabad from Karbala, in the reign of Abdullah Qutb Shah. It contains his remains, but now both Shiahs and Sunnis are buried here. Sir Salar Jung’s family burial-ground lies to the south of the Daira.

The Nizam’s Ghaumahalla palace consists of three quadrangles with handsome buildings on either side, and large cisterns in the centre. The palace is luxuriously and tastefully furnished, and the zanana or ladies’ apartments lie beyond the third quadrangle. There are other royal residences at Golconda, Sururnagar, Maula Ali, Asafnagar, Lingampalli and Malakpet. Salar Jung’s palace, now a national museum, is situated near the new bridge and consists of two portions, one containing the Baradari and Lakkar Kot (wooden palace) lies on the right bank of the Musi, and the other is beyond the road -leading to the Purani Haveli, Both are extensive buiildings covering a large space of ground; Shams-ul-Umara’s Baradari, situated in the west of the city.


Early and medieval history : Archaeologists excavating near the city have unearthed Iron Age sites that may date from 500 BCE.[4] The region comprising modern Hyderabad and its surroundings was known as Golkonda (Golla Konda-"shepherd's hill"),[5] and was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty from 624 CE to 1075 CE.[6] Following the dissolution of the Chalukya empire into four parts in the 11th century, Golkonda came under the control of the Kakatiya dynasty from 1158, whose seat of power was at Warangal, 148 km northeast of modern Hyderabad.[7]


The Kakatiya dynasty was reduced to a vassal of the Khilji dynasty in 1310 after its defeat by Sultan Alauddin Khilji of the Delhi Sultanate. This lasted until 1321, when the Kakatiya dynasty was annexed by Malik Kafur, Allaudin Khilji's general.[8] During this period, Alauddin Khilji took the Koh-i-Noor diamond, which is said to have been mined from the Kollur Mines of Golkonda, to Delhi.[9]

Muhammad bin Tughluq succeeded to the Delhi sultanate in 1325, bringing Warangal under the rule of the Tughlaq dynasty until 1347 when Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, a governor under bin Tughluq, rebelled against Delhi and established the Bahmani Sultanate in the Deccan Plateau, with Gulbarga, 200 km west of Hyderabad, as its capital. The Hyderabad area was under the control of the Musunuri Nayaks at this time, who, however, were forced to cede it to the Bahmani Sultanate in 1364. The Bahmani kings ruled the region until 1518 and were the first independent Muslim rulers of the Deccan.[10][11]

Sultan Quli, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518;[12] he rebuilt the mud-fort of Golconda and named the city "Muhammad nagar".[13] The fifth sultan, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, established Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591,[14] to avoid the water shortages experienced at Golkonda.[15] During his rule, he had the Charminar and Mecca Masjid built in the city.[16] On 21 September 1687, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golkonda fort.[19][20] The annexed area was renamed Deccan Suba (Deccan province) and the capital was moved from Golkonda to Aurangabad, about 550 km (342 mi) northwest of Hyderabad.[17]

Established in 1591 by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, Hyderabad remained under the rule of the Qutb Shahi dynasty for nearly a century before the Mughals captured the region.

In 1724, Mughal viceroy Asif Jah I declared his sovereignty and created his own dynasty, known as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The Nizam's dominions became a princely state during the British Raj, and remained so for 150 years, with the city serving as its capital.

The city continued as the capital of Hyderabad State after it was brought into the Indian Union in 1948, and became the capital of Andhra Pradesh after the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. Since 1956, Rashtrapati Nilayam in the city has been the winter office of the President of India. In 2014, the newly formed state of Telangana split from Andhra Pradesh and the city became joint capital of the two states, a transitional arrangement scheduled to end by 2025.

Relics of Qutb Shahi and Nizam rule remain visible today; the Charminar — commissioned by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah — has come to symbolise Hyderabad. Golconda fort is another major landmark. The influence of Mughlai culture is also evident in the region's distinctive cuisine, which includes Hyderabadi biryani and Hyderabadi haleem. The Qutb Shahis and Nizams established Hyderabad as a cultural hub, attracting men of letters from different parts of the world. Hyderabad emerged as the foremost centre of culture in India with the decline of the Mughal Empire in the mid-19th century, with artists migrating to the city from the rest of the Indian subcontinent. The Telugu film industry based in the city is the country's second-largest producer of motion pictures.

Hyderabad was historically known as a pearl and diamond trading centre, and it continues to be known as the City of Pearls. Many of the city's traditional bazaars remain open, including Laad Bazaar, Begum Bazaar and Sultan Bazaar. Industrialisation throughout the 20th century attracted major Indian manufacturing, research and financial institutions, including Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, the National Geophysical Research Institute and the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology. Special economic zones dedicated to information technology have encouraged companies from India and around the world to set up operations in Hyderabad. The emergence of pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries in the 1990s led to the area's naming as India's "Genome Valley". With an output of US$74 billion, Hyderabad is the fifth-largest contributor to India's overall gross domestic product.

भागनगर, भागनगरी = भागनेर

भागनगर , भागनगरी = भागनेर (AS, p.663): हैदराबाद का प्राचीन नाम. शिवाजी के राजकवि भूषण ने भागनगर का नाम का उल्लेख कई स्थानों पर किया है-- 'भूषन भनत भागनगरी कुतुबसाही दैकरि गँवायो रामगिरि से गिरीम को'--शिवराज भूषण 241. गढ़नेर, गढ़चाँदा, भागनेर, बीजापुर नृपन की बारी रोप हाथनि मलति है'-- शिवराज भूषण 116. भूषण के अनुसार भागनगर को कुतुबशाह (सुल्तान गोलकुंडा) ने शिवाजी को दे दिया था और शिवाजी ने संधि होने पर मुगलों को. भागनगर को गोलकुंडा के सुल्तान मुहम्मद कुली कुतुब शाह ने 1595 ई. में अपनी प्रेयसी भागमती के नाम पर बताया था. (देखें हैदराबाद) [18]

चिचेलम

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[19] ने लेख किया है ...चिचेलम(AS, p.333) मूसी नदी के तट पर स्थित एक छोटा-सा गाँव है। इस गाँव के चारों ओर 'भागनगर' या वर्तमान 'हैदराबाद' का निर्माण हुआ था। मूल रूप से हैदराबाद को बसाने वाले गोलकुंडा नरेश क़ुली क़ुतुबशाह की प्रेयसी सुंदरी भागवती का यह निवास स्थान था। भागवती के नाम पर ही भागनगर बसाया गया था, जो बाद में हैदराबाद नाम से प्रसिद्ध हुआ। कहा जाता है कि हैदराबाद का केंद्रीय स्थान 'चारमीनार' चिचेलम गाँव में ही बनाया गया था।

Notable persons

See also

References

  1. Everett-Heath, John (2005). Concise dictionary of world place names. Oxford University Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-19-860537-9.
  2. Petersen, Andrew (1996). Dictionary of Islamic architecture. Routledge. p. 112. ISBN 0-415-06084-2.
  3. McCann, Michael W. (1994). Rights at work: pay equity reform and the politics of legal mobilization. University of Chicago Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-226-55571-2.The march of India. Publications Division, Ministry of Informations and Broadcasting, Government of India. 1959. p. 89. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  4. Lach, Donald F; Kley, Edwin J. Van (1993). Asia in the Making of Europe. 3. University Of Chicago Press. p. ?. ISBN 0-226-46768-6.
  5. Venkateshwarlu, K. (10 September 2008). "Iron Age burial site discovered". The Hindu
  6. Kolluru, Suryanarayana (1993). Inscriptions of the minor Chalukya dynasties of Andhra Pradesh. Mittal Publications. p. 1. ISBN 81-7099-216-8.
  7. Sardar, Marika (2007), Golconda through Time: A Mirror of the Evolving Deccan (PhD thesis, New York University), ProQuest, ISBN 978-0-549-10119-2, pp. 19–41
  8. Khan, Iqtidar Alam (2008). Historical dictionary of medieval India. The Scarecrow Press. pp. 85 and 141. ISBN 978-0-8108-5503-8.
  9. Ghose, Archana Khare (29 February 2012). "Heritage Golconda diamond up for auction at Sotheby's". The Times of India.
  10. Prasad, History of the Andhras 1988, p. 172.
  11. Sardar, Golconda through Time 2007, p. 20.
  12. Sardar, Golconda through Time (2007, pp. 19–41)
  13. Nayeem, M.A (28 May 2002). "Hyderabad through the ages". The Hindu.
  14. Matsuo, Ara (22 November 2005). "Golconda". University of Tokyo.
  15. Aleem, Shamim; Aleem, M. Aabdul, eds. (1984). Developments in administration under H.E.H. the Nizam VII. Osmania University Press. p. 243.
  16. Bansal, Sunita Pant (2005). Encyclopedia of India. Smriti Books. p. 61. ISBN 978-81-87967-71-2.
  17. Richards, J. F. (1975). "The Hyderabad Karnatik, 1687–1707". Modern Asian Studies. Cambridge University Press. 9 (2): 241–260. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00004996.
  18. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.663
  19. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.333